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'DE7D( 'D+'FJ -1J) 'D3A1 H'D*FBD AJ 'DEH'+JB 'D%BDJEJ) EF 'DEH'+JB 'D%BDJEJ) 'D*J F5* 9DI ,ED) EF 'D-BHB H'D-1J'* 'D#3'3J) GJ 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) D-BHB 'D%F3'F D3F) 1950 %0 *9/ EF 'C+1 'D#F8E) 'D%BDJEJ) *7H1'K AJ EJ/'F -BHB 'D%F3'F H-1J'*G 'D#3'3J). %D' #F G0G 'D'*A'BJ) DE **71B %DI -1J) 'D%F3'F AJ 'D3A1 H'D*FBD #H -B 'DD,H! H'DBJH/ 'DH'1/) 9DJG' H'FE' #C/* 9DI -B CD %F3'F AJ 'D-1J) H'D#EF (FA3G  H'FG D' J,H2 -1E'FG EF -1J*G (71JB) *93AJ) H'FE' HAB'K DD71B 'DB'FHFJ) HEF 'D#-H'D 'D*J J,H2 AJG' -1E'F 'D4.5 EF -1J*G 9DI 3(JD 'DE+'D  'DB(6 9DI 4.5 H'-*,'2G DEF9 /.HDG :J1 'DE41H9 %DI '16 'D/HD) #H D*FAJ0 %,1'!'* 'D%(9'/ #H 'D*3DJE(). 9DI 'D1:E EF 'F G0G 'D'*A'BJ) DE *0C1 -1J) 'D*FBD (4CD E('41 %D' 'FG JECF 'F F3*F*, 6EF'K ('F -B 'D%F3'F AJ 'D-1J) H'D#EF J*6EF -1J*G AJ 'D3A1 H'D*FBD 'D*J J9/ EF 'D-1J'* 'D#3'3J) . 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AJ 'D-BJB) JECF 'DBHD 'F 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) D-BHB 'D%F3'F *E+D 'A6D #3DH( '3*7'9 'D%F3'F -*I 'D"F 'F J-BBG EF ',D 19'J) -BHBG H-1J'*G 'D#3'3J) H0DC ('D'9*1'A DD#A1'/ H'D,E'9'* (-B 'D4CHI 6/ 'D/HD 9F/ 'F*G'C *DC 'D-BHB H'D-1J'*  H0DC 9F 71JB ',G2*G' 'DE.*5) HGJ 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J)  %0 DG' /H1 1&J3J HA'9D AJ 'D1B'() 'DH7FJ) 9DI *7(JB 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) HB/ EF-*G' G0G 'D'*A'BJ) -B %5/'1 B1'1'* DG' BH) *FAJ0J) H%,('1J) AJ -'D) E.'DA) G0G 'D'*A'BJ)() . AJ 'DH'B9 DB/ 3'GE* 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) AJ 6E'F -1J) 'D*FBD H'D%B'E) %0 B6* AJ B6J) (1'FJA'F HEC(1'J/ 6/ 'DEEDC) 'DE*-/) AJ 26 E'JH D3F) 1993 "(#F E' 0G(* %DJG 'D-CHE) ('9*B'D '4.'5 J4*(G AJ 'F6E'EGE %DI 'D,J4 'D,EGH1J 'D'J1DF/J D'C+1 EF 3*) 'J'E ('DF3() DD#HD H#1(9) #J'E ('DF3() DD+'FJ  D' J*,'H2 -/H/ *B/J1G' ('9*('1 'F EB*6J'* 'D-'D) '3*D2E* *E'E'K A16 'D*BJJ/" () . #E' 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#E1JCJ) D-BHB 'D%F3'F D3F) 1969 ADB/ 6EF* -1J) 'D%F3'F AJ 'D*FBD H'D%B'E) %0 ,'! 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oi Bonnet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H(0DC JECF 'DBHD (#F '9D'F -'D) 'D7H'1& AJ A1F3' H'F C'F J4CD *G/J/'K DD-1J'* 'DA1/J) 'D' 'FG D' J$/J %DI -/ %G/'1G' #H 'D'F*B'5 EFG' H0DC D'F 'D/3*H1 'DA1F3J D3F) 1958 F5 51'-) 9DI 'F *F8JE 'D-1J'* 'D9'E) JCHF /'&E'K EF '.*5'5 'DE419 H('D*'DJ D' J,H2 DD-CHE) A16 #J BJH/ 9DI 'D-1J'* /HF 'D1,H9 %DI 'D(1DE'F() . 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ 'D*41J9 'DE51J CAD 'D/3*H1 'DE51J D3F) 1971 'DF'A0 -B CD EH7F AJ 'D*FBD H'D%B'E) . H*7(JB'K D0DC 5/1 'DB1'1 (B'FHF 1BE 97 D3F) 1959 'D.'5 (,H'2'* 'D3A1 D*F8JE -1J) 'D3A1 H'D*FBD. HJ9/ F8'E ,H'2 'D3A1 AJ E51 F8'E '5JD HDJ3 7'1&'K  %0 DE *EF9 'D81HA 'D3J'3J) H:J1G' 'D*J E1* 9DI E51 EF 'D'.0 /'&E'K (G0' 'DF8'E H'F '.*DA* 71JB) *FAJ0G H"+'1G *(9'K DG0G 'D81HA() . HDB/ '4*17* 'DE'/) 'D'HDI EF G0' 'DB'FHF (96 'D6H'(7 H'D41H7 'D*J **9DB (61H1) -ED 'DEH'7FHF D,H'2'* 'D3A1 9F/ E:'/1*GE 'D(D'/ H'D9H/) 'DJG'  H'EC'FJ) 'D'3*9'6) 9FG' (','2'* E1H1 #H -/H/ #H E' 4'(G HAB'K DD-'D'* 'D*J J-//G' H2J1 'D/'.DJ) (B1'1 J5/1G  AJ -JF F5* 'DE'/) 'D+'FJ) 9DI 'F DD#.J1 3D7) '5/'1 B1'1 JD2E CD EF J*E*9 (,F3J) 'D(D'/ 61H1) 'D-5HD 9DI '0F .'5 "*#4J1)" HJ(JF -'D'* 'D'9A'! EFG  HJ-// AJ G0' 'DB1'1 41H7 EF- 'D'0F H'D3D7) 'D*J J1.5 DG' AJ EF-G HE/) 5D'-J*G  H('DEB'(D A'F DH2J1 'D/'.DJ) HAB'K DDE'/) 'D-'/J) 941) 5D'-J) '5/'1 B1'1 (1A6 EF- ,H'2 3A1 #H *,/J/G  #H 3-(G %0' C'F* GF'C '3('( EBF9) JB/1G HAB'K D5D'-J*G() . H'D,/J1 ('D'4'1) 'F 3D7) H2J1 'D/'.DJ) AJ 'DEF9 EF 'D3A1 *E*/ %DI 'D','F( #J6'K HDJ3 'DH7FJJF AB7  H0DC '3*F'/'K %DI 'DE'/) 6 EF B'FHF 1BE 89 D3F) 1960 HE' D-B EF *9/JD'* 7(B'K DB'FHF 1BE 124 D3F) 1980 HB'FHF 1BE 69 D3F) 1996 . H(EH,( B1'1 H2J1 'D/'.DJ) 1BE 29 D3F) 1960 #H,( AJ 'DE'/) 'D'HDI EFG 9DI 61H1) -5HD 'D',F(J 9DI '0F .'5 B(D E:'/1*G 'D(D'/ 'D' 'FG '9AI AJ 'DE'/) 'D+'D+) EF 'DB1'1 0'*G (96 'DA&'* EF 417 'D-5HD 9DI G0' 'D%0F HGE : 'D','F( 'DB'/EHF (*#4J1'* /.HD %0' DE *2/ E/) 'B'E*GE AJ 'D(D'/ 9DI 3*) '4G1 EF *'1J. -5HDGE 'DJG' . '96'! 'D3DCJJF 'D/(DHE'3J H'DBF5DJ 'D#,F(JJF 'DE9*E/HF D/I -CHE) ,EGH1J) E51 'D91(J) . EH8AH 'D#EE 'DE*-/) EF ,'F( 'D#,'F( 'D0JF J4:DHF H8'&A AJ EC*( 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  #H AJ HC'D'*G' 'DE*.55) HEC'*(G' 'D%BDJEJ) H'D-'EDHF D,H'2'* E1H1 EF *DC 'DGJ&)(). HDB/ 'D2E 'DB'FHF 1BE 89 D3F) 1960 9DI CD ',F(J D:16 'D%B'E) 'D-5HD 9DI *1.J5 (0DC H9DJG E:'/1) 'D(D'/ (9/ 'F*G'! E/) %B'E*G  E' DE JCF B/ -5D B(D 0DC 9DI *1.J5 EF H2'1) 'D/'.DJ) AJ E/ %B'E*G (EH,( 'DE'/) 16 EF 'DB'FHF . HDH2J1 'D/'.DJ) (EH,( 'DE'/) 25 EF 'DB'FHF %5/'1 B1'1 (%(9'/ 'D#,'F(  %0' C'F AJ H,H/G E' JG// 'EF 'D/HD) H3D'E*G' AJ 'D/'.D #H 'D.'1, #H JG// 'B*5'/G' 'DBHEJ #H 'D5-) 'D9'E) #H 'D"/'( 'D9'E) #H 'D3CJF) 'D9'E)() . 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'D/3*H1J H-E'J) 'D-1J'* 'D'3'3J) AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE51J H'DA1F3J  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2001 . /.9(/ 'DDG .DJD 'DE-'EJ  -BHB 'DE51JJF AJ 'D1#J H'D*8'G1 H'D'61'(  'DEF8E) 'DE51J) D-BHB 'D'F3'F  2004 . /.9(/ 'DA*'- E1'/  41- 'D-1J'* 'D9'E) H*7(JB'* 'DE-'CE (4#FG'  'DEC*( 'D,'E9J 'D-/J+  'D'3CF/1J)  (-* . 9(/ 'DG'/J 9('3  -BHB 'D'F3'F  ,2  /'1 'DA'6D  /E4B  1994 . /.9(/ 'DH'-/ E-E/ 'DA'1  B'FHF -BHB 'D'F3'F AJ 'DAC1 'DH69J H'D41J9) 'D'3D'EJ)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  1991 . /.9(/ 'DHG'( 9(/ 'D92J2 'D4J4'FJ  -BHB 'D'F3'F H-1J'*G 'D'3'3J) AJ 'DF8'E 'D'3D'EJ H'DF8E 'DE9'51)  71  E7'(9 'D,E9J) 'D9DEJ) 'DEDCJ)  1980 . /.95'E 9(/ 'DHG'( 'D(12F,J  'D3D7) 'D*B/J1J) DD'/'1) H'D1B'() 'DB6'&J)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1971 . /.9E1H '-E/ -3(H  -1J) 'D',*E'9  /1'3) EB'1F)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1999 . /.A'1HB 9(/ 'D(1 : /H1 E,D3 'D/HD) 'DE51J AJ -E'J) 'D-BHB H'D-1J'* 'D9'E)  ,1  E7'(9 3,D 'D91(  1988 . /H1 'DE-CE) 'D/3*H1J) 'DE51J) AJ -E'J) 'D-BHB H'D-1J'*  'DF31 'D0G(J DD7('9) H'DF41  'DB'G1)  2004 . /. C1JE JH3A '-E/ C4'C4  'D-1J'* 'D9'E) AJ 'D'F8E) 'D3J'3J) 'DE9'51)  /'1 'DE9'1A  'D'3CF/1J)  1987 . /.E',/ 'D-DH  'DB'FHF 'D/3*H1J  (-E  1993 . /.E-E/ 'D7J( 9(/ 'DD7JA  F8'E 'D*1.J5 H'D'.7'1 AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE51J  /1'3) EB'1F)  E7(9) /'1 'D*#DJA  1957 . /.E-E/ 'EJF 'DEJ/'FJ  'DF8'E 'D'H1(J D-E'J) -BHB 'D'F3'F  73  EF4H1'* 'D-D(J 'D-BHBJ)  (J1H*  2009 . /.E-E/ -3FJF 9(/ 'D9'D  'D1B'() 'DB6'&J) 9DI B1'1'* 'D6(7 'D'/'1J  72  E7(9) ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  'DC*'( 'D,'E9J  1991 . /.E-E/ 39J/ E,0H( : 'D-1J'* 'D9'E) H-BHB 'D'F3'F  ,1H3 (13  (J1H*  1986 . 'DB'FHF 'D/3*H1J H'DF8'E 'D3J'3J AJ D(F'F  'D/'1 'D,'E9J) DD7('9) H'DF41  (J1H*  2000 . /.E-E/ 3DJE E-E/ :2HJ  'D-1J'* 'D9'E) AJ 'D'3D'E E9 'DEB'1F) ('DE('/& 'D/3*H1J) 'D:1(J) H'DE'1C3J) E$33) 4('( 'D,'E9) DD7('9) H'DF41 H'D*H2J9 '3CF/1J)  (-*. /.E-E/ 41JA '3E'9JD  3D7'* 'D6(7 'D'/'1J AJ 'D81HA 'D'3*+F'&J)  /1'3) EB'1F)  CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 9JF 4E3  1980 . /. E57AI '(H 2J/ AGEJ  'DF8'E 'D/3*H1J DD,EGH1J) 'D91(J) 'DE*-/)  /'1 'DE9'1A  E51  1966 . EH1*E1, . #/D1  'D/3*H1 'D'E1JCJ  #AC'1G HEO+DG  *1,E) 5'/B '(1'GJE 9H/)  E1C2 'DC*( 'D'1/FJ  1989 . /.EH1J3 /A1,JG  'DE$33'* 'D3J'3J) H'DB'FHF 'D/3*H1J  *1,E) /.,H1, 39/  'DE$33) 'D,'E9J) DD7('9) H'DF41  (J1H*  1992 . /.F9JE 97J)  'DEF9 EF 'D3A1  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  (-* . /. G'FJ 3DJE'F 'D79JE'*  -BHB 'D'F3'F H-1J'*G 'D'3'3J)  71  /'1 'D41HB DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  2003 . H-J/ 1#A*  /1'3'* AJ (96 'DBH'FJF 'DEF8E) DD-1J'*  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D'3CF/1J)  1981 . +'D+'K : 'D13'&D H'D'7'1J- 'D,'E9J) : /.'-E/ ,'/ EF5H1  'D-E'J) 'DB6'&J) D-BHB 'D'F3'F  '71H-) /C*H1'G  CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 9JF 4E3  1997 . BJ/'1 9(/ 'DB'/1 5'D-  AC1) 'D3(( AJ 'DB1'1 'D'/'1J  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  2002 . /.E-E/ '-E/ 9(/ 'D('BJ *DJEG  'D-E'J) 'DB6'&J) DD-1J) 'D4.5J)  CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  1990 . 1'(9'K : 'D(-H+ H'DEB'D'* : /.,H1, /J(  -B 'D'F3'F AJ 'D*FBD H'D'B'E) AJ 'DH7F 'D91(J  E,D) 'D-BHBJ 'D91(J  'D9//'F 2-3  '*-'/ 'D-BHBJJF 'D91(J  (:/'/  1979 . /.39J/ 95AH1  /H1 'DB6'! AJ -E'J) 'D-BHB H'D-1J'*  E,D) 'D-B  'D9//'F 2-3  'D3F) 7  1976 . 95'E F9E) '3E'9JD  J(BI 'DB6'! ED'0'K FG'&J'K D-E'J) 'D-1J) 'D/JFJ)  'DE3*B(D 'D91(J  'D9// 301  'D3F) 26  E1C2 /1'3'* 'DH-/) 'D91(J)  (J1H*  2004 . /.95E* 9(/ 'DE,J/ (C1  -B 'D3A1 EF -BHB 'D'F3'F 'D'3'3J)  E,D) 'DB'FHF 'DEB'1F  'D9// 41  2006 . /.A'1HB '-E/ .E'3  E-CE) 'DB6'! 'D'/'1J AJ 6H! 'DB'FHF 1BE 106 D3F) 1989  E,D) 'D9DHE 'DB'FHFJ)  'DE,D/ 9  'D9// 2  1990 . /.E-E/ 3DJE E-E/ :2HJ  F81'* AJ -BHB 'D'F3'F H-1J'*G 'D'3'3J) AJ 'D/3*H1 'D'1/FJ H'DBH'FJF 'DECED) DG  E,D) /1'3'*  'DE,D/ 11  'D9// 5  'D,'E9) 'D'1/FJ)  9E'F  1984 . FH'A CF9'F  '*,'G'* E-CE) 'D9/D 'D9DJ' AJ 'D1B'() 9DI 3D7'* 'D6(7 'D'/'1J HB1'1'*G'  E,D) /1'3'*  'DE,D/ 27  'D9// 1 'J'1  2000 . .'E3'K : 'D'9D'F'* H'DEH'+JB 'D/HDJ) H'D'BDJEJ) : 'D'9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1948. 'D'*A'BJ) 'D'H1(J) D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1950 . 'D'*A'BJ) 'D/HDJ) 'D.'5) (H69 'DD',&JF D3F) 1951 . 'D(1H*HCHD 1BE4 'DED-B ('D'*A'BJ) -E'J) -BHB 'D'F3'F H'D-1J'* 'D'3'3J) (4#F 6E'F -BHB H-1J'* '.1I D3F) 1963 . 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ 'D.'5 ('D-BHB 'DE/FJ) H'D3J'3J) D3F) 1966 . 'D'*A'BJ) 'D'E1JCJ) D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1969 . 'DEJ+'B 'D'A1JBJ D-BHB 'D'F3'F H'D49H( D3F) 1981 . '9D'F 'DB'G1) -HD -BHB 'D'F3'F AJ 'D'3D'E D3F) 1990 . 'DEJ+'B 'D91(J D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1994 . 3'/3'K : 'D/3'*J1 : 'D/3'*J1 'D91(J) . 'DB'FHF 'D'3'3J 'D91'BJ D3F) 1925 . 'D/3*H1 'DD(F'FJ D3F) 1926 'DE9/D . 'D/3*H1 'D'1/FJ D3F) 1952 'DE9/D . 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ 'D5'/1 AJ 27 *EH2 1958 . 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ 'D5'/1 AJ 29 FJ3'F 1964 . 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ 'D5'/1 AJ 21 'JDHD 1968 . 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ 'D5'/1 AJ 16 *EH2 1970 . 'D/3*H1 'D'E'1'*J D3F) 1971 . 'D/3*H1 'D3H1J D3F) 1973 . 'D/3*H1 'D(-1JFJ D3F) 2002 . B'FHF '/'1) 'D/HD) 'D91'BJ) 'DE$B* DDE1-D) 'D'F*B'DJ) 'D5'/1 AJ 8 '0'1 2004 . 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ 'D5'/1 AJ 28 C'FHF 'D'HD 2005 . 'D/3'*J1 'D:1(J) . 'D/3*H1 'D'*-'/J 'D'E1JCJ D3F) 1787 . 'D/3*H1 'DA1F3J D3F) 1946 . 'D/3*H1 'D'J7'DJ D3F) 1947 . 'D/3*H1 'D'DE'FJ D3F) 1949 . 'D/3*H1 'DA1F3J D3F) 1958 . /3*H1 ,EGH1J) ,FH( 'A1JBJ' D3F) 1996 . 'D/3*H1 'D3HJ31J 'D'*-'/J D3F) 2000 . 3'(9'K : E,EH9) 'DBH'FJF H'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ) : 'DBH'FJF . B'FHF 'D7H'1& 'DE51J 1BE 162 D3F) 1958 . B'FHF 'D3D'E) 'DH7FJ) 'D91'BJ 1BE 4 D3F) 1965 . B'FHF %B'E) 'D#,'F( 1BE 118 D3F) 1978 . B'FHF E,D3 4H1I 'D/HD) 'DE1BE 65 D3F) 1979 . B'FHF 'D*FAJ0 'D91'BJ 1BE 45 D3F) 1980 . B'FHF E,D3 4H1I 'D/HD) 'DE1BE 106 D3F) 1989 . B'FHF ,H'2'* 'D3A1 'D91'BJ 1BE 32 D3F) 1999 . B'FHF 'D/A'9 9F 'D3D'E) 'DH7FJ) 1BE 1 D3F) 2004 . 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ) . 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ)  'D9//1071  'D3F) 7 AJ 6/2/1965 . 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ)  'D9//665  'D3F) 21 AJ 24/7/1978 . 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ)  'D9//3797  'D3F) 41 AJ 25/10/1999 . 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ)  'D9// 4012  'D3F) 47 AJ 28 C'FHF 'D'HD  2005 . +'EF' : E,EH9) 'D#-C'E 'DB6'&J) : -CE E-CE) 'DB6'! 'D%/'1J 'DE51J  'DB6J) 1BE 694  AJ 10 /E'JH/1952  36  E,EH9) 'D3F) 6  'DE,D/ 'D+'D+ . -CE E-CE) 'DB6'! 'D%/'1J 'DE51J  'DB6J) 1BE 1442  AJ 11/1/1953  35. -CE E-CE) 'DB6'! 'D%/'1J 'DE51J  'DB6J) 1BE 1474 AJ 12/1/1953  35  E,EH9) 'D3F) 17  'DB'9/) 190 . -CE E-CE) 'DB6'! 'D%/'1J 'DE51J  'DB6J) 1BE 1091  AJ 14/5/1953  36. -CE E-CE) 'DB6'! 'D%/'1J 'DE51J  'DB6J) 1BE 3551  AJ 28/12/1954  37  'DB'9/) 147 . -CE E-CE) 'DB6'! 'D%/'1J 'DE51J  'DB6J) 1BE 1117  AJ 2/3/1955  37 'DB'9/) 325. -CE E-CE) 'DB6'! 'D%/'1J 'DE51J  'DB6J) 1BE 99  AJ 22/12/1970  325. -CE E-CE) 'DB6'! 'D%/'1J 'D91'BJ  'D9// 81 / B6'! '/'1J AJ 18/1/2006 . *'39'K : 'DEH'B9 'D'DC*1HFJ) : 'D(1H*HCHD 1BE4 D'*A'BJ) -E'J) -BHB 'D%F3'F H'D-1J'* 'D'3'3J) D3F) 1963  ,'E9) EFJ3H*'  EC*() -BHB 'D'F3'F .  HYPERLINK "http://www.1.edu/humanrts/arab/eupro4.htm1" http://www.1.edu/humanrts/arab/eupro4.htm1. 'DEJ+'B 'D91(J D-BHB 'D'F3'F AJ ,'E9) 'D/HD 'D91(J) H'DEAH6 'D3'EJ D-BHB 'D'F3'F  E1C2 'DB'G1) D/1'3'* -BHB 'D'F3'F  'DB'G1) .  HYPERLINK "http://www.chirs.org/" http://www.chirs.org . E5'/1) -B 'D*FBD & E3$HDJ) EF  'DEF8E) 'DE51J) D-BHB 'D'F3'F .  HYPERLINK "http://www.eohr.org/ar/rdfort/2006/re0223.shtm/" http://www.eohr.org/ar/rdfort/2006/re0223.shtm/. F5H5 EJ+'B 'D-BHB 'D'3'3J) DD'*-'/ 'D'H1(J D3F) 2000 .  HYPERLINK "http://www.lumn.edu/humanrts/arab/eu-rights.charter.htm/" http://www.lumn.edu/humanrts/arab/eu-rights.charter.htm/. H+'&B H(J'F'*  B'FHF 'D/A'9 9F 'D3D'E) 'DH7FJ) 1BE 1 D3F) 2004 .  HYPERLINK "http://www.islamonline.net/" http://www.Islamonline.net 9'41'K : 'DE5'/1 'D#,F(J) : Arlette Heymann  Doat , Liberts publiques et Droits de L Homme , be edtion L.G.D.J , paris , 2000 . Etienne Grisel , Droit constitutonnel 77 , universite de Lausanne , 2001 . Jean morange , Liberts publiques , P-U-F , paris , 1985 . Robert Jacques , Liberts publiques et Droits de L Homme , 1988. (*) #3*DE 'D(-+ AJ 12/5/2009 *** B(D DDF41 AJ 3/9/2009 . () '(F EF8H1  D3'F 'D91(  'DE,D/ 'D1'(9  /'1 5'/1 DD7('9) H'DF41  (J1H*  1955  5368  H('DE9FI FA3G  JF81 '(H 'D-O3JF '-E/ (F A'13 (F 2C1J'  E9,E EB'JJ3 'DD:)  *-BJB H6(7 9(/ 'D3D'E E-E/ G'1HF  'DE,D/ 'D+'D+  /'1 'DAC1 DD7('9) H'DF41 H'D*H2J9  (-*  582 . () '(F EF8H1  D3'F 'D91(  'DE,D/ 'D-'/J 941  /'1 5'/1  (J1H*  (-*  5674 . H('DE9FI FA3G JF81 '(H 'D-3JF '-E/ (F A'13 (F 2C1J'  E9,E EB'JJ3 'DD:)  *-BJB H6(7 9(/ 'D3D'E E-E/ G'1HF  'DE,D/ 'D.'E3  /'1 'DAC1 DD7('9) H'DF41 H'D*H2J9  (-*  5463-464 . () /.+1H* (/HJ  'DF8E 'D3J'3J)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1975  5420 . () /.,H1, /J( -B 'D%F3'F AJ 'D*FBD H'D'B'E) AJ 'DH7F 'D91(J  E,D) 'D-BHBJ 'D91(J  'D9//'F 3-4  '*-'/ 'D-BHBJJF 'D91(J  (:/'/  1979  5330 . () /.E-E/ 3DJE E-E/ :2HJ  'D-1J'* 'D9'E) AJ 'D%3D'E E9 'DEB'1F) ('DE('/& 'D/3*H1J) 'D:1(J) 'DE'1C3J)  E$33) 4('( 'D,'E9) DD7('9) H'DF41 H'D*H2J9  '3CF/1J)  (-*  5198  H('DE9FI FA3G JF81 E$DAG F81'* AJ -BHB 'D'F3'F H-1J'*G 'D'3'3J) AJ 'D/3*H1 'D'1/FJ H'DBH'FJF 'DECED) DG  E,D) /1'3'*  'DE,D/ 'D-'/J 941  'D9// 5  'D,'E9) 'D'1/FJ)  9E'F  1984  5272 . () /.9(/ 'DHG'( 9(/ 'D92J2 'D4J4'FJ  -BHB 'D'F3'F H-1J'*G 'D'3'3J) AJ 'DF8'E 'D'3D'EJ H'DF8E 'DE9'51)  71  E7'(9 'D,E9J) 'D9DEJ) 'DEDCJ)  1980  5379 . () /. 9(/ 'DHG'( 9(/ 'D92J2 'D4J4'FJ  E5/1 3'(B  5380 . () /. G'FJ 3DJE'F 'D79JE'*  -BHB 'D'F3'F H-1J'*G 'D'3'3J)  71  /'1 'D41HB DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  2003  5150 . () /. +1H* (/HJ  E5/1 3'(B  5419-420 . () /. C1JE JH3A '-E/ C4'C4  'D-1J'* 'D9'E) AJ 'D'F8E) 'D3J'3J) 'DE9'51)  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D'3CF/1J)  1987  563 . () /. E57AI '(H 2J/ AGEJ  'DF8'E 'D/3*H1J DD,EGH1J) 'D91(J) 'DE*-/)  /'1 'DE9'1A  E51  1966  5194 . () /. 39'/ 'D41B'HJ  F3(J) 'D-1J'* 'D9'E) H'F9C'3'*G' 9DI 'D*F8JE 'DB'FHFJ  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1979  512 . () 'DE'/) 13 EF 'D'9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1948 . () 'DE'/) 14 EF 'D'9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1948 . () 'DE'/) 29 EF 'D'9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1948 . () 'DE'/) 12 / A1- 2  4 EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ 'D.'5 ('D-BHB 'DE/FJ) H'D3J'3J) D3F) 1966 . () 'DE'/) 13 EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ 'D.'5 ('D-BHB 'DE/FJ) H'D3J'3J) D3F) 1966 . () 'DE'/) 12 / A3 EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ 'D.'5 ('D-BHB 'DE/FJ) H'D3J'3J) D3F) 1966 . () /.39/J E-E/ 'D.7J(  -BHB 'D'F3'F H6E'F'*G' 'D/3*H1J)  EF4H1'* 'D-D(J 'D-BHBJ)  (J1H*  2007  542 . () 9(/ 'DG'/J 9('3  -BHB 'D'F3'F  ,2  /'1 'DA'6D  /E4B  5213 . () 'DE'/) 1/ A2 EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D/HDJ) 'D.'5) (H69 'DD',&JF D3F) 1951 CAD* G0G 'D'*A'BJ) -1J) 'D3A1 H'D*FBD  1',9 F5H5 'DEH'/ 26-27-28 EF 'D'*A'BJ) . () HG0' E' J-/+ DD',&JF 'D91'BJJF HE4CD) E9'F'*GE DG,1*GE EF (D/GE 'D#5DJ H'DD,H! %DI (D/ ".1  F*J,) DD#H6'9 'D#EFJ) 'D3J&) 'D*J E1* (G' 'D(D'/ HE' 2'D* H'D'F*8'1 (A'1: 'D5(1 DD9H/) %DI #H7'FGE HDDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD -HD '3('( 'DD,H! 'F81 : 'EJ1 EH3I  -BHB 'D'F3'F E/.D %DI H9J -BHBJ  71  E1C2 /1'3'* 'DH-/) 'D91(J)  (J1H*  1994  5109-115 . () 'F81 'DE'/) 5 / A 2 EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ 'D.'5 ('D-BHB 'DE/FJ) H'D3J'3J) D3F) 1966 . () 'DE'/) 5 / A1 EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D'H1(J) D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1950 . () 'F81 F5H5 'DEH'/ 9 / A2 H 10 / A2 H'DE'/) 11 / A2 EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D'H1(J) D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1950 . () 5/1 AJ 6 FHAE(1 1963 H(/# 'D9ED (G AJ 2 E'JH 1968  'D(1H*HCHD 1BE 4 D'*A'BJ) -BHB 'D'F3'F H'D-1J'* 'D'3'3J)  EC*() -BHB 'D'F3'F  ,'E9) EFJ3H*'  FBD'K 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F* .  HYPERLINK "http://www.1.umn.edu/humanrts/arab/eupro4.htm1" http://www.1.umn.edu/humanrts/arab/eupro4.htm1. () 'DE'/) 2 / A1-2-3 EF 'D(1H*HCHD 1BE 4 D'*A'BJ) -E'J) -BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1963 . () 'DE'/) 3/ A1-2 EF 'D(1H*HCHD 1BE 4 D'*A'BJ) -E'J) -BHB 'D'F3'F H'D-1J'* 'D'3'3J) . () 'DE'/) 4 EF 'D(1H*HCHD 1BE 4 D'*A'BJ) -E'J) -BHB 'D'F3'F H'D-1J'* 'D'3'3J) . DB/ 'C/ EJ+'B 'D-BHB 'D'3'3J) DD'*-'/ 'D'H1(J D3F) 2000 9DI -1J) 'D-1C) H'D'B'E) %0 ,'! AJG 'F "1- DCD EH'7F ('D'*-'/ 'D-B AJ 'D-1C) H'D'B'E) (-1J) /'.D 'BDJE 'D/HD 'D'96'!" . 'DE'/) 45 EF EJ+'B 'D-BHB 'D'3'3J) DD'*-'/ 'D'H1(J FBD'K 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F* .  HYPERLINK "http://www.lumn.edu/humanrts/arab/eu-rights-charter.hitml" http://www.lumn.edu/humanrts/arab/eu-rights-charter.hitml () /.E-E/ #EJF 'DEJ/'FJ  'DF8'E 'D'H1(J D-E'J) -BHB 'D'F3'F  73  EF4H1'* 'D-D(J 'D-BHBJ)  (J1H*  2009  564 . () 95'E F9E) '3E'9JD  J(BI 'DB6'! ED'0'K FG'&J'K D-E'J) 'D-1J) 'D/JFJ)  'DE3*B(D 'D91(J  'D9// 301  'D3F) 26  E1C2 /1'3'* 'DH-/) 'D91(J)  (J1H*  2004  522-23 . () /.9(/ 'DH'-/ E-E/ 'DA'1  B'FHF -BHB 'D'F3'F AJ 'DAC1 'DH69J H'D41J9) 'D'3D'EJ)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1991  5447 . () 'DE'/) 22 / A1-2-3 H'DE'/) 30 EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D'E1JCJ) D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1969 . () 'DE'/) 22 / A5-7-9 EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D'E1JCJ) D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1969 . () 'DE'/) 22 / A1-2-3-4-5 EF 'DEJ+'B 'D'A1JBJ D-BHB 'D'F3'F H'D49H( D3F) 1981 . () 'DE'/) 20 EF 'DEJ+'B 'D91(J D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1994 . () 'DE'/) 21 EF 'DEJ+'B 'D91(J D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1994 . () 'DE'/) 4 / A # EF 'DEJ+'B 'D91(J D-BHB 'D'F3'F D3F) 1994 . () DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 'F81 'DEJ+'B 'D91(J D-BHB 'D'F3'F EF ,'E9) 'D/HD 'D91(J) H'DEAH6 'D3'EJ D-BHB 'D'F3'F  E1C2 'DB'G1) D/1'3'* -BHB 'D'F3'F  'DB'G1)  2003  51-4 FBD'K 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F*  HYPERLINK "http://www.chirs.org/" http://www.chirs.org () 'DE'/) 12 EF '9D'F 'DB'G1) D-BHB 'D'F3'F AJ 'D'3D'E D3F) 1990 . () 'F81 'DE'/*'F 24 H 25 EF '9D'F 'DB'G1) D-BHB 'D'F3'F AJ 'D'3D'E D3F) 1990 . () EH1*E1, . #/D1  'D/3*H1 'D'E1JCJ  #AC'1GO HEO+DG  *1,E) 5'/B '(1'GJE 9H/)  E1C2 'DC*( 'D'1/FJ  1989  5179 . () B6* 'DE-CE) 'D/3*H1J) 'D9DJ' 'D'E1JCJ) AJ 3F) 1964 . "%F 'D-B AJ 'D3A1 GH ,2! EF -1J) 'DEH'7F 'D*J D' JECF -1E'FG EFG' (:J1 %*('9G %,1'!'* B'FHFJ) 3DJE)  CE' #F -1J) 'D*FBD 3H'! /'.D 'D-/H/ #H .'1,G' GH EF 'DEH1H+'* 'D*J J9*2 (G' 'D49( 'D'E1JCJ H'D3A1 %DI 'D.'1, E+D 'D*FBD /'.D 'DH7F  A-1J) 'D-1C) GJ (D' #/FI 4C '3'3J) AJ '7'1 'DBJE 'DB'FHFJ)" . /.-3F E-E/ GF/ H/. F9JE 97J)  'DF8'E 'DB'FHFJ DDEF9 EF 'D3A1  /'1 'DC*( 'DB'FHFJ)  E7'(9 4*'*  'DB'G1)  2009  513 . () H1/ ('D/3*H1 CDE) 'D-1J) H*9(J1 'D-1J'* 'D9'E) AJ 'DE'/) 34 EFG  '3*9ED G0' 'D'57D'- AJ 5J:) 'DEA1/ AJ 'DB1'1 'D'6'AJ 'DED-B (/3'*J1 'D'E(1'7H1J) AJ (22/4/1815)  HDE JCF 'DH-J/ 'D0J '3*9ED*G  A'D*41J9'* 'D.'5) ('D-1J'* 'D9'E) AJ A1F3' ,'!* +E1) DDE*7D('* 'DE'6J) H'D*J 3'GE* (4CD A9'D AJ H69 F8'E B'FHFJ DD-1J'* 'D9'E) . Arlette Heyman.-Doat,Liberte s publiques et Droits deL Homme,be edtion L.G.D.J,Paris, 2000, p.11 . () 'DE'/) 16 EF 'D/3*H1 'D'J7'DJ 'D5'/1 AJ 27 /J3E(1 D3F) 1947 . () 'DE'/) 11 / A1-2 EF /3*H1 ,EGH1J) #DE'FJ' 'D'*-'/J) D3F) 1949 . () 'DE'/) 16 / A1 EF /3*H1 ,EGH1J) 'DE'FJ' 'D'*-'/J) D3F) 1949 . () 'DE'/) 21 EF /3*H1 ,EGH1J) ,FH( 'A1JBJ' D3F) 1996 . () 'DE'/) 24 / A1-2 EF /3*H1 'D'*-'/ 'D3HJ31J D3F) 2000 . () 'DE'/) 25 / A1-2-3 EF /3*H1 'D'*-'/ 'D3HJ31J D3F) 2000 . (4) Etienne Grisel , Droil constitutonnel II , universite de Lausanne , 2001 , p8 . () 'DE'/) 7 EF 'DB'FHF 'D'3'3J 'D91'BJ D3F) 1925 . () 'DE'/) 19 EF /3*H1 ,EGH1J) 'D91'B D3F) 1958 . () 'DE'/) 25 EF /3*H1 ,EGH1J) 'D91'B D3F) 1964 . () 'DE'/*'F 27 H 28 EF /3*H1 ,EGH1J) 'D91'B D3F) 1968 . () 'DE'/) 24 EF 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ D3F) 1970 . () 'DE'/) 34 / A #-( EF 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ D3F) 1970 . () 'DE'/) 18 / A / EF B'FHF %/'1) 'D/HD) 'D91'BJ) 'DE$B* DDE1-D) 'D'F*B'DJ) D3F) 2004 . () 'DE'/) 19 EF B'FHF %/'1) 'D/HD) 'D91'BJ) 'DE$B* DDE1-D) 'D'F*B'DJ) D3F) 2004 . () 'DE'/) 44 / A #HD'K H+'FJ'K EF 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ 'D/'&E D3F) 2005 . 1',9 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ)  'D9// 4012  'D3F) 47 AJ 28 C'FHF 'D'HD 2005  51-32 . () 'DE'/) 21 / A +'FJ'K EF 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ 'D/'&E D3F) 2005 . () 'DE'/) 46 EF 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ 'D/'&E D3F) 2005 . () 'DE'/) 50 EF 'D/3*H1 'DE51J D3F) 1971 . () 'DE'/) 51 EF 'D/3*H1 'DE51J D3F) 1971 . () 'DE'/) 52 EF 'D/3*H1 'DE51J D3F) 1971 . () 'DE'/) 53 EF 'D/3*H1 'DE51J D3F) 1971 . () 'DE'/) 8 EF 'D/3*H1 'DD(F'FJ D3F) 1926 'DE9/D . () /.E-E/ 39J/ E,0H(  'DB'FHF 'D/3*H1J H'DF8'E 'D3J'3J AJ D(F'F  'D/'1 'D,'E9J) DD7('9) H'DF41  (J1H*  2000  5353 . () /.E-E/ 39J/ E,0H(  'D-1J'* 'D9'E) H-BHB 'D'F3'F  ,1H3 (13   (J1H*  1986  5160 . () 'DE'/) 9 / A1-2 EF 'D/3*H1 'D'1/FJ D3F) 1952 'DE9/D . () 'DE'/) 21 / A1-2 EF 'D/3*H1 'D'1/FJ D3F) 1952 'DE9/D . () 'DE'/) 33 / A1-2 EF 'D/3*H1 'D3H1J D3F) 1973 . () 'DE'/) 34 EF 'D/3*H1 'D3H1J D3F) 1973 . () 'DE'/) 29 EF 'D/3*H1 'D%E'1'*J D3F) 1971 . () 'DE'/) 37 EF 'D/3*H1 'D%E'1'*J D3F) 1971 . () 'DE'/) 38 EF 'D/3*H1 'D'E'1'*J D3F) 1971 . () 'DE'/) 17 EF 'D/3*H1 'D(-1JFJ D3F) 2002 . () 'DE'/) 19 / A ( EF 'D/3*H1 'D(-1JFJ D3F) 2002 . () 'DE'/) 21 EF 'D/3*H1 'D(-1JFJ D3F) 2002 . () /.E',/ 'D-DH  'DB'FHF 'D/3*H1J  1993  (  E  5406-408 . () /.E-E/ 'D7J( 9(/ 'DD7JA  F8'E 'D*1.J5 H'D%.7'1 AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE51J  /1'3) EB'1F)  E7(9) /'1 'D*#DJA  1957  592 AJ 'FCD*1' *9/ -1J) 'D3A1 H'D*FBD EF 'D-1J'* 'D'3'3J) J*E*9 (G' 'DEH'7F 'D'F,DJ2J 'D0J DG 'F JF*BD /'.D 'D(D'/ H'F J:'/1G' HB*E' J4'! HGJ DJ3* -1J) B'&E) (-/ 0'*G' H'FE' ,2! EF 'DB'FHF 'D9'E 'D3'&/ 0DC 'DB'FHF 'D0J ,'! E$J/'K D9'/'* 'D49( 'DE*#5D) AJG  H(0DC AGH -B EB11 (71JB 'D91A HJ*A19 EFG -1J'* '.1I C-B 'D',*E'9 'D9'E 'D0J J9/ A19 EF -1J) 'D:/H H'D1H'- H-B 'DA1/ AJ E.'7() 'D'.1JF AJ 'D'E'CF 'D9'E). /.E-E/ 'D7J( 9(/ 'DD7JA  E5/1 3'(B  5251== ==H'F81 'J1HF 'DC3F/1  'D/3*H1 'D(1J7'FJ HF8'E 'D-CE AJ E,EH9) 'D#EE 'D(1J7'FJ)  *1,E) HE1',9) E-E/ 'DGE41J  H'.1HF  (-E  (-*  5108 . () /.'-E/ ,'/ EF5H1  'D-E'J) 'DB6'&J) D-BHB 'D'F3'F  '71H-) /C*H1'G  CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 9JF 4E3  1997  5233 . () /.E-E/ '-E/ 9(/ 'D('BJ *DJE)  'D-E'J) 'DB6'&J) DD-1J) 'D4.5J)  '71H-) /C*H1'G  CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  1990  5168 . () /.'-E/ ,'/ EF5H1  E5/1 3'(B  5280-282 . (2) ROBERT (Jacques) , Liberte s publiques et Droits de l Hommes, 1988 , P338 , 340 . (3) ROBERT (Jacques) , op . cit , P354 . () /.'-E/ ,'/ EF5H1  E5/1 3'(B  5283 . () F5 'D/3*H1 'DA1F3J D3F) 1958 9DI '9D'F -'D) 'D7H'1& (5/H1 E13HE EF E,D3 'DH21'!  H'FG D' J,H2 'F *E*/ D'C+1 EF '+FJ 941 JHE'K 'D' ('0F EF 'D(1DE'F  'F81 'DE'/) 36 EF 'D/3*H1 'DA1F3J D3F) 1958 . () /.9(/ 'D-AJ8 'D4(EJ  'DB6'! 'D/3*H1J H-E'J) 'D-1J'* 'D'3'3J) AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE51J H'DA1F3J  2001  5610 . () 'DE5/1 FA3G  5611 . () /.'-E/ ,'/ EF5H1  E5/1 3'(B  5209 . () 'F81 'DE'/*'F 34 H36 EF 'D/3*H1 'DA1F3J D3F) 1958 . () /.E-E/ 'D7J( 9(/ 'DD7JA  E5/1 3'(B  597 . () /.-3F E-E/ GF/ H/. F9JE 97J)  E5/1 3'(B  567-68  H('DE9FI FA3G JF81 : /. '-E/ ,'/ EF5H1  E5/1 3'(B  5239 . () /.'-E/ ,'/ EF5H1  E5/1 3'(B  5239-240 . () /. -3F E-E/ GF/ H/. F9JE 97J)  E5/1 3'(B  5140-141. () 'DE5/1 FA3G  5143. () /.'-E/ ,'/ EF5H1  E5/1 3'(B  5289 . () /.F9JE 97J)  'DEF9 EF 'D3A1  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  (-*  560 HE' (9/G'  H('DE9FI FA3G JF81 /.-3F E-E/ GF/ H/. F9JE 97J)  E5/1 3'(B  5114-120 . () /.'-E/ ,'/ EF5H1  E5/1 3'(B  5260 . () E5'/1) -B 'D*FBD & E3$HDJ) EF  'DEF8E) 'DE51J) D-BHB 'D'F3'F  52  FBD'K 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F*  HYPERLINK "http://www.eohr.org/ar/report/2006/re/0223.shtml" http://www.eohr.org/ar/report/2006/re/0223.shtml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http://www.islamonline.net/" http://www.Islamonline.net . () 'DE'/) 5 / A +'FJ'K EF B'FHF 'D/A'9 9F 'D3D'E) 'DH7FJ) 1BE 1 D3F) 2004 . () /.EH1J3 /A1,JG  'DE$33'* 'D3J'3J) H'DB'FHF 'D/3*H1J  *1,E) /.,H1, 39/  'DE$33) 'D,'E9J) DD7('9) H'DF41  (J1H*  1992  5143 H('DE9FI FA3G JF81 /.A'1HB '-E/ .E@@@@@'3  == ==E-CE) 'DB6'! 'D'/'1J AJ 6H! 'DB'FHF 1BE 106 D3F) 1989  E,D) 'D9DHE 'DB'FHFJ) 'DE,D/ 9  'D9// 2  1990  5220-221 . 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