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eorges Ripert, Droit Commercial, L. G. D. J. Paris. Jean Clauds, Grosliere Escompte, Reportere de, Droit Commercial, Dalloze, 31/aout, 1998. Jean Louis Rives Lange, et Monique, Contamine-Raynaud, 4 eme edition, Dalloze, Paris, 1986. 3'(9'K. EH'B9 'D%F*1F* :  HYPERLINK http://www.al www.al baraka. Com/resource Fatawi, Commercial doc 4.htm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() J91A 'DE419 'D91'BJ 'D.5E AJ 'DE'/) 283 / A1 EF B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0 1BE 3 D3F) 1984 (#FG ('*A'B J*9G/ 'DE51A (EB*6'G (#F J/A9 EB/E'K BJE) H1B) *,'1J) H#J E3*F/ ".1 B'(D DD*/'HD %DI 'DE3*AJ/ EB'(D FBD EDCJ*G %DI 'DE51A E9 'D*2'E 'DE3*AJ/ (1/ 'DBJE) %DI 'DE51A %0' DE J/A9G' 'DE/JF 'D#5DJ  #E' 'DE419 'DE51J A%FG J91QA 'D.5E AJ 'DE'/) / 351 / A1 EF B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'DE51J 'D,/J/ 1BE 17 D3F) 1999 (#FG : ('*A'B J*9G/ 'DE51A (EB*6'G (#F J/A9 EB/E'K BJE) 5C B'(D DD*/'HD %DI 'DE3*AJ/ AJ 'D5C EB'(D FBD EDCJ*G %DI 'D(FC E9 'D*2'E 'DE3*AJ/ (1/ 'DBJE) 'D'3EJ) %DI 'D(FC %0' DE J/A9G' 'DE/JF 'D#5DJ  AJ -JF #F 'DE419 'D%E'1'*J J91A 'D.5E AJ 'DE'/) / 440 / A1 EF B'FHF 'DE9'ED'* 'D*,'1J) D/HD) 'D%E'1'* 'D91(J) 'DE*-/) 1BE 18 D3F) 1993 (#FG ('*A'B J*9G/ 'DE51A (EB*6'G (#F J/A9 EB/E'K BJE) H1B) *,'1J) %DI 'DE3*AJ/ EFG' EB'(D FBD EDCJ*G' %DI 'DE51A)  == == #E' 'DE419 'DE:1(J A%FG J91A G0G 'D9EDJ) AJ 'DE'/) / 526 EF E/HF) 'D*,'1) 'DE:1(J) D9'E 1996 (#FG (9B/ *D*2E (EB*6'G 'DE$33) 'D(FCJ) (#F */A9 DD-'ED B(D 'D#H'F EB'(D *AHJ*G DG' E(D: #H1'B *,'1J) #H :J1G' EF 'DE3*F/'* 'DB'(D) DD*/'HD 'D*J J-D #,D /A9G' AJ *'1J. E9JF 9DI #F JD2E (1/ BJE*G' %0' DE JAP (G' 'DED*2E 'D#5DJ)  #E' 'DE'/) / 743 EF 'DE,D) 'D*,'1J) 'D*HF3J) 1BE 129 D3F) 1959 A*91A 'D.5E (#FG (9B/ JD*2E 5J1AJ (EB*6'G (#F J/A9 3DA'K E(D: #H1'B *,'1J) #H :J1G' EF 'D3F/'* 'DB'(D) DD*/'HD J-D #,D /A9G' AJ *'1J. E9JF HJ3DEG' DG 'D-'ED E9 *-EDG D#/'! BJE*G' %0' DE JHAP (G' 'DED*2E 'D#5DJ AJG')  #E' 'DE419 'D#1/FJ A%FG F8QE (96 9EDJ'* 'D(FHC AJ 'D('( 'D.'E3 EF 'D('( 'D+'FJ EF B'FHF 'D*,'1) 1BE 12 D3F) 1966 HDE JCF EF (JF G0G 'D9EDJ'* 9EDJ) 'D.5E  %0 #F 'DE'/) / 122 EFG *-JD (4#FG' H(4#F CD 'D9EDJ'* 'DE51AJ) 'D*J DE *F8E AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE0CH1 %DI #-C'E 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ . () #F81 AJ G0' 'D'*,'G : /. 9(/'DA6JD E-E/ #-E/  'D9BH/ 'D*,'1J) H9EDJ'* 'D(FHC 7(B'K D#-C'E B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'DE51J 1BE 17 D3F) 1999  'DEF5H1)  E51  2001  5 344 (F/ 269  C0DC /. EE/H- 'D14J/'*  E-'61'* AJ 'D*41J9'* 'DE'DJ) H'DE51AJ)  9E'F  2001  5 227  C0DC /. E-E/ -3F 'D,(1  'D9BH/ 'D*,'1J) H9EDJ'* 'D(FHC AJ 'DEEDC) 'D91(J) 'D39H/J)  'D1J'6  (/HF 3F) 7(9  5 333 (F/ 237  C0DC /. 9DJ 'D('1H/J  'D9BH/ H9EDJ'* 'D(FHC 'D*,'1J)  EF4#) 'DE9'1A ('D'3CF/1J)  (/HF 3F) 7(9  5 399  (F/ 277  C0DC /. 9(/'D92J2 .DJD %(1'GJE (/JHJ  'D#F8E) 'D*,'1J) H'D(-1J) 'D39H/J) ('D#9E'D 'D*,'1J)  'D*',1  'D41C'* 'D*,'1J)  'D#H1'B 'D*,'1J)  9EDJ'* 'D(FHC)  /'1 'DAC1 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  /HF 3F) 7(9  5 270-271  C0DC : == == Jean Louis Rives Lange, et Monique, Contamine-Raynaud, 4 eme edition, Dalloze, Paris, 1986, P. 507, No. 384. Georges Ripert, Droit Commercial, L. G. D. J. Paris. P. 329, No. 2394. () #F81 : /. 9DJ ,E'D 'D/JF 9H6  9EDJ'* 'D(FHC EF 'DH,G) 'DB'FHFJ)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  1981  5 592  (F/ 584  C0DC : Jean Clauds, Grosliere Escompte, Reportere de, Droit Commercial, Dalloze, 31/aout, 1998, P. 2, No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amel  #F81 : JeanClauds, Grosliere, Escompt, Op. Cit., No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erronniere J. Chilaze E.)  #F81 AJ G0' 'D5// : Jean Clauds Grosulere , Escompte, Op. Cit., P. 2, No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arto Tejoling, Terrel "H." , et Lejeune (H.) H (Greco) AJ %J7'DJ'  H*E* 'D%4'1) %DI "1'&GE D/I : /. JH3A J9BH( 51.H)  9EDJ'* 'D(FHC EF 'DH,G) 'DB'FHFJ)  71  'DCHJ*  1988  5 147  C0DC : /. 92J2 'D9CJDJ  41- 'DB'FHF 'D*,'1J  ,@2  ('D#H1'B 'D*,'1J)  9EDJ'* 'D(FHC)  9E'F  2002  5 466  HAJ G0' 'D'*,'G #J6'K : Georges Ripert, Op. Cit., P. 329. C0DC #F81 AJ G0' 'D'*,'G : /. E57AI CE'D 7G  E5/1 3'(B  5 537  (F/ 602  C0DC : /. 9DJ 'D('1H/J  E5/1 3'(B  5 399  (F/ 277  C0DC : /. EE/H- 'D14J/'*  E5/1 3'(B  5 227 . () #F81 : 3'EJ -3F #-E/ E-EH/  E5/1 3'(B  5 284  C0DC : /. 9(/'DDG 9(/'D1-JE 'D9('/J  E5/1 3'(B  5 39 . () H1/* G0G 'DA*HI 9DI 'DEHB9 'D"*J (9FH'F A*'HI 'B*5'/J)  'DE3'&D 'DE3*./E) :  HYPERLINK http://www.al www.al baraka. Com/resource Fatawi, Commercial doc 4.htm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