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ode Civil Francais , ed , dalloz , 1999. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : /. #(H 'DJB6'F 97J) 'D,(H1J  'DJEJF H 'D"+'1 'DE*1*() 9DJG'  7 2  /'1 'DF/H) 'D,/J/)  (J1H*  1986  5 186. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : 9D'! 'D/JF 'DC'3'FJ  (/'&9 'D5F'&9 AJ *1*J( 'D41'&9  ,@ 6  7 2  /'1 'DC*'( 'D91(J  (J1H*  1982  5 225. ()- 1',9 : 'DE-BB 'D-DJ  41'&9 'D%3D'E AJ 'DABG 'D%3D'EJ 'D,9A1J  (%41'A E-E/ ,H'/ E:FJ)  'DE,D/ 2  /'1 EC*() 'D-J') DD7('9) H 'DF41  (J1H*  1978  5 215 H E' (9/G'. ()- 1',9 : E9,E ABG '(F -2E 'D8'G1J  'DE,D/ 2  D,F) EH3H9) 'DABG 'D%3D'EJ  E7(9) ,'E9) /E4B  1966  5 535. ()- 1',9 : #(H 9(/ 'DDG E-E/ %/1J3 'D4'A9J  'D#E  ,@ 6  7 1  EC*() 'DCDJ'* 'D#2G1J) ('D#2G1  1961  5 254. ()- 1',9 : /. E-J GD'D 'D31-'F  'DB6'! AJ 'D%3D'E  E-'61'* #DBJ* 9DI 7D() 'DE9G/ 'DB6'&J D9'E 2000-2001  5 125 H E' (9/G'. ()- 1',9 : /. #-E/ F4#*  13'D) 'D%+('*  7 7  ,@ 2/'1 'DAC1 'D91(J  'DB'G1)  1972  5 160. ()- 1',9 : /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D,/J/  ,@ 2  'D%+('* H "+'1 'D'D*2'E  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1968  5 514. ()- 1',9 : B1'1 E-CE) 'DFB6 'DE51J) 1BE 7  3 38 B  1972  #4'1 %DJG E57AI E,/J G1,)  B'FHF 'D%+('* AJ 'DEH'/ 'DE/FJ) H 'D*,'1J)  ,@ 2 /'1 'DE7(H9'* 'D,'E9J)  1987  5 271. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : "H'F 9(/ 'DDG 'DAJ6J  E(/# 'D+(H* 'DB'FHFJ /1'3) EB'1F) AJ 'D%+('* 'DE/FJ  13'D) E',3*J1 EB/E) %DI CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  2001  5 8 H E' (9/G'. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD -HD 41H7 E(/# 'D+(H* 'DB'FHFJ 1',9 : "H'F 9(/ 'DDG 'DAJ6J  'DE1,9 'DE0CH1 "FA'K  5 15. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD -HD 5H1 E(/# 'D+(H* 'DB'FHFJ  1',9 : #H'F 9(/ 'DDG 'DAJ6J  'DE1,9 'DE0CH1 "FA'K  5 30 H E' (9/G'. ()- B1'1 E-CE) *EJJ2 'D91'B 'DE1BE 4812 / E1 / 1998 AJ 17/3/1999 (B1'1 :J@1 EF4H1). ()- B1'1 E-CE) (/'!) 'DEH5D 'DE1BE 972 / 2002 AJ 4/8/2002 (B1'1 :J@1 EF4H1). ()- 1',9 : B1'1 E-CE) *EJJ2 'D91'B 'DE1BE 159 / E3 / 72 AJ 9/4/1974  'DEF4H1 AJ 'DF41 ) 'DB6'&J)  9 2  3 3  1974  5 87. ()- B1'1 E-CE) *EJJ2 'D91'B 1BE 4855 / E1 / 1998 AJ 23/3/1999 (B1'1 :J1 EF4H1). ()- B1'1 9F /'&1) 'D*EJJ2 (E-CE) 'D'3*&F'A 'D9DJ' 'DCHJ*J) 1BE 27 / 1974 AJ 3/3/1976  #4'1* %DJG 'DE,D) 'D91(J) DDABG H 'DB6'!  'D5'/1) 9F 'D#E'F) 'D9'E) DE,D3 H21'! 'D9/D 'D91(  9 8  3 1988  5 178. ()- 1',9 : /. #-E/ F4#*  E1,9 3'(B  ,@ 2  5 169. ()- 1',9 : /. #-E/ F4#*  'DE1,9 '9D'G  ,@ 2  5 174. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : /. 9('3 'D9(H/J  41J9) -EH1'(J  /'1 'D+B'A) DDF41 H 'D*H2J9  9E'F  2001  5 56. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD -HD 41- 'DE'/) 1',9 : 3DJE 13*E ('2  41- 'DE,D)  'DE7(9) 'D#/(J)  (J1H*  1889  5 1076. ()- 1',9 : /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  E1,9 3'(B  ,@ 2  5 595. ()- 1',9 : /. #-E/ #(H 'DHA'  'D%+('* AJ 'DEH'/ 'DE/FJ) H 'D*,'1J)  'D/'1 'D,'E9J) DD7('9) H 'DF41  (J1H*  1985  5 238. ()- B1'1 E-CE) '3*&F'A (:/'/ (5A*G' 'D*EJJ2J) 'DE1BE 124 / -BHBJ) / 78 AJ 21/1/1978  'DEF4H1 AJ E,D) 'D#-C'E 'D9/DJ)  9 1  3 9  1978  5 232. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD 1',9 : /. #FH1 3D7'F  BH'9/ 'D%+('* AJ 'DEH'/ 'DE/FJ) H 'D*,'1J)  'D/'1 'D,'E9J) DD7('9) H 'DF41  (J1H*  1984  5 213. ()- 1',9 : /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  E1,9 3'(B  ,@ 2  5 596. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : #-E/ %(1'GJE  71B 'DB6'! AJ 'D41J9) 'D%3D'EJ)  'DE7(9) 'D3DAJ) H EC*(*G'  'DB'G1)  1928  5 237 H E' (9/G'. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : EH3H9) ,E'D 9(/ 'DF'51 AJ 'DABG 'D%3D'EJ  ,@ 2  J5/1G' 'DE,D3 'D#9DI DD4$HF 'D%3D'EJ)  /HF 3F) 7(9  5 149 H E' (9/G'. ()- 1',9 : 'DE-BB 'D-DJ  E1,9 3'(B  5 212. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : 3DJE 13*E ('2  E1,9 3'(B  5 1020. ()- *,/1 'D'4'1) 'DI 'F G0G 'DE'/) *E *9/JDG' ('D*9/JD 'D1'(9 'DE1BE 36 D3F) 2000 'DEF4H1 AJ 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ)  9 3837  AJ 31/7/2000  5451 . H*,/1 'D%4'1) AJ G0' 'D5// 'J6' 'F 'DE'/) / 37 EF B'FHF 'D*FAJ0 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE 45 D3F) 1980  #D2E* 'DEFA0 'D9/D #J6'K (*-DJA 'D/'&F JEJF 'D'3*8G'1 EF *DB'! FA3G AJ -'D) HA') 'DE/JF. ()- 1',9 : /. EAD- 'DB6')  'D%+('* AJ 'DEH'/ 'DE/FJ) H 'D*,'1J) 7(B'K DB'FHF 'D%+('* 'D'*-'/J 'DE1BE 10 D3F) 1992 D/HD) 'D%E'1'* 'D91(J) 'DE*-/)  7(9 /(J  /HF 3F) 7(9  5 389. ()- B1'1 E-CE) *EJJ2 'D91'B 'DE1BE 460 / E1 / 1995 AJ 30/12/1995 (B1'1 :J1 EF4H1). ()- B1'1 E-CE) (/'!) 'DEH5D 1BE 829 / 2002 AJ 5/8/2002 (B1'1 :J1 EF4H1). ()- AJ G0' 'D5//  B6* E-CE) 'D*EJJ2 'D#1/FJ) (@ ((#F 'DE'/) / 54 (JF'* #1/FJ H 'DE'/) / 1746 EF 'DE,D) *H,('F 9DI 'DE-CE) AJ /9'HI 'D'3*-B'B *H,JG JEJF 'D'3*-B'B %DI 'DE/9J /HFE' -',) D7D( EF 'DE/9I 9DJG)) B1'1 'DE1BE 377 / 723  1972  5 1601  #4'1 %DJG : /. EAD- 'DB6')  E1,9 3'(B  5 391. ()- B1'1 E-CE) *EJJ2 'D91'B 'DE1BE 1569 / -BHBJ) / 63  'DEF4H1 AJ B6'! E-CE) *EJJ2 'D91'B  'DE,D/ 1  D3F) 1963  5 102. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : /. 3DJE'F E1B3  EF 71B 'D%+('*  'D%B1'1 H 'DJEJF H %,1'!'*GE'  ,@ 2  'DE7(9) 'D9'DEJ)  'DB'G1)  1970  5 209. ()- B1'1 1BE 533 / 84  E,D) 'DE-'EJF 'D#1/FJJF  9 11  3 32  1984  #4'1 %DJG E'DC ,'(1 -EJ/J 'D.2'9J  -,J) 'DJEJF AJ 'D/9HI 'DE/FJ)  13'D) E',3*J1 EB/E) %DI ,'E9) (:/'/  1988  G'E4 (4)  5 205. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : #(J 'DDJ+ (F %(1'GJE 'D3E1BF/J  .2'F) 'DABG H 9JHF 'DE3'&D  /1'3'* %3D'EJ) D' GE 'DE.7H7'* 'D%3D'EJ)  *-BJB /. 5D'- 'D/JF 'DF'GJ  'DE,D/ 1  (:/'/  1965  5 403. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : 3DJE 13*E ('2  E1,9 3'(B  5 1021. ()- B1'1 E-CE) *EJJ2 'D91'B 'DE1BE 5591 / GJ&) 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J) / 2001 AJ 25/7/2001 (B1'1 :J1 EF4H1). HAJ G0G 'D5// ,'! AJ B1'1 DE-CE) 'D'3*&F'A 'D419J) 'D'1/FJ) ('FG (('0' C'F 'DE/9J 9DJG E,GHD 'D'B'E) D'JC*AJ AJ '+('*G' 9DI 'DFCHD EF 'DE/9J 9DJG H-DA 'DE/9J) 'DJEJF 9DI 5-) /9H'G'  (D D'(/ AJ '+('*G' EF 'D(JF) HAB E' F5* 9DJG 'DE'/) /125 '-H'D 4.5J) )) B1'1 'DE1BE 21645 AJ 18/9/1980  '4'1 'DJG  '-E/ E-E/ 9DJ  'DB1'1'* 'D'3*&F'AJ) AJ 'D'-H'D 'D4.5J)  ,@1  71  EC*() /'1 'D+B'A) DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F 'D'1/F  1990  5235 . ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : E-E/ 4AJB 'D9'FJ  #5HD 'DE1'A9'* H 'D5CHC AJ 'DB6'! 'D419J  7 2  /HF 3F) 7(9  5 148. ()- 1',9 : EG/J 5'D- E-E/ #EJF  #/D) 'DB'FHF :J1 'DE('41)  'D%B1'1 H 'DJEJF H 'DB1'&F  (:/'/  1987  5 144. ()- H *,/1 'D%4'1) %DI #F 'DF5H5 'DB'FHFJ) 'DEF8E) D-BHB H 'D*2'E'* (96 EF #5-'( 'D-BHB 'DH'1/ 0C1GE AJ 'DE'/) 'DE0CH1) "FA'K  B/ 419* BH'FJF .'5) *F8E -BHBGE H 'D*2'E'*GE  ADE *9/ -BHB 'DE-'EJF H 'D9E'D *FB6J (E6J 3F) (D (E6J +D'+ 3FH'*  1',9 : 'DE'/) / 65 EF B'FHF 'DE-'E') 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE 173 D3F) 1965 'DE9/D  H 'DE'/) / 145 EF B'FHF 'D9ED 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE 71 D3F) 1987 'DE9/D. ()- 1',9 : EG/J 5'D- E-E/ #EJF  E1,9 3'(B  5 137. ()- 1',9 : /. #-E/ F4#*  E1,9 3'(B  ,@ 2  5 181. ()- DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 : /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE H 9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ H #-C'E 'D'D*2'E  ,@ 2  /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H 'DF41  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  1980  5 315 H E' (9/G'. ()- *,/1 'D%4'1) %DI #F G0' (*B/J1F' GH 'DA1B 'D,HG1J H 'D#3'3J 'D0J JEJ2 'DJEJF 'DE*EE) EF 'DJEJF 'D-'3E) - 'D*J *F*GJ (G' 'D/9HI (*H,JG 'DE/9J 'DJEJF %DI 'DE/9I 9DJG %0' 9,2 9F %+('* -BG - H DDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD -HD 'DA1HB (JF 'DJEJFJF 1',9 : /. 12B 'DDG %F7'CJ  #5HD 'DE-'CE'* AJ 'DEH'/ 'DE/FJ) H 'D*,'1J)  7 5  E7(9) /E4B  1962  5 625. 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