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ean Roche: Libertes Publiques, 4 edition, Dalloz, 1976 . 2. Jean Pradel: Lindividualisation de La Sanction, essai dun bilan a La veille dun nouveau code penal, R.S.C, 1977. 3. David W. Neubauer: Americas Courts and Criminal Justice System, 5 ed, Wadswarth Publishing Company, 1996. 4. BoSvehssoh: Criminal Justice Systems in Europe, Sweden, 1995. 5. Harvey Wallace, Cliff Robenson: Principles of Criminal Law, Longman Publishers, U.S.A, 1996. 6. Garcon : code penal Annote, T1, Librairie de Recueil Sirey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ean Roche: Libertes Publiques, 4 edition, Dalloz, 1976, p.60. () /. 7D'D 9(/ -3JF 'D(/1'FJ  'D419J) 'D,2'&J)  '71H-) /C*H1'G EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  2002  528 . () /. 'D3J/ E-E/ -3F 41JA  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD'+('* 'D,F'&J  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2002  5375 . () /. 1E3J3 (GF'E  'D,1JE) H'DE,1E H'D,2'!  1976  589 . () /. 7D'D 9(/ -3JF 'D(/1'FJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5170 . () /. '-E/ 4HBJ '(H .7H)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  559. () /. 7D'D 9(/ -3JF 'D(/1'FJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  573 . () /. '-E/ 4HBJ 9E1 '(H .7H)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  576 . () 'F81 F5H5 'DEH'/ (393  396) 9BH('* 91'BJ  HF5 'DE'/) (268) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DE51J 0J 'D1BE (58) D3F) 1937 . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (444/10) 9BH('* 91'BJ  H'DE'/) (251 EC11)) 9BH('* E51J. () 'F81 F5 'DEH'/ (58 59) EF B'FHF 19'J) 'D'-/'+ 'D91'BJ  H'DE'/) (34) EF B'FHF 'D'-/'+ 'DE51J 0J 'D1BE (31) D3F) 1974 . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (60) 9BH('* 91'BJ  H'DE'/) (62) 9BH('* E51J . () 'F81 F5 'DEH'/ (393/2  394/2) 9BH('* 91'BJ  H'DEH'/ (267/2  268) 9BH('* E51J . () /. -3JF ,EJD  -BHB 'D'F3'F H'DB'FHF 'D,F'&J  E1C2 'D(-H+ H'D/1'3'* 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1972  5167 . () 'F81 9DI 3(JD 'DE+'D : 'DEH'/ (247-248) EF B'FHF 'D',1'!'* 'D,F'&J) 'DE51J 'DE1BE (150) D3F) 1950  'DE'/) (220) EF B'FHF 'D',1'!'* 'D,F'&J) 'DDJ(J . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (142) EF B'FHF '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) 'D91'BJ  H'DE'/) (415) EF B'FHF '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) 'D3H1J 'DE1BE (113) D3F) 1950  H'DE'/) (418/2) EF B'FHF '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) 'DD(F'FJ D3F) 1948 . () '0 F5* 'DE'/) 'D'HDI EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) 'D91'BJ 9DI 'FG : (JCHF G0' 'DB'FHF GH 'DE1,9 DC'A) BH'FJF 'DE1'A9'* H'D',1'!'* '0' DE JCF AJG' F5 J*9'16 E9G 51'-)) . () 'F81 F5H5 'DEH'/ (91-96) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) 'D91'BJ . () /. 9(/ 'DA*'- E1'/  'D*-BJB 'D,F'&J 'D9EDJ AJ 'D41J9) 'D'3D'EJ) H'DB'FHF 'DH69J  E$33) 4('( 'D,'E9)  'D'3CF/1J)  1989  5168 . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (144/#) EF B'FHF '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) 'D91'BJ  H'DE'/) (214/2) EF B'FHF 'D',1'!'* 'D,F'&J) 'DE51J  'DE'/) (208) EF B'FHF '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) 'D'1/FJ 'DE1BE (9) D3F) 1961  'DE'/) (274) EF B'FHF '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) 'D3H1J. () 'DE/13) 'DH69J) GJ E/13) 9B'(J) ,/J/) 4CD* +H1) AJ 'D/1'3'* 'D9B'(J)  8G1* 'H'.1 'DB1F 'D*'39 941  HF'/* ('AC'1 H'1'! EF'B6) DDE/13) 'D*BDJ/J) 'D,/J/)  A/9* 'DI 'D'9*E'/ 9DI 'DEFG, 'D9DEJ 'D*,1J(J  H*BHE '33 G0G 'DE/13) 9DI 1A6 AC1) '1'/) 'D'.*J'1 D/I 'DE,1E D*1*J( 'DE3$HDJ) 9DJG  H'F 'D,1JE) GJ F*J,) EB/E'* H9H'ED 7(J9J) EG/* DG'  HG0G 'DEB/E'* *F*, 9F 9H'ED /'.DJ) AJ 'D*CHJF 'D96HJ H'DFA3J DDA1/  H.'1,J) *9H/ DD(J&) H'D81HA 'DE-J7) (G  D0DC 1A6 9DE'&G' E(/# 'D*.JJ1  HB'DH' ('D3((J) H-*EJ) '1*C'( 'D,1JE) -JF **H'A1 G0G 'D9H'ED  HEF 'GE 1H'/ G0G 'DE/13) 'D7(J( 'D'J7'DJ DHE(1H2H (G. Lombroso) 5'-( C*'( ('D'F3'F 'DE,1E)  H'F1JCH AJ1J (Enrico ferri) 5'-( C*'( ('D9/'D) 'D,2'&J) H'D'A'B 'D,/J/))  H1'A'JD ,'1HA'DH (R. Garofalo) . 'F81 : /. GD' 'D91J3  4.5J) 9BH('* 'D*92J1 AJ 'D41J9) 'D'3D'EJ) /1'3) EB'1F)  /'1 'DAD'- DDF41  (J1H*  1997  543 . () -1C) 'D/A'9 'D',*E'9J  '*,'G -/J+ AJ 'D3J'3'* 'D9B'(J) 'D.'5) ('DBH'FJF 'DH69J)  8G1* (9/ 'DE/13) 'DH69J) DD(-+ 9F F8'E ,F'&J -/J+ DD-/ EF '*3'9 'D8'G1) 'D',1'EJ)  HB/ *(F* G0G 'D-1C) EAGHE'K DD/A'9 'D',*E'9J J9*E/ 'DE7'(B) (JF 'D/A'9 'D',*E'9J CG/A  H'D,2'! CH3JD) JB5/ (G' '9'/) *#GJD H'5D'- 'DE,1E  (-J+ JCHF *#GJD H'5D'- 'DA'9D /A'9'K ',*E'9J'K DD-/ EF 'EC'FJ) .7H1*G *,'G 'DE,*E9  H'9'/*G A1/'K 5'D-'K A'9D'K AJ 'DE,*E9  HDB/ 91A* G0G 'D-1C) '*,'GJF '3'3JJF : 'D'HD E9 'DEAC1 'D'J7'DJ AJDJ(H ,1'E'*JC' (F.Gramatica)  H'D+'FJ E9 'D(1HA3H1 'DA1F3J E'1C 'F3D (M.Ancel)  A/9' ,1'E'*JC' 'DI '1*C'2 'D/A'9 'D',*E'9J 9DI *B/J1 'DA'9D ('9*('1G 0'*'K H'D'G*E'E (4.5 'DA'9D  H'DI 'D:'! 'D9BH() CF8'E B'FHFJ H'D:'! EAGHEJ 'D,1JE) H'DE,1E  'E' 'F3D AB/ 1A6 'D/9H) D'D:'! BH'FJF 'D9BH('* H'9*1A ('DE3$HDJ) 'D'.D'BJ) C#3'3 DDE3$HDJ) 'D,F'&J)  H'C/ 9DI 'GEJ) /1'3) 4.5J) 'DE,1E C'F3'F HDJ3 C8'G1) (JHDH,J) . 'F81 : /. GD' 'D91J3  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 5 47-51 . () /. '-E/ 4HBJ 9E1 '(H .7H)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  525 . ()Jean Pradel, Lindividualisation de La Sanction, essai dun bilan a La veille dun nouveau code penal, R.S.C, 1977,p.724. () /. 9DJ 1'4/  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5701 . () FHAD 9DJ 9(/ 'DDG 'D5AH  3D7) 'DB'6J AJ *.AJA 'D9BH() /1'3) EB'1F)  13'D) E',3*J1 EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'DB'FHF ,'E9) 'DEH5D  1996  51 . () /. '-E/ 4HBJ 9E1 '(H .7H)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5133 . () FHAD 9DJ 9(/ 'DDG 'D5AH  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  53 . () /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DD(F'FJ  'DB3E 'D9'E  72  /'1 'DFB1J DD7('9)  (J1H*  5766 . () FHAD 9DJ 9(/ 'DDG 'D5AH  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  53 . () /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5765 . () David W. Neubauer: Americas Courts and Criminal Justice System, 5 ed, Wadswarth Publishing Company, 1996, p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oSvehssoh: Criminal Justice Systems in Europe, Sweden, 1995, pp. 49-50. () JBHE F8'E 'D'.*('1 'DB6'&J 9DI AC1) 'D'A1', 9F 'DE,1E EF /HF 'D-CE 9DJG ('D9BH() 'C*A'! (H69G *-* 'D'.*('1 E/) E9JF) DCJ J1'9J .D'DG' 'D3DHC 'DBHJE  HJ.69 AJ *DC 'D'+F'! DFH9 EF 'D1B'() 'DEF8E)  A'0' '.AB 'DE,1E AJ '5D'- FA3G .D'D A*1) 'D'.*('1 *9JF 'D-CE 9DJG ('D9BH()  HGH F8'E 0H 7(J9) 'J,'(J)  '0 'FG JEF- 'DE,1E A15) D'5D'- FA3G H0DC ('DE3'9/) 'D*J JB/EG' DG  HB/ '3*-/+ G0' 'DF8'E D'HD E1) AJ HD'J) E'3'4H3*3 'D'E1JCJ) 3F) 1841 . Harvey Wallace, Cliff Robenson: Principles of Criminal Law, Longman Publishers, U.S.A, 1996, pp. 281-283. () JB5/ ('D'A1', 'D417J 'D'A1', 9F 'DE-CHE 9DJG (9BH() 3'D() DD-1J) (9/ 'FB6'! E/) E9JF) EFG'  'A1','K EBJ/'K (41H7 E-//) **E+D AJ '.6'9G DE,EH9) EF 'D'D*2'E'* 'D*J *BJ/ -1J*G  HJ*1*( 9DI *FAJ0G' 'D'A1', 'DFG'&J 9FG  'E' '0' '.D (G' A*3D( -1J*G E1) +'FJ) HJ9H/ 'DI 'DE$33) 'D9B'(J) D*FAJ0 'DE/) 'D('BJ) . /. 9(/ 'D1-EF E-E/ '(H *H*G  '5HD 9DE 'D9B'(  EF4H1'* ELGA  E'D7'  2001  5344. () 'D('1HD (Parole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on Feurbach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anti-Juan : Legalite en driot penal, edition cujas, 1987, No.95, p.76. '4'1 'DJG : /. '-E/ 4HBJ 9E1 '(H .7H)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5168. () 'F81 'DE'/) (718/3) EF B'FHF 'D',1'!'* 'D,F'&J) 'DA1F3J D3F) 1958. () 'F81 'DE'/) (751) EF B'FHF 'D',1'!'* 'D,F'&J) 'DA1F3J . () 'F81 'DE'/) (222-4) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DA1F3J 'D,/J/ 'D5'/1 3F) 1992 . () 'F81 'DEH'/ (221-4  221-5) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DA1F3J 'D,/J/ . () 'F81 'DEH'/ (222-3  222-8  222-10  222-12  222-13  222-14) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DA1F3J 'D,/J/ . () 'F81 'DEH'/ (222-24  222-28) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DA1F3J 'D,/J/ . () 'F81 'DEH'/ (221-4  221-5  222-3  222-8  222-10  222-12  222-13) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DA1F3J 'D,/J/ . () 'F81 : /. E-E/ '(H 'D9D' 9BJ/)  'D'*,'G'* 'D-/J+) AJ B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DA1F3J 'D,/J/  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2004  5 5 88-92 . () 'D'90'1 'DB'FHFJ) GJ '3('( H81HA JF5 9DJG' 'DB'FHF EF 4#FG' 'F *E-H 'D9BH() 'H *9ED 9DI *.AJAG'  HDB/ 3EJ* G0G 'D'90'1 ('D'90'1 'DB'FHFJ)  D'F E5/1G' 'DB'FHF H'FG' H',() 'D*7(JB HDJ3 DDB'6J 'D'E*F'9 9F *7(JBG' '0' *H'A1* AJ 'DB6J)  CE' 'FG' H'1/) AJ 'DB'FHF 9DI 3(JD 'D-51 . E-3F F',J  'D'-C'E 'D9'E) AJ B'FHF 'D9BH('*  71  E7(9) 'D9'FJ  (:/'/  1974  5488 . () /. A.1J 9(/ 'D12'B 'D-/J+J  'D'90'1 'DB'FHFJ) 'DE.AA) DD9BH()  ,'E9) (:/'/  1979  5104 . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (128) 9BH('* 91'BJ . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (128) 9BH('* 91'BJ . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (60) 9BH('* 91'BJ . () 'F81 F5H5 'DEH'/ (256  311  426/1  398  427  462) 9BH('* 91'BJ . () /. '-E/ 4HBJ 9E1 '(H .7H)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5171 . () /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5792 . () 'DE5/1 FA3G  5793 . () 'DE'/) (303) 9BH('* 91'BJ  H'F81 'DE'/) (205/1) 9BH('* E51J . () 'DE'/) (311) 9BH('* 91'BJ  H'F81 'DE'/) (107 EC11'K) 9BH('* E51J . () 'DEH'/ (187  218) 9BH('* 91'BJ  H'F81 'DE'/) (84/#) 9BH('* E51J . () 'F81 'DEH'/ (434-1  434-6  434-11) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DA1F3J 'D,/J/ . () 'F81 'DE'/) (434-1) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DA1F3J 'D,/J/ . () /. '-E/ 4HBJ 9E1 '(H .7H)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 5 173-174 . () /. J31 'FH1 9DJ  'DB'9/) 'D,F'&J)  /1'3) EB'1F) AJ 'D'5HD 'D9'E) DDB'FHF 'D,F'&J  1969  573 . () /. 95'E 9AJAJ 9(/ 'D(5J1  '2E) 'D419J) 'D,F'&J) HH3'&D 9D',G'  71  /'1 '(H 'DE,/ DD7('9)  'DB'G1)  2004  5 233 . () /. '-E/ 4HBJ 9E1 '(H .7H)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5175 . () Garcon : code penal Annote, T1, Librairie de Recueil Sirey, 1952, No, 64. () 'F81 : /. E'DC /HG'F 'D-3F  'DE/.D D/1'3) 'DB'FHF  ,1  E7(9) 'D,'E9)  (:/'/  1972  5434. () 15 E'JH 3F) 1978 E,EH9) '-C'E E-CE) 'DFB6  3 28 1BE 95  5 516 . () /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 5 103-104 . () /. '-E/ 4HBJ 9E1 '(H .7H)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5180. () JB'(D F5 'DE'/) (2 AB1) 3) 9BH('* 91'BJ F5 'DE'/) (5/2) 9BH('* E51J  'DE'/) (13/2) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D'*-'/J D/HD) 'D'E'1'* 'D91(J) 'DE*-/) 1BE (3) D3F) 1987  'DE'/) (5) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D'1/FJ 1BE (16) D3F) 1960 . () /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  587 . () /. E#EHF E-E/ 3D'E)  B'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DB3E 'D9'E  /'1 'DAC1 'D91(J  'DB'G1)  1979  540. () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (449) 9BH('* 91'BJ  'DE'/) (324 EC11) 9BH('* E51J . () /.'-E/ 4HBJ 9E1 '(H .7H)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5179 . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (416) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D'1/FJ  H'DE'/) (651) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DD(F'FJ 1BE (40) D3F) 1948  H'DE'/) (637) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D3H1J 1BE (148) D3F) 1949 . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (323) EC11 'HD'K EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DE51J . () *F5 'DE'/) (539) EF 'DB'FHF 'D,2'&J 'D91(J 'DEH-/ 9DI : (EF '3*9ED F'BD) 0'* E-1C (:J1 9DE 5'-( 'D-B AJG' 'H 1:E '9*1'6G J9'B( ('D-(3 DE/) D' *2J/ 9DI 3*) '4G1  'H ('D:1'E) 'H (GE' E9'K) . () JB'(DG' F5 'DE'/) (45) 9BH('* E51J  'DE'/) (68) 9BH('* '1/FJ . () 'F81 AJ 916 G0G 'DE0'G( : /.E'G1 9(/ 4HJ4 'D/1)  'D'-C'E 'D9'E) AJ B'FHF 'D9BH('*  /'1 'D-CE) DD7('9) H'DF41  'DEH5D  1990  5 5213-216  /.A.1J 9(/ 'D12'B 'D-/J+J  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DB3E 'D9'E  (:/'/  1992  5 5211-213  /.E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 5343-346 . () FB6 26 JHFJ) 3F) 1922 'DE-'E') 34  1BE 10  6 E'13 3F) 1923 'DE-'E') 34  1BE 10 . () FB6 18 JF'J1 3F) 1931  E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'DB'FHFJ)  ,2  1BE 159  5217  15 E'JH 3F) 1939  E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'DB'FHFJ)  ,4  1BE 391  5519 . () /.E-EH/ E-EH/ E57AI  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DB3E 'D9'E  79  E7(9) ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  1974  5299 . () B1'1 1BE 2838 AJ 26/12/1971  'DF41) 'DB6'&J)  'D9// 'D1'(9  'D3F) 'D+'FJ)  1973  5189  B1'1 1BE 3696 AJ 14/4/1975  E,EH9) 'D'-C'E 'D9/DJ)  'D9// 'D+'FJ  'D3F) 'D3'/3)  1975  5263  B1'1 1BE 1726 AJ 6/9/1973  'DF41) 'DB6'&J)  'D9// 'D+'D+  'D3F) 'D1'(9)  5368  B1'1 1BE 3285 AJ 5/7/1975  E,EH9) 'D'-C'E 'D9/DJ)  'D9// 'D+'D+  'D3F) 'D3'/3)  1975  5247 . () 'F81 /.E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  593 .     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