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'DFB6  EF4#) 'DE9'1A ('D'3CF/1J)  2004 . /. #FH1 3D7'F  'DEH,2 AJ 'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD'D*2'E  #-C'E 'D'D*2'E  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J) DD7('9) H'DF41  (J1H*  1972 . 'DE3*4'1 #FH1 7D(G  'DH3J7 AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  ,1  (/HF 3F) 7(9 . /. '3E'9JD :'FE  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD'D*2'E  #-C'E 'D'D*2'E H'D'+('*  ,1  EC*() 9(/ 'DDG HG(G  E51  1967 . /. (1G'E E-E/ 97' 'DDG  9B/ 'D(J9  E$33) 'D+B'A) 'D,'E9J) ('D'3CF/1J)  1983. /. *HAJB -3F A1,  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD'D*2'E  #-C'E 'D'D*2'E  ,2  E$33) 'D+B'A) 'D,'E9J)  1978 . /. ,D'D 9DJ 'D9/HJ  #-C'E 'D'D*2'E  /1'3) EB'1F) AJ 'DB'FHFJF 'DE51J H'DD(F'FJ  'D/'1 'D,'E9J)  1985 . /. -3'E 'D/JF 'D'GH'FJ  9B/ 'D(J9  71  'DB'G1)  1989 . /. -3F 9DJ 'D0FHF  41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ  #-C'E 'D'D*2'E  ,2  E7(9) 'DE9'1A  (:/'/  1952 . 'D9D'E) 2JF 'D/JF (F F,JE 'D-FAJ  'D(-1 'D1'&B 41- CF2 'D/B'&B  ,5  72  /'1 'DE91A) DD7('9) H'DF41  (J1H*  D(F'F  (/HF 3F) 7(9 . /. 3DJE'F E1B5  #-C'E 'D'D*2'E  E7'(9 /'1 'DF41 DD,'E9'* 'DE51J)  'DB'G1)  1957 . 7'1B 2J'/)  #(-'+ B'FHFJ)  EF4H1'* ,1H3  (/HF 3F) 7(9 . 'D'3*'0 9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ  *FAJ0 'D'D*2'E  /1'3) EB'1F)  E7(9) 'D2G1'!  (:/'/  1971 . /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D,/J/  E5'/1 'D'D*2'E  ,1  /'1 'DF41 DD,'E9'* 'DE51J)  'DB'G1)  1952 . /. 9(/ 'D3D'E 0GFJ  'D*#EJF'*  E51  E7(9) 'D'9*E'/  (/HF F) 7(9 . /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE H'D'3*'0 9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J H'D'3*'0 'DE3'9/ E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  #-C'E 'D'D*2'E  ,2  /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H'DF41  1980 . /. 9(/ 'DEF9E 'D(/1'HJ  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD'D*2'E'*  ,2  #-C'E 'D'D*2'E  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  (J1H*  (/HF 3F) 7(9 . CE'D 'D/JF E-E/ (F 9(/ 'DH'-/ 'DE91HA (#(F 'DGE'E 'D-FAJ  41- A*- 'DB/J1  ,5  71  'DE7(9) 'D#EJ1J)  1316G@ . /. CE'D +1H* 'DHF/'HJ  41- #-C'E 9B/ 'D(J9  /1'3) EB'1F) E9 E,EH9) EF 'D*41J9'* 'D91(J) H'D#,F(J)  E7(9) /'1 'D3D'E  71  (:/'/  1973 . /. E-E/ -3F 9(/ 'D1-EF  H3'&D ',('1 'DE/JF 9DI 'DHA'! (/JFG  /1'3) EB'1F)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1997 . /. E-E/ 3DJE'F 'D'-E/  'DE/.D D/1'3) 'D6E'F  /1'3) *-DJDJ) EB'1F)  'D-'E/ DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  'D'1/F  71  2002 . 'D'3*'0 'DE3'9/ E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  'DH,J2 AJ 'D-BHB 'D9JFJ) 'D*(9J)  73  /'1 'D-1J) DD7('9)  (:/'/  1974 . /. E-E/ 9DJ 91AG  41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D,/J/ AJ 'D*#EJF  'D5D-  'DH/J9)  E7(9) A$'/ 'D#HD  'DB'G1)  1949 . /. E57AI #-E/ 'D21B'  41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D3H1J  'D9BH/ 'DE3E')  9B/ 'D(J9 H'DEB'J6)  76  /E4B  1965 . /. EF5H1 E57AI EF5H1  F81J 'D-DHD 'D9JFJ H*7(JB'*G' AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE51J  #71H-) /C*H1'G B/E* %DI CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  1956 . 26. PHILIPPE MALAURIE-LAURENT Dro It Civil, Paris, 1986, p.321. 'DBH'FJF H'D/H1J'* : 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE 40 D3F) 1951 . B'FHF 'DFBD 'D91'BJ 1BE (80) D3F) 1983 . B'FHF 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J) 'D91'BJ 1BE (188) D3F) 1959 . 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J 1BE (131) D3F) 1948 . 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D#1/FJ 1BE (43) D3F) 1976 . 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D,2'&1J D3F) 1975 . 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D3H1J 1BE (84) D3F) 1949 . E,D) 'DB'FHF 'D3H1J)  *5/1G' H2'1) 'D9/D  'D#9/'/ : (5-10)  'D3F) 32  1982  5191 . () J7DB 9DI -B 'D-(3 DD6E'F (EDC 'D*#EJF'* . PHILIPPE MALAURIE-LAURENT Dro It Civil, Paris, 1986, p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