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hilippe Malaurie, Laurent Aynes, Cours de droit Civil,Tome v1, Les Obliqations, Editions Cuja.Paris,1994. 45. Philippe Malaurie  Laureent Aynes- Pierre-yves autier,les. Contrats Speciaux,Defrenois, Paris,2003. 46. Alain Benabemt, Droit civil, Montchestien, Paris, 1991. () 'D%E'E E-E/ %3E'9JD 'D5F9'FJ  41- 3(D 'D3D'E EF ,E9 #/D) 'D#-C'E  3  71  EC*() 'D5A'  'DB'G1)  2005  5132. () 'D%E'E E-E/ (F 14/ 'DB17(J  (/'J) 'DE,*G/ HFG'J) 'DEB*5/  ,2  76  /'1 'DE91A)  (J1H*  1982  53 . () 'D%E'E E-E/ %3E'9JD 'D5F9'FJ  E5/1 3'(B  5134-137  'D-/J+ E9 41-G HDE F0C1 'D-/J+ ('DC'ED *,F('K DD%3G'(. () 'D%E'E E-EH/ 4D*H*  'DA*'HI  78  /'1 'D41HB  'DB'G1)  1975  5 255 . () /. '-E/ 'DC(J3J  'D#-H'D 'D4.5J) AJ 'DABG H'DB6'! H'DB'FHF  ,1  E7(9) 'D%14'/  (:/'/  1973  5 39 . () /. E57AI %(1'GJE 'D2DEJ  EB*1-'* D*9/JD B'FHF 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J) 'D91'BJ 1BE (188) D3F) 1959  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) CDJ) 5/'E DD-BHB  'DE,D/ 5  'D9// 7 "0'1 2001 ,'E9) 5/'E  (:/'/  2001  56. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  ,1  /'1 'DF41 DD,'E9'* 'DE51J)  'DB'G1)  1952  5255 . () *F81 'DE'/) (612) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 1BE 40 D3F) 1951 'DE9/D 'DF'A0. () *F81 'DE'/) (623) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ . () *F81 'DE'/) (19/3) EF B'FHF 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J) 'D91'BJ 1BE 188 D3F) 1959 'DE9/D 'DF'A0. () /0 E57AI %(1'GJE 'D2DEJ  E5/1 3'(B  57. () *F81 'DE'/) (216) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ . () *F81 'DE'/) (6) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ . () /. '-E/ 'DC(J3J  E5/1 3'(B  5 46 . () EFG' 'D.7(  (A*- 'D.'! - : "'D4#F #H 'D#E1  5:1 #H 98E  HBJD : GH 3(( 'D#E1 . JB'D: E' .7(C  #J E' #E1C  H*BHD : G0' .7( ,DJD  H.7( J3J1 . H'D.7(: 'D#E1 'D0J *B9 AJG 'DE.'7() & H'D.7'(  (C31 'D.'!  H'D.'7() : E1',9) 'DCD'E  HB/ .'7(G ('DCD'E E.'7() H.7'('K  HGE' J*.'7('F & H'D.7() E5/1 'D.7J(  H.7( 'D.'7( 9DI 'DEF(1  H'.*7( J.7( .7'() & H1,D .7J( : -3F 'D.7()  H,E9 'D.7J( .7('R ". DE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD JF81 '(F EF8H1  D3'F 'D91( 'DE-J7  'DE,D/ 'D#HD  E'/) (.7()  (J1H*  /HF 3F) 7(9  5 855 . () 9F '(F 9E1 B'D: B'D 13HD 'DDG 5DI 'DDG 9DJG H3DE: "D' J.7( #-/CE 9DI .7() #.JG HD' J(J9 9DI (J9 #.JG %D' (%0FG". 1H'G 'D(.'1J HE3DE  'D%E'E #(J /'H/ 3DJE'F 'D3,33*'FJ  3FF #(J /'H/ 'DE3EI 'D3FF  71  41C) /'1 'D#1BE (F #(J 'D#1BE DD7('9) H'DF41  (J1H*  1999  5483. () '(F EF8H1  E5/1 3'(B  5 855 . () 'D%E'E #(H (C1 'D1'2J 'D,5'5  #-C'E 'DB1'F  ,1  71  /'1 'DC*'( 'D91(J  (J1H*  /HF 3F) 7(9  5 422 . () /. '-E/ 9DJ 'D.7J(  /. -E/ 'DC(J3J  /. E-E/ 9('3 'D3'E1'&J  41- B'FHF 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J)  71  E7'(9 ,'E9) (:/'/  (:/'/  1980  524. () 9('3 'D,EJDJ  'DE14/ %DI 'D#-C'E 'D,9A1J) AJ 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J)  ,1  71  /'1 'D%-J'! DDC*( 'D%3D'EJ)  E7(9) 'DF9E'F  'DF,A  1958  5 11 . () 1H'G 'D*1E0J  C*'( 'DFC'-  ('((5)  -/J+(1087)  ,3  /'1 'DC*( 'D91(J)  (J1H*  1980  5397. () /. E-E/ 9(/ 'D92J2 9E1H  'D9/HD 9F 'D.7() H"+'1G 9F/ 'DABG'! 'DB/'EI H'DE-/+JF  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) /1'3'* ('D41J9) H'DB'FHF)  *5/1 9F 9E'/) 'D(-+ 'D9DEJ 'D,'E9) 'D#1/FJ)  E,D/ 16  9// 10  9E'F  1989  5 30-31. () B'FHF 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J) 'D#1/FJ 1BE 61 D3F) 1976 'DE9/D (EH,( 'DB'FHF 'DE9/D 1BE 82 D3F) 2001. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D4J. F,J(  7(J9) 'D.7() AJ 1$J) ABGJ) ,/J/)  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'D-BHB  *5/1G' ,'E9) 'DCHJ*  'D9// 'D#HD  'D3F) 'D.'E3) H'D941HF  'DCHJ*  "0'1 2001  5342. () /. A*-J 'D/1JFJ  'DABG 'D%3D'EJ 'DEB'1F E9 'DE0'G(  75  ,'E9) /E4B  /E4B  1996-1997  5676. () /. #-E/ A1', -3JF  'DEDCJ) HF81J) 'D9B/ AJ 'D41J9) 'D%3D'EJ)  'D/'1 'D,'E9J)  (J1H*  1986  5132. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  E5'/1 'D-B AJ 'DABG 'D%3D'EJ  /'1 'DE9'1A  E51  1967  5 45. () E57AI '-E/ 'D21B'!  'DABG 'D%3D'EJ AJ +H(G 'D,/J/  ,2  7 10 E7(9) 71(JF  /E4B  1968 51029. () /. #-E/ A1', -3JF  E5/1 3'(B 5132-133. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  E5'/1 'D-B AJ 'DABG 'D%3D'EJ  E5/1 3'(B  545. () /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE  9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  'DH,J2 AJ F81J) 'D'D*2'E AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ  ,1  E5'/1 'D'D*2'E  E7(9) ,'E9) (:/'/  1986  5 49. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  E5/1 3'(B  5 251. () /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE  9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  E5/1 3'(@@@@B  5 49-50 . () *B'(DG' 'DE'/) (105/2) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D#1/FJ 1BE 43 D3F) 1976. () /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE  9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  E5/1 3'(B  550. () *F81 'DE'/) (603/1) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  E5/1 3'(B  5 257. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DE5/1 FA3G  5 257. () /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE  9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  E5/1 3'(B  5 52. () /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE  9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  'DE5/1 FA3G  5 52. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  E5/1 3'(B  5 258. () /. #-E/ 9DJ 'D.7J(  /. -E/ 9(J/ 'DC(J3J  /. E-E/ 9('3 'D3'E1'&J  E5/1 3'(B  525. () 3H1) 'D(B1) 'D"J) (235). () 3H1) 'D(B1) 'D"J) (235). () 3H1) 'D(B1) 'D"J) (235). () "B'D '(F 9('3 'D*916 ('D.7() #F JBHD DG' #FJ #1J/ #F #*2H, 'E1#) EF #E1G' H#E1G' J916 DG' ('DBHD HB'D 'D-3F #F JBHD DG' #FJ (C DE9,( H#FJ AJC D1':( HD' *AH*JF' FA3C HB'D 5DI 'DDG 9DJG H3DE DA'7E) (F* BJ3 HGJ AJ 'D9/) D' *AH*JF' (FA3C +E .7(G' (9/ 'FB6'! 'D9/) 9DI #3'E) (F 2J/" DE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD JF81 'D%E'E 'D,5'5  E5/1 3'(B  5422. () JF81 5-J- E3DE (,/21BE 1466) 71 /'1 'D.J1 DD7('9) H'DF41 H'D*H2J9  /E4B-(J1H*  2003 5620. () 3H1) 'DFH1 'D"J*'F (30-31). () #.1,G #-E/ (3/334 H 360) H#(H /'H/(2082) H'D-'CE  H'D7E'HJ  H'D(JGBJ  H3F/G -3F  DE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD JF81 : 9E1H 9(/ 'DEF9E 3DJE  "/'( 'D.7() H'D2A'A EF 'DC*'( H5-J- #D3FG 71  EC*() 'D%JE'F ('DEF5H1)  'DB'G1) 2000. 5 9. () #-E/ (F 9DJ (F -,1 'D93BD'FJ  A*- 'D('1J AJ 41- 5-J- 'D(.'1J  /'1 'DC*( 'D9DEJ)  (J1H*  1989  (3/373). () #-E/ (F 9DJ (F -,1 'D93BD'FJ  'DE5/1 FA3G (3/373). () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  E5'/1 'D-B AJ 'DABG 'D%3D'EJ  E5/1 3'(B  545. () /. E-EH/ 'D31 7'HJ  41- B'FHF 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J) 'D#1/FJ  'DB3E 'D#HD  9B/ 'D2H', H"+'1G  71  /'1 'D9/HJ DD7('9) H'DF41 H'D*H2J9  1981 522. () 3H1) 'D(B1) 'D"J) (235). () 9D'! 'D/JF .1HAG  41- B'FHF 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J) 'D91'BJ  1BE 188 D3F) 1959 ,1  E7(9) 'D9'FJ  (:/'/  1962  599. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 ,1  E5/1 3'(B  5 827. () /. #-E/ A1', -3JF  E5/1 3'(B  5133-134. () 3H1) 'D%31'! 'D"J) (34). () 3H1) 'DE'&/) 'D"J) (1). () #.1,G 'D%E'E #-E/ 9F 9('/) (F 'D5'E*  AJ E3F/G  ,5  5323. () #.1,G 'D(.'1J  C*'( 'D%JE'F  ,1  ('( ( 24 ) /'1 'D,DJD  (J1H*  515. () /. #C1E J'EDCJ  /. A'&B 'D4E'9  'DB'FHF 'D*,'1J  E7'(9 ,'E9) 'DEH5D  EH5D  1980  534. () #.1,G 'D(.'1J  'D('1J AJ 5-J- 'D(.'1J  E5/1 3'(B  ( A*- 3/373). () 'D%E'E E-EH/ 4D*H*  E5/1 3'(B 5260. () 3H1) 'D%31'! 'D"J) (34). () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D4J. F,J(  E5/1 3'(B  5357. () /. -3F 9DJ #D0 FHF  'DE(3H7 AJ 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ)  'D611  ,1  41C) #D*' JE3 DD7(9 H'DF41 'DE3'GE)  (:/'/  1991  589-90. () *F81 'DE'/) (106) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D#1/FJ. () E41H9 B'FHF 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J) 'DEH-/ DD%BDJEJF 'DE51J H'D3H1J AJ 9G/ 'DH-/) (JFGE' 71  /'1 'DBDE  /E4B  /'1 'D4'EJ)  (J1H*  1996 546. () *F81 'DE'/) ( 91) E/FJ 91'BJ  H'DE'/) (105) E/FJ #1/FJ. () *F81 'DE'/) (91/1) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ  H'DE'/) (105/1) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D#1/FJ. () ,H 31'F  41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  - A 740  HJF81 #-C'E 9/J/) DD%FG'! 'DE*93A DD.7() AJ (+H1FH) A 1004  FBD'K 9F -3F 9DJ 'D0FHF  E5/1 3'(B  579-80. () 3'A'*JJG  'DE3$HDJ)  A122  FBD'K 9F /. -3F 9DJ 'D0FHF  'DE5/1 FA3G  580. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7  ,1  E5/1 3'(B 5827. () B1'1 E-CE) 'DFB6 'DE51J)  28/4/1960  E FB6  11-359  H(FA3 'DE9FI AJ 12/11/1962-E FB6 E-3-1038  24/12/1939-E B E  10-118  E-E/ CE'D 9(/ 'D92J2  'D*BFJF 'DE/FJ AJ 6H! 'DB6'! H'DABG  EC*() 'DB'G1) 'D-/J+)  'DB'G1)  /HF 3F) 7(9 5 155. () B1'1 E-CE) 'D%3CF/1J) 'DCDJ) AJ 29/11/1948 'D,/HD 'D941J 'D+'D+ DE,D) 'DE-'E') 597  FBD' 9F /. -3F 9DJ 'D0FHF  E5/1 3'(B 583. () /. 9(/'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7  ,1  E5/1 3'(B  5830. () B1'1 E-CE) '3*&F'A (FJ 3HJA  /'&1) "DEJF'- ,D3)2/3/65. '3*&F'A 185/2B  5'D- -FAJ  B6'! 'D#-H'D 'D4.5J) FA3'K HE'D'K  /'1 'DC'*( 'D91(J DD7('9) H'DF41  'DB'G1)  /HF 3F) 7(9  5118. () B1'1 E-CE) '3*&F'A 7F7' AJ 19/3/1975 '3*&F'A 1BE 29/6B #-H'D 4.5J)  5'D- -FAJ  'DE5/1 FA3G  5118. () B1'1 E-CE) 'DFB6 'DE51J) AJ 15/11/1962  'D79F 1BE 174 D3F) 27 'DB6'&J)  5'D- -FAJ 'DE5/1 FA3G  5 118. () B1'1 E-CE) 'DFB6 'DE51J) 1BE 438/25B  FB6 AJ 28/4/1960  5'D- -FAJ  'DE5/1 FA3G 5117. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D4J. F,J(  E5/1 3'(B  5381. () *B'(DG' 'DE'/) 100/1) E/FJ #1/FJ  H'DE'/) (95) E/FJ E51J. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7  ,1  E5/1 3'(B  G'E4 549. () /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE  9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  E5/1 3'(B  549. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7  ,1  E5/1 3'(B  5251. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 4J. F,J(  E5/1 3'(B  5 360. () larroumel (Ch) Droit Civil. Tome 111. Hconomica. 1990. P.264. FBD' 9F /. 9(/ 'D12'B 4J. F,J(  'DE5/1 FA3G 5 361. ()Philippe Malaurie  Laureent Aynes- Pierre-yves Gautier, les Contrats Speciaux,Defrenois, Paris,2003, P. 72. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 4J. F,J(  E5/1 3'(B  5 361. () Philippe Malaurie, Laurent Aynes, Cours de droit Civil,Tome v1, Les Obliqations, Editions Cuja Paris,1994,P. 196-200. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D4J. F,J(  E5/1 3'(B  5362. () /. #-E/ 'DC(J3J  E5/1 3'(B  536. () E57AI #-E/ 'D21B'!  'DABG 'D%3D'EJ AJ +H(G 'D,/J/ ,1  'DE/.D 'DABGJ 'D9'E  79 EFB-) HE2J/)  E7'(9 'DA ('!  'D#/J(  /E4B  1967-1968  5292. () /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE  9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  E5/1 3'(B 5 38. () *B'(DG' 'DE'/) (98) E/FJ #1/FJ H'D*J *F5 9DI #FG "%0' 9JF EJ9'/ DDB(HD 'D*2E ('D(B'! 9DI %J,'(G %DI #F JFB6J G0' 'DEJ9'/". () Alain Benabemt, Droit civil, Montchestien, Paris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lain Benabemt. Op. Cit. P. 32. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7  ,1  E5/1 3'(B  5251. () /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE  9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  E5/1 3'(B 552. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7  ,1  E5/1 3'(B  5258. () /. 39/ -3JF 9(/ ED-E  E5/1 3'(B  5 42-43. () /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE  9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J  E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  E5/1 3'(B  538-39. () /. 39/ -3JF 9(/ ED-E  E5/1 3'(B  5 28-29. () B1'1 E-CE) '3*&F'A 7F7' AJ 19/3/1957  '3*&F'A 1BE 29/6  %9/'/ 5'D- -FAJ  E5/1 3'(B  5118. () /. E-E/ CE'D 'D/JF %E'E  'D2H', H'D7D'B AJ 'DABG 'D%3D'EJ  71  'DE$33) 'D,'E9J) DD/1'3'* H'DF41 H'D*H2J9  (J1H*  1996  540. () /. E-E/ CE'D 'D/JF %E'E  'DE5/1 FA3G  541. () B1'1 E-CE) '3*&F'A (FJ 3HJA  ,D3) 2/3/65 '3*&F'A185/2B  5'D- -FAJ  E5/1 3'(B  5119. () /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D4J. F,J(  E5/1 3'(B  5371. () B1'1 E-CE) 3HG', 'DCDJ) 'DH7FJ) AJ 30/5/1948 'DE-'E') 28 1BE 434 5 1056  FBD'K 9F /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 ,1  E5/1 3'(B  5829 G'E42. () B1'1 E-CE) 3HG', 'DCDJ) 'DH7FJ)  *CED) 'DB1'1 FA3G #9D'G. () /. -3F 9DJ #D0 FHF  E5/1 3'(B  548. 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