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hilippe kahn , La convention de vienne dull avril 1980 sur le contrats de vente international de marchandises , Revue , International dedroit , compare , 1981. Vincent Heuze, la Vente international de marchanesis, droit Uniform, GLN, Joly Editions, 1992. Karl Neumayer & Cotherine ming, Convention de Vienne sur les Contrats de vente commentaire, cedidac, 24, Lausanne, 1993. .'E3'N : 'DE,D'* 'DB'FHFJ) : /. E-3F 4AJB , '*A'BJ'* D'G'J D9'E 1964 (4'F 'D(J9 'D/HDJ DDEFBHD'* 'DE'/J) (/1'3) AJ B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'D/HDJ)), E,D) 'DB'FHF H'D'B*5'/, 'DB3E 'D+'FJ, 'D9// 'D1'(9, 'D3F) 'D1'(9) H'D'1(9HF, C'FHF 'D'HD, 1974. 3'/3'N : 'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) : '*A'BJ) 'D'EE 'DE*-/) (AJJF') 1980 (4'F 9BH/ 'D(J9 'D/HDJ DD(6'&9. '*A'BJ) D'G'J 1964 }'DB'FHF 'DEH-/ DD(J9 'D/HDJ DDEFBHD'* 'DE'/J) ((6'&9){  FBD' 9F /. 16' 9(J/, 'D'D*2'E ('D*3DJE AJ 'DB'FHF 'DEH-/ DD(J9 'D/HDJ DD(6'&9, '71H-) /C*H1'G EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'D-BHB, ,'E9) 'DB'G1), 1979. 3'(9'N : 'DH+'&B : 'DE0C1) 'D*A3J1J) 'D5'/1) 9F 'E'F) 'D'F3*1'D -HD '*A'BJ) 'D'EE 'DE*-/) (4'F 9BH/ 'D(J9 'D/HDJ DD(6'&9, B'E ('9/'/G' D,F) 'D'EE 'DE*-/) DDB'FHF 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ, EF4H1'* 'D'EE 'DE*-/), 2001. +'EF'N: EH'B9 'D'F*1FJ* : 1- http//:www.lac.co.jo/research2.htm. 2- http//:www.Syrianlaw.com/study/7.htm. 3- http//:www.Cisg.Law.Pace.edu/cisgarabic/middleast. 4- http//:www.Csmail.Law.Pace.Edu/cisgarabic/middleast/reservations/ countries. htm. (1) HJ$J/ 0DC 'DE'/) (30) EF '*A'BJ) AJJF' H*B'(DG' 'DE'/) (18) EF '*A'BJ) D'G'J  HC0DC 'DE'/) (50) EF '*A'BJ) AJJF' H*B'(DG' 'DE'/) (46) EF '*A'BJ) D'G'J  1',9 - Philippe Kahn, La Convention de Vienne dull avril 1980 sur le Contrats de Vente international de marchandises, Revue internationale de Droit Compare, 1981, p 954. (1) DDE2J/ (4#F 'D/HD 'DEF6E) 'DI '*A'BJ*J D'G'J 1964 1',9 :- - Vincent Heuze, la Vente international de Marchanesis, droit Uniform, GLN, Joly Editions, 1992, p 77. (2) 'D'7'1 'DB'FHFJ D9B/ 'D*5/J1  (-+ EF4H1 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* 9DI 'D9FH'F 'D"*J :- http:// www. Syrian law, com/ study/ 7. htm. (3) HEF 'D/HD 'D91(J) 'DEF6E) 'DI '*A'BJ) AJJF' 1980: 'D91'B HE51 H3H1J' HEH1J*'FJ' HB/ '5(- 9// 'D/HD 'DEF6E) 'DI 'D'*A'BJ) D:'J) 20 "( 1999 (57) /HD)  1',9 (4#F '3E'! 'D/HD 'DEF6E) 'DI '*A'BJ) AJJF' 'DB'&E) 'DED-B) ('DC*'( 'D"*J :- - Karl Neumayer & Cotherine ming, Convention de Vienne Sur les Contrats de vente Commentaire, Cedidac, 24, Lausanne, 1993. HC0DC 1',9 EHB9 E1C2 'D41B 'D'H37 DDB'FHF 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* :- www. Cisg. Law. Pace. Edu/cisgarabic/ middleast. H9FH'F 'DEDA 'D0J J-*HJ 9DI G0' 'DEH6H9 GH :- http://www.Csmail.Law.Pace.Edu/cisgarabic/middleast/reservations/countries.htm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http:www.Iac.Co. Jo/ research2. htm (1) 'D'3*5F'9 9B/ EB'HD) E9 #GD 'D5F9) 9DI 'F J9ED 4J&'K A'D9'ED 5'F9 H'DE4*1J E3*5F9 H'D4J! E5FH9  1',9 'DE'/) (124) EF E,D) 'D#-C'E 'D9/DJ). (2) *F5 'DE'/) (865) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 1BE (40) D3F) 1951 9DI 'FG :- #. J,H2 'F JB*51 'DEB'HD 9DI 'D*9G/ (*B/JE 9EDG 9DI 'F JB/E 1( 'D9ED 'DE'/) 'D*J J3*./EG' 'DEB'HD 'H J3*9JF (G' AJ 'DBJ'E (9EDG HJCHF 'DEB'HD #,J1' E4*1C'K. (. CE' J,H2 'F J*9G/ 'DEB'HD (*B/JE 'D9ED H'DE'/) E9'K HJCHF 'D9B/ '3*5F'9'K). 'E' 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J 1BE (131) D3F) 1948 AB/ ,'! AJ 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (647) EFG E4'(G'K DF5 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (865) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ  H(E' 'F 'DB'FHF 'DE51J J9*(1 E5/1'K *'1J.J'K DDB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ A'FG '3*BI EFG 0DC 'DF5. (3) /. ,9A1 'DA6DJ  'DH,J2 AJ 'D9BH/ 'DE/FJ) ('D(J9 H'D%J,'1 H'DEB'HD)) (/1'3) AJ 6H! 'D*7H1 'DB'FHFJ HE922) ('DB1'1'* 'DB6'&J))  E7(9) ,'E9) 'DEH5D  'D7(9) 'D+'FJ)  EFB-) HE2J/)  2005  527 HC0DC /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  'D9BH/ 'D*J *B9 9DI 'DEDCJ)  'D,2! 'D1'(9  'D(J9 H'DEB'J6)  /'1 'DF41 DD,'E9'* 'DE51J)  'DB'G1)  1960  531. (1) /. E-E/ C'ED E13J  41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D,/J/  'D9BH/ 'DE3E')  /'1 'DF41 DD,'E9'* 'DE51J)  'DB'G1)  1372G@  1953E  5 479. (2) HJB'(DG' 'DE'/) (6) EF '*A'BJ) D'G'J 1964  -J+ *F'HD* G0G 'DE'/) 'D-'D) 'D*J J*AB AJG' 'D71A'F 9DI (J9 (6'9) J*E *5FJ9G' 'H %F*',G'  1',9 /. 16' 9(J/  'D'D*2'E ('D*3DJE AJ 'DB'FHF 'DEH-/ DD(J9 'D/HDJ DD(6'&9  #71H-) /C*H1'G EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  'DB'G1)  1979  5122. (1) /. 9'/D E-E/ .J1  9BH/ 'D(J9 'D/HDJ DD(6'&9 EF .D'D '*A'BJ) AJJF' H,GH/ D,F) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) DB'FHF 'D*,'1) 'D/HDJ UNCITRAL H'D:1A) 'D*,'1J) 'D/HDJ) ICC  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'D7(9) 'D#HDI  'DB'G1)  1994  542. (2) 'D*H1J/ 9B/ JD*2E (EH,(G 4.5 (*2HJ/ 4.5 ".1 ('D('&9) ('D(6'&9 H'D#EH'D 'DEFBHD) 'D*J J*',1 (G'  -J+ JD*2E 'DEH1/JF #J 'D#4.'5 'D0JF J*9'B/ E9GE 'D('&9 (*,GJ2 E41H9G 'D*,'1J ('D(6'&9 9DI /A9'* E**'(9) .D'D A*1) 2EFJ) DB'! +EF 'H #,1) E*AB 9DJG' CEH1/J 'D#:0J) 'DI 'DE3*4AJ'* HEH1/J 'D,DH/ D5F'9) 'D#D(3) H'D#+'+ H:J1G' DDE2J/ 1',9 /. ('3E E-E/ 5'D-  'DB'FHF 'D*,'1J  'DB3E 'D#HD  'D7(9) 'D#HDI  EF4H1'* /'1 'D-CE)  E7(9) ,'E9) (:/'/  (:/'/  1987  564  HC0DC /. ,E'D E-EH/ 9(/ 'D92J2  'D'D*2'E ('DE7'(B) AJ 9B/ 'D(J9 'D/HDJ DD(6'&9  13'D) /C*H1'G  EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  'DB'G1)  1996  1997  5351. (3) 'DE0C1) 'D*A3J1J) 'D5'/1) 9F #E'F) 'D'F3*1'D -HD '*A'BJ) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) (4'F 9BH/ 'D(J9 'D/HDJ DD(6'&9  B'E* (%9/'/G' D,F) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) DDB'FHF 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ  EF4H1'* 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  2001  534. (1) /. AH2J E-E/ 3'EJ  41- '*A'BJ) 'D'EE 'DE*-/) (4#F 9BH/ 'D(J9 'D/HDJ DD(6'&9  E-'61'* 'DBJ* 9DI 7D() 'D/C*H1'G AJ 'DB'FHF 'D.'5  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) (:/'/  1991  1992 (:J1 EF4H1))  5 20. (2) /. 9'/D E-E/ .J1  E5/1 3'(B  542 (EF 'DG'E4). (1) une part essentielle des elements. () substantial part. (3) /. +1H* -(J(  E5/1 3'(B  5227 HC0DC /. E-EH/ 3EJ1 'D41B'HJ  'D9BH/ 'D*,'1J) 'D/HDJ)  /1'3) .'5) D9B/ 'D(J9 'D/HDJ DD(6'&9  'D7(9) 'D+'FJ)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2002  563  HC0DC : philippe kahn , OP. Cit, p 954. 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