ࡱ> /1*+,-.q`0lbjbjqPqPE ::"E4t   LLL88L4M ' N N(4N4N4NOOOvxxxxxx$hwE SOOSS 4N4NhqqqS 4N 4NvqSvqq^F 4NN cWL|idh l0'^ oT \  RO|PqQ|QOOO4qjOOO'SSSS :|G |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issrmament  H*.AJ6 'D3D'- Reduction of Armaments  H*-/J/ 'D3D'- Limitation of Armaments  HF*, 9F 0DC '-*A'8 CD /HD) (EAGHEG' 'D.'5 DF29 'D3D'-. #F "DJ) F29 'D3D'- AJ E1-D) E' B(D 'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ DE *.1, 9F #E1JF D' +'D+ DGE' HGE' : #  '*A'B'* #F E9'G/'* 0'* 7(J9) *9'B/J) %1'/J) D' *B/E AJG' 'D/HD 'DE4'1C) -1J) '*.'0 'DB1'1 AJ 4#F /1,) *3DJ-G' H/HF %D2'E E7DB (#-C'E G0G 'DE9'G/'* . (  E9'G/'* 'D5D- H'D*3DJE 'D*J J*E AJG' A16 41H7 EF B(D 'DEF*51 9DI 'DEG2HE H#(12G' *-/J/ #H *.AJ6 /1,) *3D-G HEF #4G1G' E9'G/) A13'J 3F) 1919 -JF *E A16 BJH/ 9DI 'D*3D- EF B(D 'D-DA'! 'DEF*51HF 9DI /HD 'DE-H1 'DEFG2EJF AJ 'D-1( 'D9'DEJ) 'D#HDI . H'0' C'F* G0G #GE .5'&5 H3E'* -1C) F29 'D3D'- AJE' B(D 951 'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ  AE'0' C'F 9DJG #E1 G0G 'D-1C) AJ 8D 'D/H1 'D0J B'E* (G CD EF 95() 'D#EE 'DE*-/) E9 (/'J) G0' 'D951  G0' E' F39I %DI *F'HDG AJE' JDJ : #HD' : EF8E) 95() 'D#EE HEAGHE F29 'D3D'- : DB/ C'F 'DEF*51HF AJ 'D-1( 'D9'DEJ) 'D#HDI GE E$33H G0G 'DEF8E) 'D1&J3JJF  HB/ H69* D,F) "GJ13* HEDJ1" 'DE41H9 'DFG'&J D9G/ G0G 'DEF8E) AJ FA3 'DHB* 'D0J C'F G$D'! 'DEF*51HF J69HF 41H7 E9'G/) 'D5D- ( A13'J) E9 /HD 'DE-H1 'DEG2HE)  -J+ C'F EF '(12 G0G 'D41H7 E' J*9DB (E3#D) F29 #H *-/J/ *3DJ- G0G 'D/HD . D0'  C'F EF 'D7(J9J #F **916 *DC 'DD,F) DE3'D) *.AJ6 'D*3D- C#-/ #GE #G/'A G0G 'DEF8E) 'DHDJ/)  H'D*J F0C1 EFG' -D 'DEF'29'* ('D71B 'D3DJE) _ *.AJ6 'D*3D- _ 'D'*A'B 9DI 6E'F ,E'9J E*('/D _ *7(JB 'D9BH('* 9DI 'D/HD 'DE.'DA) D#-C'E 'D95() . H*E 'D*HBJ9 9DI 9G/ G0G 'DEF8E) EF B(D G0G 'D/HD AJ 13 A(1'J1 1919() . +E *H'5D* ,GH/ 95() 'D#EE AJ 39JG' F-H *-BJB 'D3DE 'D/HDJ H*,F( E"3J 'D-1( 'D9'DEJ) 'D#HDI 'F7D'B'K EF #-C'E 9G/ 'D95() 0'*G'  'D#E1 'D0J JH,( 'D*916 D#GE *DC 'D#-C'E  +E F*(9G' (916 EH,2 D#GE ,GH/ G0G 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) AJ G0' 'D4#F . #- EHBA 9G/ 95() 'D#EE EF -1C) F29 'D3D'- : *'CJ/'K 9DI E' ,'! (/J(',) 9G/ 95() 'D#EE  EF 'D-15 9DI ,9D *.AJ6 'D*3D- #-/ /9'&E *-BJB 'D3D'E -*I JCHF EF 'D3GD 9DI 'D/HD 9/E 'DD,H! %DI 'D-1( DAB/'FG' #-/ 'D9H'ED 'DE-16) 9DI 0DC  '4*17* 'DE'/) 'D#HDI EF 'D9G/ EH'AB) 'D/HD 9DI F8'E 'D95() AJE' J*9DB (BH'*GE H#3D-*GE ('D/HDJ) H'D(-1J) H'D,HJ) ) -*I J*E B(HDGE C#96'! AJ G0G 'DEF8E) HC'F 'D(/! AJ 0DC ('D/HD 'DEG2HE) 'D*J HB9* 9DI E9'G/) A13'J HB/E* (J'F' (E1C2G' 'D-1(J  H*901 0DC 9DI :J1 G0G 'D/HD D9/E H69 F8'E 'D95() 'D.'5 AJ G0' 'D4#F . +E ,'! -CE 'DE'/) 'D+'FJ) E*6EF'K #GE 'DE3*D2E'* 'D61H1J) (4#F *.AJ6 'D*3D- H'D*J J,( 9DI 'D/HD 'D#96'! E1'9'*G' *-BJB'K D#G/'A 'D95() HDB/ ,'! F5 G0G 'DE'/) AJ 4#F 9EDJ) *.AJ6 'D*3D- H'6-'K H51J-'KN (D HEA5D'K (96 'D4J! () . H6E'F'K D%9E'D -CE 'DE'/*JF 'D#HDI H'D+'FJ) EF 9G/ 'D95() ,'!* 'DE'/) 'D*'39) HB/ F5* 9DI 'F4'! D,F) /'&E) D*B/JE 'DE4H1) DDE,D3 AJ ,EJ9 E' J*9DB (*FAJ0 41H7 G'*JF 'DE'/*JF  HAJE' J.*5 ('DE3'&D 'D/HDJ) H'D(-1J) H'D,HJ) 9DI H,G 'D9EHE  D0' #F4# E,D3 'D95() " 'DD,F) 'D'3*4'1J) 'D/'&E) " AJ 9'E 1920 +E " 'DD,F) 'DE.*D7) 'DE$B*) " 3F) 1921 D%9/'/ 'D(-H+ H*B/JE 'D*H5J'* 'D.'5) (E4CD) *.AJ6 'D*3D- (). (- ,GH/ 95() 'D#EE AJ E,'D F29 'D3D'- : %0' C'F 'DEB'E D' J39 DDHBHA 9DI *A5JD ,GH/ 95() 'D#EE AJ E,'D F29 'D3D'-  ADJ3 #BD EF 'D%4'1) %DI #F '.*D'A 'DEH'BA 'D3J'3J) DD/HD #96'! 95() 'D#EE C'F H1'! *('JF 'D*A3J1'* (4#F F5H5 9G/ 'D95() 'D.'5) -HD AC1) *-/J/ H*.AJ6 'D*3DJ-  D0' *1C2* #GE 'D,GH/ *DC 'DEF8E) AJ G0' 'DE,'D -HD A9'DJ'* E$*E1J ,FJA 1925 H 1932 (:16 *-BJB #C(1 B/1 EF 'DF,'- AJ E,'D *.AJ6 'D*3D- E9 *H-J/ 'D1$J) 'D3J'3J) DD/HD #96'! *D'AJ'K D'.*D'A H,G'* 'DF81 HF*'&,G 'DE+(7) DG0G 'D,GH/  HJECF %DB'! 'D6H! 9DI G0JF 'DE$*E1JF AJE' JDJ : 1- E$*E1 ,FJA D*.AJ6 'D#3D-) 3F) 1925 : 9B/ G0' 'DE$*E1 AJ 'DA*1) EF 4 E'JH %DI 17 JHFJH 3F) 1925 AJ E/JF) ,FJA (3HJ31'  HB/ G/A %DI *7(JB #-C'E 'DE'/) 'D+'EF) EF 9G/ 'D95() H*CDJA E,D3 'DEF8E) ('*.'0 E' JD2E EF %,1'!'* DEF9 'DF*'&, 'D3&J) 'D*J *1*(* 9DI BJ'E 'D#A1'/ (5F'9) 'D#3D-) H'D0.'&1 HE9/'* 'D-1(  CE' -15 'DE$*E1 9DI EF'B4) E3'D) 'D1B'() 9DI -1C) E1H1 'D#3D-) H'D0.'&1 (JF 'D/HD  HFBDG' EF E,'D 'DB'FHF 'D.'5 'DI F7'B 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ  :J1 #F G0' 'D#E1 DE JDB '3*,'() H'39) EF 'D/HD 'DE4'1C)  HGH E' ,9D ,GH/ 'DE$*E1 **1C2 AJ 'F,'- (1H*HCHD *-1JE 'D'3*./'E 'D-1(J DD:'2'* 'D.'FB) #H 'D3'E)  -J+ *E 'D*HBJ9 9DJ) EF :'D(J) *DC 'D/HD H0DC AJ 17 JHFJH 3F) 1920 . CE' 1#* 'DD,F) 'D*-6J1J) DE$*E1 F29 'D3D'- #F H69 *91JA'* DCD EF *-/J/ 'D#3D-) H*.AJ6 'D*3D- HF29 'D3D'-  AC'F #F 1#* AJ *-/J/ 'D#3D-) #FG (E+'() *9G/ 'D/HD (#F D'*2J/ EF '3D-*G' #H BH'*G' 'DE3D-)  HGJ 'DE1-D) 'D#HDI EF E1'-D F29 'D3D'- . H'D*.AJ6 JB5/ (G BJ'E 'D/HD (*.AJ6 #3D-*G' HBH'*G' (F3( E*3'HJ)  HGJ 'DE1-D) 'D+'FJ)  #E' F29 'D3D'- AJB5/ (G E' H1/ AJ 'DE'/) 'D+'EF) EF 9G/ 'D95()  #J *.AJ6 'D*3D- 'DI 'D-/ 'D#/FI 'D0J J*F'3( E9 'D#EF 'DBHEJ " (). 2- E$*E1 ,FJA DF29 'D3D'- 3F) 1932 : C'F* 'DD,F) 'D*-6J1J) DE$*E1 F29 'D3D'- 'D*J #F4#G' E,D3 'D95() 3F) 1925 9DI ',*E'9 4(G E*5D 7JD) 3*) #9H'E (G/A 'D*HAJB (JF H,G'* 'DF81 'DE*9'16) DD/HD #96'! 'D95() -HD E3#D) 31J'F *.AJ6 'D#3D-) 9DI CD 'D/HD  .'5) H#F EHBA CD EF 1H3J' H'DHD'J'* 'DE*-/) B/ "+'1 1J() AJ FAH3 'D/HD 'D#96'! %2'! .1H, G'*JF 'D/HD*JF 9F F7'B 'D95() 1:E BH*GE' 'D/HDJ) 'DC(J1)  +E C'F #F 'F*G* #9E'D *DC 'DD,F) 'D*-61J) 'DI 61H1) 9B/ E$*E1 /HDJ DF29 'D3D'- D(-+ CD E' *H5D* %DJG EF EF'B4'* HE' '3A1* 9FG ,GH/G' AJ G0' 'DE,'D . D0' 'F9B/ G0' 'DE$*E1 AJ 2 A(1'J1 3F) 1932 HC'F* #GE B1'1'*G E' JDJ : 61H1) *7(JB 'D41H7 'DH'1/) AJ 'DE'/) (8) EF 'D9G/ -*I JECF H69 EB'JJ3 D*.AJ6 'D*3D- . J,( #F JCHF *.AJ6 'D*3D- A9'D' H9DI E1'-D E**'(9) 9DI #F *CHF 'D.7H) 'D#HDI 'D-'3E) GJ 'D*.AJ6 'D9'E %DI #BD -/ EECF . '*A'B 'D/HD 9DI E(/# F29 'D3D'- 'DFH9J #J *-*A8 'D/HD ('D#3D-) 'D/A'9J) AB7 #E' 'D#3D-) 'DG,HEJ) A%E' #F *-1E #H #F J*E */'HDG' . H'0' C'F G0' 'D916 'DEH,2 D#GE ,GH/ 95() 'D#EE F-H */9JE -1C) F29 'D3D'- H'D39J 'DI *-BJB G/A 'D95() AJ '-D'D 'D3D'E H/1! E.'71 'D-1H( E-'HD) D%DB'! 'D6H! 9DI 7(J9) F29 'D3D'- AJ 8D #-C'E 9G/ 'D95()  H'D*J *EJ2* ('-*1'E %/'1) 'D/HD 'D#96'! AJ E,'D 'D'D*2'E'* 'D.'5) (E3#D) F29 'D3D'- /HF A16 *DC 'D'D*2'E'*  E9 'D-15 9DI *HAJ1 'D-/ 'D#/FI EF 'D*3D- DCD /HD) ('DB/1 'DD'2E D-E'J) #EFG' 'DBHEJ H'D/A'9 9FG  'D' #F HBHA 'DE5'D- 'D3J'3J) 'DE*9'16) (JF G0G 'D/HD C'F -'&D' /HF F,'- E-'HD'* 'D95() AJ G0' 'DE,'D +E F4H( 'D-1( 'D9'DEJ) 'D+'FJ)  'D*J '3*./E* AJG' #(49 #3D-) 'D/E'1 'D4'ED 'D*J 91A*G' 'D(41J) 9DI 'D%7D'B EF B(D 'DHD'J'* 'DE*-/) 'D#E1JCJ)  C'F D'(/ H#F J,9D EH'5D) 'D39J 'D,'/ F-H */9JE -1C) F29 'D3D'- C#-/ #GE #G/'A EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) HGH E' F39I 'DI *F'HDG ('J,'2 AJE' JDJ : +'FJ'K : EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) HEAGHE F29 'D3D'- : '0' C'F* ,GH/ 95() 'D#EE H39JG' F-H */9JE -1C) HEAGHE F29 'D3D'- DE JC*( DG' 'DF,'- (3(( E,EH9) EF 'D9H'ED 0'* 'D7(J9) 'D3J'3J) C'F #(12G' 8GH1 'D-1C*JF "'DF'2J) H'DA'4J)" H'D*-HD 'D'J/JHDH,J AJ 'D41B EF 'DB'1) 'D#H1(J) ('*,'G (1JB 'D9BJ/) 'D4JH9J)  %D' #F G0G 'D9H'ED 0'*G' B/ 4CD* #3('('K 1&J3J) AJ '4*9'D 'D-1( 'D9'DEJ) 'D+'FJ)  H'D*J /A9* 'DB'&EJF 9DI H69 EJ+'B 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) 'DHDJ/) 'D*J #9B(* %FGJ'1 HA4D 95() 'D#EE  %DI '9*('1 F29 'D3D'- #-/ #GE EF'G, 'D9ED HAB #-C'E 0DC 'DEJ+'B (G/A *-BJB 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF  .'5) H'F 'D-1( 'D9'DEJ) 'D+'FJ) B/ 'F*G* ('3*./'E '(49 E' *H5D* 'DJG J/ 'D(41J) EF #3D-) 'D*/EJ1 H'DAF'! HGH 'DBF(D) 'D01J) H'D*J '3*./E*G' 'DHD'J'* 'DE*-/) 'D#E1JCJ) 6/ 'DJ'('F D*69 'D9'DE CDG #E'E .7H1) G0' 'D3D'- 'D1GJ( (). HDB/ C'F #GE *-HD AJ EFG, 'D*9'ED E9 B6J) 'D#EF H'D3DE 'D/HDJJF  EF0 (/'J) 'D%9/'/ DEJ+'B EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  J*E+D AJ %-D'D AC1) 'D#EF 'D,E'9J (/JD' K9F F81J) 'D#EF AJ 8D *H'2F 'DBHJ ( ),'D*J C'F* *9*E/ 9DI AC1) BH'EG' 'F *3D- E,EH9) EF 'D/HD 6/ E,EH9) #.1I **E*9 #J6'K (FA3 'D-1J) AJ 'D*3D-, JEF9 F4H( 'D-1( CF*J,) -*EJ) DD*H'2F AJE' (JFG'. #E' AC1) #H EFG, 'D#EF 'D,E'9J AJ9*E/ 9DI H,H/ EF8E) /HDJ) *9ED 9DI *-1JE '3*./'E 'DBH) H'D9/H'F  H*/9JE 'D#EF H'D3D'E (H3'&D #3'3J)  EFG' 'D-D 'D3DEJ DDEF'29'* HF29 'D3D'- H*-ED 'D/HD 'D#96'! (E3&HDJ'*GE  E9 %EC'FJ) *HBJ9 'D,2'!'* 9DJGE 9F/ E.'DA) #-C'E HBH'9/ B'FHF G0G 'DEF8E) . HAJ 6H! G0' 'D*-HD AJ EFG, 'D-A'8 9DI 'D#EF H'D3DE 'D/HDJJF  F*91A 9DI 1$J) EJ+'B EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) DEAGHE F29 'D3D'-  C#-/ #GE 'DH3'&D D*-BJB G0' 'DG/A  'D#E1 'D0J F*916 DG AJE' JDJ : F29 'D3D'- AJ EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/) : 9DI 'D1:E EF #F /J(',) EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/) HE' ,'! 6EF EB'5/ 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 'D#3'3J) AJ 'DA5D 'D#HD EFG  J-ED AJ 7J'*G /D'D) F'7B) 9DI #F F29 'D3D'- D'(/ H#F JCHF H3JD) -'3E) F-H *BDJD E.'71 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) HE'*3A1 9FG 'D-1H( EF E"3J H/E'1 AJ 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ  'D% #F +E) E,EH9) EF 'DEH'/ 6EF A5HD G0' 'DEJ+'B C'F* 51J-) AJ G0' 'DE,'D HGJ 'DEH'/ 'D*'DJ) : 'DE'/) (11) H'D*J F5* AJ AB1*G' 'D#HDI 9DI E' (#*J : " DD,E9J) 'D9'E) #F *F81 AJ 'DE('/& 'D9'E) DD*9'HF AJ -A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJ  HJ/.D AJ 0DC 'DE('/& 'DE*9DB) (F29 'D3D'- H*F8JE 'D*3DJ-  CE' #F DG' #F *B/E *H5J'*G' (5// G0G 'DE('/& 'DI 'D#96'! #H 'DI E,D3 'D#EF #H CDJGE' " (). 'DE'/) (26) H'D*J *F5 9DI #FG : " 1:() AJ %B'E) 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJ H*H7J/ GE' (#BD *-HJD DEH'1/ 'D9'DE 'D%F3'FJ) H'D'B*5'/J) %DI F'-J) 'D*3DJ-  JCHF E,D3 'D#EF E3&HD' (E3'9/) D,F) 'D#1C'F 'D93C1J) 'DE4'1 %DJG' AJ 'DE'/) 47 9F H69 .77 *916 9DI #96'! 'D#EE 'DE*-/) DH69 EF'G, DF8E 'D*3DJ- " () . 'DE'/) (47) AJ AB1*G' 'D#HDI 'D*J *F5 9DI : " #F *4CD D,F) EF #1C'F 'D-1( *CHF EGE*G' #F *3/J 'DE4H1) H'DE9HF) 'DI E,D3 'D#EF H*9'HFG AJ ,EJ9 'DE3'&D 'DE*5D) (E' JD2EG EF -','* -1(J) D-A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF D'3*./'E 'DBH'* 'DEH6H9) *-* *51AG HBJ'/*G' HD*F8JE 'D*3DJ- HF29 'D3D'- ('DB/1 'DE3*7'9 " (). H J*6- EF B1'!) G0G 'DF5H5  #F 'DEJ+'B B/ '3*./E 9('1*JF #H E57D-JF #3'3JJF AJ G0' 'D4#F  HGE' : *F8JE 'D*3DJ- HF29 'D3D'-  -J+ #+'1 'DE57D- 'D#.J1 .D'A'K (JF 'DABG 'D/HDJ -HD 1$J) 'DEJ+'B DD9D'B) (JF F29 'D3D'- H*-BJB 'D#EF 'D,E'9J D#96'! 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ  HB/ *-// G0' 'D.D'A (JF '*,'GJF : - #E' 'D'*,'G 'D#HD : AB/ 0G( 'DI '9*('1 #F 'DEJ+'B DE J1(7 (JF F29 'D3D'- H*-BJB 'D#EF 'D,E'9J 1(7'K C'AJ'K  HD#F 'DF5H5 'D*J *F'HD* E3'D) F29 'D3D'- C'F* 69JA) AJ G0' 'D4#F  HB/ '3*F/ G0' 'D'*,'G AJ *#JJ/ E0G(G 9DI E' JDJ : DE J*6EF 'DEJ+'B E9'D,) EH6H9J) DE4CD) 'D7'B) 'DFHHJ) H'D#3D-) 'D01J) . 9/E 'DF5 51'-) 9DI F29 'D3D'- CG/A #3'3J EF #G/'A 'D#EE 'DE*-/) #H EF E('/& 'DEJ+'B . 'G*E 'DEJ+'B (AC1) *F8JE 'D*3DJ- #C+1 EF 'G*E'EG (AC1) F29 'D3D'-  HGH E' J*6- EF B1'!) 'DAB1) 'D1'(9) EF 'DE'/) 'D*'39) (4#F E('/& 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  H'D*J *4J1 %DI 61H1) 'E*F'9 #96'! 'DGJ&) ,EJ9'K AJ 9D'B'*GE 'D/HDJ) 9F 'D*G/J/ ('3*9E'D 'DBH) #H '3*./'EG' 6/ 3D'E) 'D#1'6J #H 'D'3*BD'D 'D3J'3J D#J) /HD) #H 9DI #J H,G ".1 D' J*AB E9 EB'5/ 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  'D#E1 'D0J JAGE EFG -B G0G 'D/HD AJ 'D'-*A'8 (#3D-*G' ('DB/1 'D0J D' J-1EG' -B 'D/A'9 9F 'DFA3 . *-/J/ 3D7) E,D3 'D#EF AJ E3#D) 'D39J F-H *-BJB H*H7J/ 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJ ('3*4'1) D,F) 'D#1C'F 'D93C1J) AJ H69 EF'G, *F8JE 'D*3D- _ HDJ3 F29G_ H916G' 9DI #96'! 'D#EE 'DE*-/) D%B1'1G'  HGH E' J*6- EF F5 'DE'/) (26) EF 'DEJ+'B  'D#E1 'D0J JF29 9F 'DE,D3 #J) 3D7) ,(1J) AJ G0' 'DE,'D . %F*A'! H,H/ "DJ'* #F BH'9/ 9'E) AJ F5H5 'DEJ+'B DD1B'() H'D*A*J4 'D*J D'(/ EFG' D*-BJB A'9DJ) %,1'!'* 9EDJ) F29 'D3D'- (). #E' 'D'*,'G 'D+'FJ : AJ1I #F 'DEJ+'B B/ 1(7 1(7'K H+JB'K (JF F29 'D3D'- H*-BJB 'D#EF 'D,E'9J  H0DC 9F 71JB %D2'E 'D/HD 'D#96'! AJ 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) ('D'E*F'9 9F 'D*G/J/ ('DBH) 'H '3*./'EG' AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ)  H%D2'EG' ('*.'0 'D-D 'D3DEJ DDEF'29'* 'D/HDJ) #3DH(' #3'3J' AJ *3HJ) *DC 'DEF'29'*  HF(0 '3*./'E 'DBH)  H'F 'DE'/*JF (21 H 26 ) EF 'DEJ+'B B/ *F'HD*' E3'D) *F8JE 'D*3DJ-  (E9FI 'D9ED 9DI *.AJ6 'D*3D- C.7H) AJ 3(JD *-BJB F29 'D3D'- 'D,2&J  H0DC H5HD' 'DI 'DG/A 'D#3'3J H'D.J1 HGH F29 'D3D'- 'D9'E H'DC'ED AJ 'DE3*B(D . CE' J$C/ G0' 'D'*,'G 9DI 'FG %0' C'F* 'DE'/) (11) EF 'DEJ+'B B/ F5* 9DI BJ'E 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) DD#EE 'DE*-/) ((-+ 'DE('/& 'D1&J3J) 'D*J *-CE F29 'D3D'-  H%5/'1 'D*H5J'* AJ G0' 'D4#F  A'F E,D3 'D#EF J*-ED E3&HDJ) H69 G0G 'D*H5J'* HEF'G, *F8JE 'D*3DJ- EH69 'D*7(JB (9/ 916G' 9DI #96'! 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) (). HEF 'D916 'D3'(B DG0JF 'D'*,'GJF -HD EAGHE F29 'D3D'-  AJ 6H! F5H5 'DEJ+'B H9D'B*G (F81J) 'D#EF 'D,E'9J  **6- 3D'E) HBH) 'D'*,'G 'D#HD 'D0J C4A 9F 69A 'D9D'B) (J F29 'D3D'- H*-BJB 'D#EF 'D,E'9J HAB F5 /J(',) 'DEJ+'B H'DEH'/ 'D.'5) (G0' 'D4#F  D'3JE' AJE' J*9DB (*BJ/ '.*5'5'* H3D7) E,D3 'D#EF AJ E3'D) F29 'D3D'- H1(7G' (/H1 CD EF D,F) 'D#1C'F 'D93C1J) H916 E' J1'G 'DE,D3 EF .77 HEF'G, D*F8JE 'D*3DJ- 9DI #96'! 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ)  HGH 'D#E1 'D0J '+(* 'DH'B9 'D3J'3J H'D/HDJ 59H(*G H'D0J 'F9C3 9DI "DJ'* 'D9ED /'.D #,G2) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) H'+1 9DI /H1G' AJ E3'D) F29 'D3D'-  HGH E' J*6- AJE' JDJ : A4D 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) AJ *7(JB F5 'DE'/) (43 ) EF 'DEJ+'B H'D.'5) (%F4'! BH'* /HDJ) D-A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF H'F*G'! /H1 D,F) #1C'F 'D-1( AJ E3'D) *F8JE 'D*3DJ- HF29 'D3D'- B(D #F J(/# . C'F DAB/'F E,D3 'D#EF #GE "DJ'*G 'D#3'3J) H'DA'9D) AJ E,'D -A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF HF29 'D3D'- H'DE*E+D) AJ D,F) 'D#1C'F 'D93C1J)  #C(1 'D#+1 AJ 9,2 G0' 'DE,D3 9F 'DBJ'E (H',('*G 'DEF5H5 9DJG' AJ 'DEJ+'B  ADE J4*1C AJ EF'B4'* D,F@@) 'D7'B) 'D01J@) #H D,F) F@29 'D3D'- ()  HB/ *#+1 9EDG (*F'A1 #96'!G 'D/'&EJF H9/E '*A'BGE  F*J,) 'D*F'A3 AJE' (JFGE -J+ DE *.A #J EF 'D/HD /'&E) 'D96HJ) 1:(*G' 'D#CJ/) AJ C31 '-*C'1 'D3D'- 'DFHHJ ()  'D#E1 'D0J #9,2 E,D3 'D#EF 9F 'DBJ'E ('D/H1 'DEFH7 (G . ,- 'FA1/* 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) DD#EE 'DE*-/) (EF'B4) E3'D) F29 'D3D'- (4CD 9'E H%5/'1 'DB1'1'* 0'* 'D5D) H'D*H5J'* AJ E,'D *F8JE HF29 'D3D'-  %6'A) 'DE1,9 *4,J9 'D.7 'D9'E D-1C) F29 'D3D'- . /- *-HD 'D*A'H6 (JF 'D/HD (4#F E3#D) *.AJ6 F29 'D3D'-  .'5) AJ 8D 'D-1( 'D('1/) H'D*F'A3 AJ E,'D 'D*3D- 'DFHHJ  %DI .'1, 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ)  H%F C'F* *H5J'* 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) DD#EE 'DE*-/) HB1'1'*G' AJ G0' 'D4#F E14/'K HG'/J'K D*DC 'D/HD HGJ (5// H69 E9'G/'* *.AJ6 HF29 'D3D'- H'D*J F0C1 EFG' : 1- E9'G/) F29 3D'- 'DB7( 'D,FH(J 3F) 1959 . 2- E9'G/) EH3CH DD-81 'D,2&J DD*,'1( 'DFHHJ) 3F) 1963 . 3- E9'G/) %F4'! 'D.7 'D3'.F (JF EH3CH HH'4F7F 3F) 1963 . 4- E9'G/) 'DE('/& 'DEF8E) DF4'7 DD/HD AJ EJ/'F '3*C4'A H'3*./'E 'DA6'! 'D.'1,J AJ 3F) 1966  H'D*J *-81 H69 #J) #,3'E *-ED #3D-) FHHJ) #F #3D-) 'D*/EJ1 'D4'ED AJ 'DA6'! 'D.'1,J #H #J E/'1 -HD 'D#16 . 5- E9'G/) -81 'D#3D-) 'DFHHJ) AJ #E1JC' 'DD'*JFJ) 3F) 1967 . 6- E9'G/) -81 'F*4'1 'D#3D-) 'DFHHJ) 3F) 1968 . 7- E9'G/) -81 H69 'D#3D-) 'DFHHJ) H#3D-) 'D*/EJ1 'D4'ED AJ B'9 'D(-'1 H'DE-J7'* ('7F *1(*GE' 3F) 1971 . EE' 3(B J*6-  #F 'D5D) (JF #-C'E HEH'/ 'DEJ+'B EF ,G) H(JF /H1 F29 'D3D'- AJ *-BJB 'D#EF 'D,E'9J DE *CF ('DB/1 'DC'AJ H'DD'2E CJ **ECF #,G2) 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ EF #/'! /H1G' (A9'DJ) AJ 4'F /A9 -1C) F29 'D3D'- 'H *F8JEG HGH E' J1,9 %DI *#+J1 'D9H'ED 'D3J'3J) H'D9D'B) 'D3J'3J) AJ E,'D 'D*3DJ- (JF 'D/HD /'&E) 'D96HJ) AJ E,D3 'D#EF  %6'A) %DI 69A 'DF5H5 'D*J *F'HD* E3'D) *F8JE HF29 'D3D'-  CE' #F E,D3 'D#EF _ 1:E 'FG 'D,G'2 'DB'&E 9DI -A8 H'3*B1'1 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF _ DE J,/ AJ F5H5 'DEJ+'B  'D*J *F'HD* E3#D*J F29 'D3D'- H*F8JE 'D*3DJ-  E,'D' H'39'K H'.*5'5' EFA1/' AJ G0' 'D4#F  (D 'F 'DE'/) (26 ) B/ -//* 3D7*G AJ G0' 'DE,'D (H69 'D.77 'D*J *916 9DI #96'! 'D#EE 'DE*-/) (4#F EF'G, *F8JE 'D*3DJ- HDJ3 F29) HBJ/* 0DC (E3&HDJ*G 'DE9*E/) 9DI E4H1) D,F) 'D#1C'F 'D93C1J) 'DE4'1 'DJG' AJ 'DE'/)(47)EF 'DEJ+'B ( ). A'0' C'F 'D9ED (G0G 'D"DJ) AJ E,'D *F8JE 'D*3DJ- B/ *97D D9,2 'DE,D3 9F #/'! G0' 'D/H1 AJ 8D 3J'3) 'D-1( 'D('1/) 'D*J '4*9D* (JF B7(J 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ H'D*J 'F9C3* 9DI 'D9D'B) AJE' (JF 'D#96'! /'&EJ 'D96HJ) (G0' 'DE,D3  %6'A) 'DI '3*-'D) 'D#.0 (E4H1) D,F) 'D#1C'F 'D93C1J) AJ E,'D *F8JE 'D*3DJ- HF29 'D3D'- D9/E %9E'D -CE 'DE'/) (43 ) EF 'DEJ+'B  'D*J *9/ 'D#3'3 AJ F4#* *DC 'DD,F)  'D#E1 'D0J JB9/ E,D3 'D#EF 9F #/'! #J /H1 AJ E,'DJ *F8JE 'D*3DJ- 'H F29 'D3D'- 9DI 'D3H'!  HD' J*E*9 AJ 0DC (#J 3D7) #H '.*5'5 EFA1/ AJ G0' 'D4#F . H*1*J('K 9DI E' 3(B  J(12 'D*3'$D 'D#*J : " GD J,/ E,D3 'D#EF AJ */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J H (AC1) 'D,2'! ) 3F/' B'FHFJ' HE(11' E41H9'K DF29 #3D-) /HD) 96H AJ 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ)  9DI 'D1:E EF *BJ/ 3D7*G H'.*5'5'*G (EH,( 'DEH'/ 'D*J *F'HD* E3#D*J *F8JE 'D*3DJ- HF29 'D3D'- (EH,( EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/) .. G0' E' 3F39I 'DI EF'B4*G AJ 'DA19 'D*'DJ EF G0' 'DE7D( . 'DA19 'D+'FJ 3D7) E,D3 'D#EF AJ F29 'D3D'- (JF F81J) 'D,2'! H*/'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J '0' C'F* EH'/ 'DEJ+'B 'D*J *F'HD* #-C'E *F8JE HF29 'D3D'- DE *B6 (EF- E,D3 'D#EF #J) 3D7) ,(1J) AJ E,'D F29 'D3D'- 6EF E' J*E*9 (G 0DC 'DE,D3 EF '.*5'5'* AJ E,'D -A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJX^`f  " $ N̷scVF8Fhh_Z^J_HaJhh_Z^J_HaJo(h.sh7@+CJ^JaJ h.sh7@+CJZ^JaJ o(hQoh7@+CJZ^JaJ#h@JCJOJQJZ^JaJho(#hRCJOJQJZ^JaJho(#hiCJOJQJZ^JaJho()hQoh7@+CJOJQJZ^JaJho($hQohCJH*OJQJZho(!hQohCJH*OJQJZhhS}ehS}eCJZ^JaJ o(`  $ :Rd|p``P$`a$gd.s$`a$gd_ $a$gd:bkd$$IfTl   V0  4 la$ $If` a$gd@J $a$gdS}e jLjd0PX, !##R$$B%%&T'h''')F,/^1 $a$gd_ $a$gd_$ & Fa$gd_$`a$gd_NPVXN$P$$$>%@%&&d'f'h''\1^1`1122222B3D3F3J3B4D4F4L4.626466666668ᷧĔnnnnn(jhh_0JUZ^J_HaJ!hh_H*Z^J_HaJo($h.sh_5Z\^J_HaJo(hh.sZ^J_HaJo(h_Z^J_HaJo(h.sh_CJZ^JaJo(h"qZ^J_HaJo(hh_Z^J_HaJo(hh_^J_HaJo(+^1`1x112R4:688:~?A`D<@<B<D<0=2=4=6=t?v?x?z?AAAARDTDVDZDJJJJLLLL0N2N4N6NbPQQQpTrTtTvTXXXX____dddd|i~iii l̷̷̷̷̷̷̷̷̷̷̷̷̷̷h.s5Z\^J_HaJo((jhh_0JUZ^J_HaJ!hh_H*Z^J_HaJo(hh_Z^J_HaJo($h.sh_5Z\^J_HaJo(>_dfi l@B"^$& ЬЬЬЬЬЊЊЊ||nnhh_Z^J_HaJhh_^J_HaJo(hh_^J_HaJ(jhh_0JUZ^J_HaJ!hh_H*Z^J_HaJo($h.sh_5Z\^J_HaJo(hh_Z^J_HaJo(h.sh_CJZ^JaJo(hh.sZ^J_HaJo((Rb:FHp&\ $gd_$^`a$gd$y4$ & F ^a$gd"q$`a$gd_VXfhj>\ ^ b d ͯ݉ͯͯ݉|nͯ|nnhh_^J_HaJo(h$y4Z^J_HaJo(!h$y4h_5\^J_HaJo((jhh_0JUZ^J_HaJ!hh_H*Z^J_HaJo(hh_^J_HaJhh_Z^J_HaJo(h$y45Z\^J_HaJo($h$y4h_5Z\^J_HaJo(+jZ@8p^ d L\ "$J' $a$gd_$ & F $ ^a$gd_$ & F $ ^a$gd_$`a$gd_ $gd_RTVZ"""""*#,#$$$$$$@'B'D'F'H'J')),,&0(0b2d2R3T3V3X3Z3\33779999$B&B(B*BhCjCɼɼɼɮɮɛɮɮɮɮɍhh_Z^J_HaJ$h$y4h_5Z\^J_HaJo(hh_^J_HaJo(hh_^J_HaJhh_Z^J_HaJo((jhh_0JUZ^J_HaJ!hh_H*Z^J_HaJo(7J')b+d++,(0d2\379>@CZEGGjH$h^h`a$gd$y4$^`a$gd$y4$ & F ^a$gd$y4$ & F ^a$gd$y4 $a$gd_$`a$gd_jClCnCCCnRpRrRvRfYZ[fhjl468<p&:.2468ԓșLNPRbdfhʼʬʪʗzzzzhh_^J_HaJh$y45Z\^J_HaJo($h$y4h_5Z\^J_HaJo(Uh.sh_CJZ^JaJo(hh_^J_HaJo(hh_Z^J_HaJo(!hh_H*Z^J_HaJo((jhh_0JUZ^J_HaJ0jHHlJJFKLzRVdYfYYZp@p$`a$gd$y4 $a$gd_$L]L`a$gd.s $a$gd.s $h^ha$gd_$`a$gd_$h^h`a$gd$y4F  A'F B1'1 E,D3 'D#EF 1BE 687 (1991) 'D0J B6I (F29 #3D-) 'D/E'1 'D4'ED 'D91'BJ) (EH,( #-C'E 'DB3E (,JE) EFG J-*E EF'B4) E/I E41H9J) 0DC  .'5) HB/ '3*F/ 'DE,D3 'DI #-C'E 'DA5D 'D3'(9 EF 'DEJ+'B HE' J*E*9 (G EF 3D7) AJ '*.'0 */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J D%6A'! 'DE41H9J) 9DI %,1'! F29 #3D-) 'D/E'1 'D4'ED 'D91'BJ) (). D0'  3*CHF EF'B4) F81J) 'D,2'! AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ HEHB9G' EF */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J  (EB*6I #-C'E EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  .7H) #3'3J) AJ (-+ E/I E41H9J) E' B6I (G E,D3 'D#EF EF F29 #3D-) 'D/E'1 'D4'ED 'D91'BJ) . HJC'/ J,E9 'DABG 'D/HDJ 9DI #F 'D#EF 'D,E'9J J,3/ F8'E' JBHE 9DI E(/# #3'3J  HGH *-1JE '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) AJ E-'HD) ,'/) 'DI 'D*.D5 EF F8'E 'D9/'D) 'D.'5) 'D0J *BHE 'D/HD AJ 8DG ('DB5'5 DFA3G' EF 'DE9*/J  H0DC (:J) 'DH5HD %DI *-BJB F8'E 'D3D7) 'D9'E) EF .D'D E,EH9) EF 'D*/'(J1 #H 'D%,1'!'* 'D,E'9J) 'D*@@J JBHE 9DJG' ,G'2 EF #,G2) 'DEF8E@@@) 'D/HDJ) ()  %0 **EJ2 G0G 'D*/'(J1 (.'5*JF #3'3J*JF : 'D#HDI HB'&J) *G/A %DI 'D-JDHD) /HF HBH9 'D9/H'F  H'D+'FJ) 9D',J) *G/A %DI %JB'A 'D9/H'F H*HBJ9 'D,2'! 9DI 'DE9*/J ( ). A%DI #J E/I JECF *7(JB EAGHE F81J) 'D,2'! 9DI ',1'!'* H*/'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J  HGD JECF '9*('1 F29 #3D-) 'D/E'1 'D4'ED 'D91'BJ) FH9' EF 'D,2'! *E *HBJ9G 9DI 'D91'B AJ %7'1 */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J 'DG'/A) %DI -A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF  HAJE' JDJ E-'HD) DD%,'() 9DI G0JF 'D3$'DJF . #HD' : EHB9 */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J EF F81J) 'D,2'! AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ : DB/ #+'1* AC1) 'D,2'! SANCTIONS .D'A' H,/D' ABGJ' 4/J/'K AJ E98E 'DE$DA'* 'D*J *F'HD* F81J) 'DB'FHF (4CD 9'E H*DC 'DE9FJ) ('DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 9DI H,G 'D.5H5  -J+ 1#I (96 AD'3A) 'DB'FHF #E+'D ( C'F*  HGJ,D  HGH(2 ) #F .5'&5 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D' *6AJ 9DI #-C'EG 5A) 'DBH'9/ 'DB'FHFJ) ('DE9FI 'D5-J-  HB/ '3*F/ G0' 'D1#J %DI #F G0' 'DB'FHF JA*B/ H,H/ 'D3D7) 'D*41J9J) H'D3D7) 'DB6'&J) H'D,2'! 'D0J J-EJ #-C'E 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) HJHA1 6E'F '-*1'EG' HJHB9 9DI EF J.'DAG' . HB/ *E 'D*9(J1 9F 0DC ('D9('1) 'D4GJ1) "ni code , ni juge , ni gendarme " (). (D 'F 'D1H'/ 'D#H'&D DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ  #E+'D (Gentilis, Puffendorf , Vitaria )  B/ F81H' 'DI G0' 'DB'FHF ('9*('1G #B1( 'DI E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'D7(J9J) EFG 'DI 'DBH'9/ 'DH6J9) 'DED2E) . H9DI -JF '*,G #5-'( E/13) 'DB'FHF 'D7(J9J F-H 'DF81 %DI 'DB'FHF CEH,H/ (0'*G HJ*EJ2 (7(J9*G 'D'3*BD'DJ) 9F #J) %1'/) %F3'FJ)  A'F #5-'( E/13) 'DB'FHF 'DH69J B/ H,/H' #F 'DB'FHF GH E,EH9) BH'9/ 'D3DHC 'D9'E) 'DE,1/)  'D3'1J) #H 'DE7(B) A9D'K AJ E,*E9 E9JF  ('DF81 D%D2'EG' 'DE1*C2 9DI 'B*1'FG' (,2'! E'/J EDEH3  HJ*AB AJ 0DC CD EF #5-'( 'DH69J) 'DB'FHFJ) #E+'D "CD3F" H " A1/1H3 " H#5-'( 'DH69J) 'D',*E'9J) #E+'D " /J,J " H " H,J2 " . HDB/ C'F 9F51 'D,2'! '-/ #GE 'D9F'51 'D#3'3J) D%C3'( 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) G0G 'D5A) AJ 1#J ABG'! E/13) 'DB'FHF 'DH69J  D0' 0G( #-/ ABG'! G0G 'DE/13) 'DB'FHF 'DH69J  D0' 0G( '-/ ABG'! G0G 'DE/13) HGH 'DABJG " JOHN AUSTIN " 'DI %FC'1 H69J) 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ '3*F'/'K 'DI F81*G DDB'FHF ('9*('1G E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'D5'/1) 9F 3D7) 3J'3J) 0'* 3J'/) *3*7J9 'D9ED 9DI 6E'F '-*1'E #H'E1G' (*HBJ9 'D,2'! 9DI 'DE.'DA D*DC 'D#H'E1  H'F*GI G0' 'DABJG 'DI #F E' '57D- 9DI *3EJ*G ('DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E DJ3 AJ -BJB*G 3HI E,EH9) EF BH'9/ 'D#.D'B 'D/HDJ) 'DH69J) (). HDB/ *#+1 'D9/J/ EF 'DABG'! 'DD0JF *5/H' D/1'3) " F81J) 'DB'FHF" (G0G 'D1'! HB/ *4CCH' AJ H69J) 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E D9/E '-*H'! BH'9/G 9DI 9F51 'D,2'! H'D0J 1#HG B'3E'K H#5JD' AJ 9F'51 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ)  H'*AB AJ 0DC CD EF #5-'( 'DE/13) 'DH'B9J) H#5-'( 'DE/13) 'D,(1J)  -J+ 0G( 'DH'B9JHF AJ F81*GE DDB'FHF 'DI '9*('1G " H'B9)" D' ('9*('1G " BJE)" H#F 'DB'FHF (0DC J9/ (E+'() " 5J:) ',*E'9J) BH'EG' -ED 'D#A1'/ 9DI #F J3DCH' 'DE3DC 'DE1:H( AJG  H0DC 9F 71JB 'D*G/J/ ('*.'0 %,1'! BG1J J7(B AJ -'D) HBH9 E3DC E.'DA " (). #E' #5-'( 'DF29) 'D,(1J) AJ1H 'F 'DB'FHF GH "E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'D,(1J) 'D*J *5/1 9F '1'/) 'D/HD) H*F8JE 3DHC 'D#4.'5 'D.'69JF DG0G 'D/HD) #H 'D/'.DJF AJ *CHJFG'" (). H(JF G'*JF 'DE/13*JF 0G( ,EGH1 'DABG _ AJ ('( F81J) 'DB'FHF _ 'DI *91JA 'DB'FHF (#FG " E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'D9'E) 'DE,1/) 'D*J *F8E 3DHC 'D#A1'/ 'D.'1,J AJ 'DE,*E9 H*BHE 9DI '-*1'EG' 3D7) 9'E) *HB9 'D,2'! 9DI EF J.'DAG' " (). HDB/ C'F* #GE F*'&, G0G 'D"1'! 'DABGJ) #F *(DH1 '*,'G BHJ J,-/ *E*9 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E ('DH69J) 'DB'FHFJ)  '3*F'/'K 'DI 9/E H,H/ ,2'! #H 3D7) 9DJ' #H /HD) AHB 'D/HD *3*7J9 *HBJ9 'D,2'! 'DED2E 9DI 'DE.'DAJF  'D#E1 'D0J J$/J _ 9F/ G0' 'D'*,'G _ 'DI AB/'F 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) #GE .5'&5G' HGH H,H/ *F8JE B'FHFJ H,2'!'* *6EF '-*1'EG'  D0' C'F D2'E' 9DI ABG'! 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E 'D*5/J DG0' 'D'*,'G . HDB/ C'F* FB7) 'F7D'B :'D(J) 'DABG'! 'D1'A6JF DG0' 'D'*,'G GJ 'D*#CJ/ 9DI #F H,H/ 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) D' J*HBA 9DI *H'A1 CD EF 'D3D7) 'D*41J9J) H'D3D7) 'DB6'&J) HH,H/ 'D,2'!  H'F *H'A1G' J3'9/ 9DI /9E 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) ( )  %6'A) 'DI *#CJ/ :'D(J) G0' 'DABG 'DE$J/ DH69J) BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 9DI E' JDJ : 61H1) E1'9') '.*D'A 'D(F'! 'DB'FHFJ 'D.'5 ('DE,*E9 'D/HDJ 'D0J J*CHF #3'3' EF /HD E3*BD) 0'* 3J'/) 9F 0DC 'D(F'! 'DB'FHFJ 'D0J J-CE E,*E9 'D#A1'/ /'.D 'D/HD)  %6'A) 'DI '.*D'A 7(J9) 'DE.'7(JF  'D#E1 'D0J J,9D EF 'D9(+ #F J*E 'DBJ'3 /HF E1'9') G0G 'DAH'1B 'D,HG1J) . 9/E %1*G'F H5A BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ ('DBH'9/ 'DB'FHFJ) (61H1) H,H/ 3D7) *41J9J)  D'F 'D/HD AJ 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ *BHE (EE'13) G0' 'D#E1 9DI :1'1 F8'E 'D/JEHB1'7J) 'DE('41) (). 61H1) 9/E 'D.D7 (JF " *BHJE 'DB'FHF " H " *CHJF 'DB'FHF " '3*F'/'K 'DI -*EJ) *H'A1 E,EH9) EF 'D9F'51 D*CHJF 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) HE,EH9) EF 'D41H7 'DD'2E) D*H'A1 -3F *7(JB *DC 'DB'9/) _ (9/ #F **CHF H*F4' _ E+D H,H/ 'DB6'! H'D,2'!( )  H'F 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E J91A 'D,2'!'* 'D*J *CAD '-*1'E #-C'EG HDCFG' ,2'!'* **AB E9 *CHJF 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ HE9 7(J9) 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) () . +(H* H69J) 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ ('9*1'A 'D/HD 'DE.'7() (#-C'EG (H,H/G H%D2'EG DG' HE-'HD) G0G 'D/HD %6A'! 'DE41H9J) 9DI *51A'*G' 'D*J *9/ E.'DA) D' -C'E BH'9/ 0DC 'DB'FHF  HAJ 0DC D' *.*DA 'F*G'C'* G0G 'D/HD D*DC 'DBH'9/ 9F EHBA 'D#A1'/ /'.D E,*E9 'D/HD) %0' E' B'EH' (E.'DA) #-C'E 'DB'FHF 'D/'.DJ ( ). HEE' 3(B J*6-  #F ,EGH1 'DABG 'D/HDJ B/ 0G( 'DI *H'A1 9F51 'D,2'! AJ 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) 'D/HDJ) H%F %.*DA* 7(J9) G0' 'D,2'! H(F'&G 'DB'FHFJ 9F 7(J9) HEAGHE 'D,2'! AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/'.DJ . HDCF E' GH E6EHF AC1) 'D,2'! HE/DHDG' AJ 6H! BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ  G0' E' F39I 'DI EF'B4) AJE' JDJ : E9FI 'D,2'! AJ BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ : CDE) ,2'! AJ 'DD:) 'D91(J) *9FJ 'DEC'A#) ('D9B'( #H 'D+H'( #H (#J EFGE' (-3( A9D 'D4.5 'DEC'A# HCEB'(D DG0' 'DA9D ( ). AAJ 'DE9FJ 'D#HD  #J 'DEC'A#) ('D9B'(  F,/G AJ BHDG *9'DI : " DGE EF ,GFE EG'/ HEF AHBGE :H'4 HC0DC F,2J 'D8'DEJF " ( 'D#91'A / 41 ). #E' 'DE9FJ 'D+'FJ  #J 'DEC'A#) ('D+H'(  F,/G AJ BHDG *9'DI : " %F DDE*BJF EA'2'K -/'&B H#9F'('K HCH'9( '*1'(' HC'3' /G'B' D' J3E9HF AJG' D:H' HD' C0'(' ,2'!'K EF 1(C 97'!'K -3'('K ('DEF'29'* /36 ). #E' AJ 'DE9FI 'D+'D+  'D,'E9 (JF 'D+H'( H'D9B'(  AF,/G AJ BHDG *9'DI : " HDDG E' AJ 'D3E'H'* HE' AJ 'D#16 DJ,2J 'D0JF #3'!H' (E' 9EDH' HJ,2J 'D0JF #-3FH' ('D-3FI " ('DA,1 /31 ) 5/B 'DDG 'D98JE . #E' AJ 'DD:'* 'D#,F(J) A*9FJ CDE) sanctions 0DC 'D%,1'! 'D0J **.0G 'D3D7) 'DE.*5) /3*H1J' DD*7(JB  H*9FJ AJ E,'D 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%,1'! 'D0J J*.0 AJ -'D) 'F*G'C B'9/) B'FHFJ) ( )  #H GH 1/ 'DA9D 'DE$J/ #F 'DE9'16 'D0J JG/A 'DE1,9 *#CJ/ '-*1'E BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ (). HJEJD E98E 'DABG 'DI *:DJ( 'DE9FJ 'D9B'(J DCDE) ,2'! EF 'DF'-J) 'DB'FHFJ)  -J+ J.*D7 'D,2'! (E9FI 'D9BH()  .'5) -JF J*.0 5H1) 'DB31 'DE'/J 1:E 'F 'D9BH() DJ3* 3HI %-/I 5H1 'D,2'!  D'3JE' H'F G0' 'D,2'! B/ J4ED 'D9B'( 9DI A9D *E +(H*G CE' JECF 'F JCHF */(J1'K '-*1'2J'K  H0DC J9FJ #F ,E9G (JF E9'ED) 'DHB'&9 'D-'DJ) H'DE3*B(DJ)(). :J1 #F GF'C EF 'DABG EF J1I #F JCHF 'D,2'! (E9FI 'DEC'A#) 'D*J */9H 'D#A1'/ 'DI 9ED DD-5HD 9DJG'  HGH E' J*-BB (7'9*GE H'-*1'EGE DDB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) (). #E' 'DABG 'D:1(J AJ:D( 9DJG 1$J) 'D,'F( 'D3D(J AJ 'D,2'! #J (E9FI 'D9B'(  .'5) H#F G0' 'DE9FI JE'+D 'D"DE AJ 'DD:) 'DD'*JFJ) ()  CE' J,/ G0' 'D'*,'G *#JJ/'K H'39'K AJ 'DABG 'DB'FHF 'D/'.DJ (). G/A 'D,2'! H#GEJ*G AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ : JC'/ J,E9 'DABG 'D/HDJ 'D:1(J 9DI #F 'D,2'! 0H 7(J9) H8JAJ) D' *G/A %DI 2,1 H%JD'E 'D/HD) 'DE.'DA) D#-C'E 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ)  HDCF (G/A 1/G' 'DI ,'/) 'D5H'( H'D'E*+'D DG0' 'DB'FHF -*I J3*B1 #EF H3D'E 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ ( ). HGH E' 0G( 'DJG :'D(J) 'DABG'! 'D91(  HB/ #C/ 9DI 0DC 'D#3*'0 'D/C*H1 9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F  AJ *91JAG DD,2'! *91JA'K H8JAJ'K (5A*G "1/ 'DA9D 'D',*E'9J 'D0J J9(1 9F '3*J'! 'DE,*E9 *,'G #-/ #96'&G 'D0J '1*C( E' J.'DA E6EHF %-/I 'DBH'9/ 'DB'FHFJ) 'D3'1J) AJ G0' 'DE,*E9"( ) HJD*BJ 'D'*,'G 'DH8JAJ AJ *91JA 'D,2'! E9 F81J'* 'D1/9 AJ ABG B'FHF 'D9BH('*  H'D0J J1I #F 'D9BH() *F-51 H8JA*G' AJ 'DHB'J) H'DEF9 EF '1*C'( ,1'&E E3*B(DJ) HJ*-BB 0DC 9F 71JB 1/9 'D".1JF H*G/JGE (%F2'D 'D9BH() (GE '0' E' .'DAH' 'DF5 'D*,1JEJ *E'E' CE' D-B ('D,'FJ 'D0J '1*C( A9D' E,1E' H+(** E3&HDJ*G 9FG H(0DC *-HD /HF '1*C'( ,1'&E E3*B(DJ) ( ). H1:E #F 'D,2'!  AJ C'A) 'DF8E 'DB'FHFJ)  JG/A %DI *-BJB H8JA*JF #3'3J*JF 'D#HDI : GJ *HBJ9 'D9BH() 9DI 'DE.'DAJF D-EDGE 9DI 'D'D*2'E (#-C'E H#H'E1 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) . H'D+'FJ) : GJ 1/9 'DE.'7(JF (G0G 'DB'9/) (E' J-HD /HF %*J'FGE G0' 'D3DHC 'DE.'DA 'D0J *E* E9'B() E1*C() H%D:'! **-BB 'D:'J) 'DHB'&J) EF 'D,2'!  %D' #F :'D(J) 'DABG 'D/HDJ D' *0G( %DI 61H1) #F J39I 'D,2'! %DI %JD'E H2,1 'D/HD) 'DE.'DA) H9B'(G' ('DE9FI 'D/BJB D'57D'- 'D9B'( AJ 9DE B'FHF 'D9BH('* /'.D 'D/HD)  HDCF (E' J9FI AB7 HBA 'DE.'DA) H'D'F*G'C 'D0J #B/E* 9DJG 'D/HD) H'9*/'&G' 9DI BH'9/ 'DF8'E 'D,E'9J 'D/HDJ (). (D #F 'DABJG CAVARE B/ 0G( 'DI 'FG EF 'DE3*-JD #F JH,/ AJ 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ ,2'! 9B'(J _ (E9FI %49'1 'DE9'B( ('D'DE _ D'F 0DC J*7D( E,EH9) EF 'D41H7  EFG' *-/J/ #FH'9 'D,1'&E H/1,) 'DE.'DA'* HGJ 41H7 *.69 D*#+J1 'D9H'ED 'D3J'3J) H%,1'!'* E9JF) HE9B/) ,/'K () . CE' J1I 'D(96 *H'A1 E,EH9) EF 'DF*'&, 'DE*1*() 9DI +(H* 'D7(J9) 'DH8JAJ) DD,2'!  HC1/ A9D EF 'D/HD) #H 'DE,*E9 (G/A %9'/) 'D4J! %DI -'DG  H'D*J F0C1 EFG' : #F 'D,2'! D' -B 9DI HBH9 'DA9D 'DE-8H1 . J,( #F J*F'3( 'D,2'! E9 'D611 'D0J HB9 . "D' J3*G/A 'D,2'! %('/) 'D71A 'DE.7&  CE' J,( #F *-*1E D/I *7(JBG BH'9/ 'D1#A) 'D%F3'FJ) . 'F J3(B 'D,2'! A4D 'D71A 'DE*611 AJ E7'D() 'D71A 'DE.7& (*B/JE 'D*16J) 'DD'2E) . #F JCHF 'D,2'! 1/' 9DI 'F*G'C B'9/) *1*( 9DJG' 611  H"D' JCHF 'D/'A9 'DH-J/ %DJG E5D-) 3J'3J) E9JF) (). E/I '9*('1 */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J (E+'() ,2'!'* D' *.AI E/I #GEJ) EF'B4) '9*('1 */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J (E+'() ,2'! JBHE ('*.'0G E,D3 'D#EF HJHB9G 9DI '-/ #96'! 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ 'DD0JF JBHEHF ('F*G'C #H 'D%.D'D ('D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF #H 9ED EF #9E'D 'D9/H'F  .'5) H'F 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ E+DG AJ 0DC E+D #J E,*E9 J*#DA EF E,EH9) EF 'D#4.'5 **/'.D E5'D-GE #H **F'29 EE' J3*H,( 6(7 H*F8JE 'D9D'B'* 'DB'&E) AJE' (JFGE H(E' J*AB E9 'D5'D- 'D9'E D#96'! G0' 'DE,*E9 EF .D'D '-*1'E 'DBH'9/ 'DB'FHFJ) 'D*J J4CD 'D,2'! 9F51'K #5JD' H#3'3J' EF 9F'51G' H'F '.*DA EAGHE G0' 'D,2'! H7(J9*G 'DB'FHFJ) H71JB) *HBJ9G 9DI 'D96H 'DE.'DA D#-C'E 'DB'FHF . H'0' C'F 'D9/J/ EF E$DA'* 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ B/ '3*./E* E57D- 'D,2'!  'D' #F EJ+'B #GE EF8E) /HDJ) HGJ 'D#EE 'DE*-/) DE J1/ AJG E7DB'K G0' 'DE57D-  H%F C'F B/ H1/ #+F'! E1'-D %9/'/ 0DC 'DEJ+'B  'D#E1 'D0J ,9D 'D9H/) %DI "1'! 'DAB) 'D/HDJ _ D(J'F E' %0' C'F* */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J AJ 'DA5D 'D3'(9 EF 'DEJ+'B (E+'() ,2'!'* #E D'  GJ 'DAJ5D H'D-CE  .'5) HB/ 1#I (96 'DABG'! #F E4CD) 'D,2'! AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ *CEF AJ CJAJ) %D2'E 'D/HD #H -EDG' 9DI 'DHA'! ('D*2'E'*G' ( ) . AGD *BHE */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J (G0' 'D/H1  G0' E' F39I 'DI EF'B4*G AJ 6H! "1'! 'DABG 'D/HDJ 'D0J 'FB3E AJ G0' 'D4#F 'DI +D'+ '*,'G'* 1&J3J) : #E' 'D'*,'G 'D#HD : AJ0G( 'DI FAJ 5A) 'D,2'! 9F */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J  HJ3*F/ AJ 0DC 'DI #F G0G 'D*/'(J1 0'* 5A) 3J'3J) H*7(JBG' E1GHF (*B/J1 E,D3 'D#EF HGH E' J*AB E9 'DEJD 'D9'E F-H *1,J- 'D5A) 'D3J'3J) DF5H5 'DEJ+'B 9DI 5A*G' 'DB'FHFJ) .'5) H'F 'D,2'! D' JBHE 'D' 9F/ 'F*G'C %D*2'E B'FHFJ () . HJ$C/ G0' 'D'*,'G  9DI #F :D() 'DE9'JJ1 'D3J'3J) H3D7) E,D3 'D#EF 'DH'39) AJ *B/J1 HBH9 *G/J/ DD3DE #H 'F*G'CG #H 9ED  EF #9E'D 'D9/H'F D' J,9D +E) 6'(7 AJ *-1J E/I 9/'D) *B1J1 'DE,D3 AJ G0' 'D4#F ()  H#F 'DE'/) 39 EF 'DEJ+'B GJ EA*'- *B1J1 HBH9 #J EF G0G 'D-'D'* 'D+D'+  HGH #E1 (J/ E,D3 'D#EF H-/G HDG *1*J('K 9DI 0DC '*.'0 G0G 'D*/'(J1 #H *97JDG' (). HAJ 0'* 'D'*,'G 0G(* 'D#3*'0) ROSALYN HIGGINS 'DI #F 'D/HD /'&E) 'D96HJ) (E,D3 'D#EF *9E/ 'DI H5A 'DEHBA (#FG EG// DD3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJ HAB 'DE9'JJ1 'D3J'3J) %0' C'F* 9'2E) 9DI *HBJ9 'D*/'(J1 6/ /HD) E' (). HDB/ H,/ G0' 'D'*,'G *#JJ/' D/I (96 'DABG 'D91(J  -J+ 1#* 'D#3*'0) 'D/C*H1) 9'&4) 1'*( " #F DA8 ,2'!'* DE J3*./E DD/D'D) 9DI *DC 'D*/'(J1 'D,E'9J)  H%FE' J3*./E DA8 ( ',1'!'* ) 'D0J JH-J (E9'FJ %,1'&J)  3H'! #C'F* HB'&J) #E 9D',J) #C+1 EF %JE'FG 'DI E9FI 'D,2'! " () H#E' 'D'*,'G 'D+'FJ : AJ1I #5-'(G 61H1) 'D*A1B) (JF 'D*/'(J1 'DE$B*) 'D*J J-+ E,D3 'DEF (EH,(G' #71'A 'DF2'9 'D/HDJ 'DI %*('9G'  H*DC 'D*/'(J1 'DE('41) 'D*J J*.0G' 'DE,D3 HDG' 7'(9 'DB31 H*CHF /HF 3H'G' 5'-() H5A " 'D,2'! "  HGJ 'D*/'(J1 :J1 'D93C1J)  H'D*/'(J1 'D93C1J) (). HJ3*F/ G0' 'D'*,'G 'DI #F E,D3 'D#EF B/ JH5J ('D%,1'!'* 'DE$B*) B(D #F J*(JF DG #J EF 'D#71'A B/ *3(( (.7&G AJ *G/J/ 'D3DE #H 'F*G'CG  #E' AJ -'D) '*.'0 'DE,D3 'D*/'(J1 ('DBE9J) ) AD'(/ #F JH,GG' 6/ 'D71A 'DE.7& H-/G DHBA 'D.7# #H 'D9/H'F EF F'-J) H9DI 3(JD 'D9B'( EF F'-J) #.1I () . 'E' 'D'*,'G 'D+'D+ : A1:E 9/E %FC'1 #5-'(G #F 'DE9'JJ1 'D3J'3J) GJ 'D:'D() 9DI *B1J1 E,D3 'D#EF DDEH'BA 'D/HDJ)  (E' JF9C3 9DI *B/J1G DCD EHBA (EH,( 'DE'/) 39 EF 'DEJ+'B  (5A*G #F 'DE,D3 DJ3 3D7) B6'&J) H'FE' ,G'2 3J'3J  D#E1 'D0J J,9D '-*E'D 'D.7# AJ B1'1G #E1' H'1/'  'D' #F G0' 'D'*,'G J1I '*5'A */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J (H5A 'D,2'!'* ( ). HDCF '0' C'F (96 'DABG'!  6EF G0' 'D'*,'G  DE JBJ/ G0' 'DH5A (#J BJ/ #H 417 E+D 'DABG _ ",H,FGJE" 'D0J DE J.A *#JJ/G DH5A ',1'!'* 'DBE9 'DH'1/) (#-C'E 'DA5D 'D3'(9 EF 'DEJ+'B (#FG' (E+'() ,2'!'* ( )  A'F 'D(96 'D#.1 _ H#F #J/ G0' 'DH5A _ B/ BJ/G (E' JECF '9*('1G 'D*2'E'* J,( 9DI E,D3 'D#EF E1'9'*G'  -J+ 1#I 'DABJG " G'F2 CD3F " 'FG '0' '9*(1* ',1'!'* 'DBE9 (E+'() ,2'!  JCHF E,D3 'D#EF ED2E -JF&0 (*-/J/ 'DE9*/I  H"D' JH,G ',1'!'* 'DBE9 6/ /HD) DJ3* E.7&) 1:E #F 5J':) 'DE'/) 39 D' *D2E E,D3 'D#EF (0DC (51'-) () . CE' 0G( 'DABG " 9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F" 'DI '9*('1 */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J 'D*J *BHE (G' 'DEF8E'* 'D/HDJ) AJ EH',G) 'D/HD) 'D*J *1*C( E' J.'DA 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ (E+'() ,2'!'* ,E'9J)  'D' #F 3J'/*G B/ 1GF G0' 'DH5A (*B1J1 E,D3 'D#EF 'D0J J-// (EH,(G E3&HDJ) 'D/HD 'DE.'DA) H'D0J J9*(1 FH9' EF 'D,2'! *DJG */'(J1 'DEF 'D,E'9J 'D*J J,H2 DDE,D3 '*.'0G' AJ G0' 'D4#F  HB/ '3*F/ AJ 0DC 'DI 'F 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ J9*1A (,'F( 'D,2'!'* 'D*#/J(J) (FH9JG' ( 'D*F8JEJ) H'D*/'(J1 'D,E'9J) ) E,EH9) EF 'D,2'!'* 'D,F'&J) H'D#/(J) H'DB'FHFJ) (). H%0' C'F B/ #*6- DF' EF 'D916 'D3'(B  CJA #F (96 'DABG B/ #FC1 9DI */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J 'D*E*9 (H5A 'D,2'!  HB51 'D(96 GF' 'DH5A 9DI */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J 'DBG1J) AB7  9DI -JF #B1 'D(96 D*/'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J (G0G 'D5A) 'D,2'&J) HDCF (9/ #F J-// E,D3 'D#EF 'D71A 'DE.'DA (EH,( F5 'DE'/) 39 EF 'DA5D 'D3'(9 EF 'DEJ+'B  AE' GJ -/H/ 3D7) E,D3 'D#EF AJ *HBJ9 'D,2'!  G0' E' F39I 'DI (-+G AJE' JDJ : +'FJ'K : E/I *7(JB E,D3 'D#EF DE(/# 419J) 'D,1'&E H'D9B'(  JBHE E(/# " 'D419J) 'D9B'(J) " AJ B'FHF 'D9BH('*  9DI '9*('1 #F 'D*41J9 GH 'DE5/1 'DE('41 DB'FHF 'D9B'( HJ9/ F*J,) EF7BJ) DDE(/# 'D0J *13. AJ ABG 'D,1JE) H'D9B'( H'D0J *(DH1 AJ B'9/) " D' ,1JE) HD' 9BH() 'D' (B'FHF " . H'0' C'F G0' 'DE(/# _ 419J) 'D,1'&E H'D9B'( _ B/ H,/ *7(JB'K H'B9J'K E9 #AC'1 'D+H1) 'DA1F3J) 'D*J -15* 9DI 'D-/ EF 'D3D7'F 'DH'39 DDB6'! 'D0J #/I 'DI 'D*-CE  .'5) AJ 'DB1HF 'D3'(B) 9DI 951 'D*FHJ1  'D' %F 'D41J9) 'D%3D'EJ) 'D:1'! B/ H,/* *7(JB'K DG0' 'DE(/# AJ ,1'&E 'D-/H/ H'DB5'5  %0 *E *BJJ/ -1J) HDJ 'D#E1 AJ 'D*,1JE H'D9B'( (E' J*AB HF5H5 'D41J9) HE('/&G' 'D9'E) ( ). (D #F 'D(-+ AJ 'D41'&9 'D3'(B) 9DI 'D41J9) 'D%3D'EJ) D' *9/E H,H/ G0' 'DE(/#  HGH 'D#E1 'D0J #4'1 %DJG 'DB1"F 'D98JE AJ B5) 'DF(J " JH3A " 9DJG 'D3D'E  H0DC AJ 'D"J) 'DC1JE) 'D*J ,'! AJG' _ 9DI D3'F #.H) JH3A _ " B'DH' *'DDG DB/ 9DE* E' ,&F' DFA3/ AJ 'D#16 HE' CF' 3'1BJF . B'DH' AE' ,2'$G %F CF*E C'0(JF . B'DH' ,2'$G EF H,/ AJ 1-DG AGH ,2'$G C0DC F,2J 'D8'DEJF " 5/B 'DDG 'D98JE () . HE$/I G0' 'DE(/#  #FG D' J,H2 *,1JE A9D DE JF5 'DB'FHF 'D3'1J HB* HBH9G 51'-) 9DI *,1JEG  CE' D' J,H2 *HBJ9 9BH() 9DI E1*C( 'D,1JE) .D'A *DC 'DEB11) B'FHF'  H0DC -*I JCHF G0' 'DE(/# (E+'() 6E'FG D#4.'5 'DE.'7(JF ('DB'9/) 'D9B'(J)  H9/E *HBJ9 9BH(G :J1 *DC 'DEF5H5 9DJG'  %6'A) 'DI *CJJA 3DHCGE (E' J*AB H#H'E1 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) HFH'GJG' . HDB/ D'B* B'9/) 419J) 'D,1JE) H'D9B'( *#JJ/' EF 'DABG 'D/HDJ  -J+ 0G( 'D#3*'0 'D/C*H1 9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F  'DI #F G0G 'DB'9/) H%F DE *,/ F5'K EE'+D'K AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  #J F5 JB*6J ('FG D' ,1JE) HD' 9BH() %D' (F5  " A'F G0G 'DB'9/) E3DE) EF ,'F( ,EJ9 'DBH'FJF 'D/'.DJ)  (-J+ D' JECF D#J 4.5 #F J4C AJ #FG' *9/ EF 'DE('/& 'D#3'3J) DDB'FHF 'DE9*1A (G' EF ,EJ9 'DF8E 'DB'FHFJ) 'D/'.DJ)  HGJ (G0' 'DE9FI _ H('D1:E EF 9/E 'DF5 9DJG' AJ #J B'9/) B'FHFJ) /HDJ) '*A'BJ) #H 91AJ) ',() 'D'-*1'E AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  H0DC -3(E' ,'! AJ 'DE'/) 38 EF 'DF8'E 'D#3'3J DE-CE) 'D9/D 'D/HDJ) (). H*1*J('K 9DI E' 3(B  J5(- EF 'D61H1J 'D%,'() 9DI 0DC 'D*3'$D 'D0J JA16 FA3G AJ G0G 'DFB7) EF G0' 'D(-+  'D' HGH " E/I 'F7('B E(/# 419J) 'D,1JE) H'D9B'( 9DI *DC 'D,2'!'* 'D*J JHB9G' E,D3 'D#EF "  G0' E' F39I 'DI EF'B4*G AJE' JDJ : +'D+'K : E,D3 'D#EF HE(/# 419J) 'D,1'&E H'D9B'( : '0' C'F E(/# 419J) 'D,1'&E H'D9B'( J1*C2 9DI CHF 'D*41J9 GH 'DE5/1 'DE('41 DB'FHF 'D9BH('* (H,G 9'E  H0DC -*I JCHF 'D#A1'/ AJ E,*E9 'D/HD) (E#EF EF *HBJ9 9B'( /HF F5 H/HF *-/J/ DF7'B G0' 'D9B'(  AD' J*AB E9 E(/# 'D419J) 'DB'FHFJ) (4CD 9'E H'D419J) 'D9B'(J) 9DI H,G 'D.5H5 #F JCHF DE,D3 'D#EF E7DB 'D-1J) AJ *B1J1 #J 9BH() J1'G' 6/ 'D/HD) 'DE.'DA) DBH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ H#-C'E 'DEJ+'B . H9DI 'D1:E EF #F AC1) 'D,2'! *.*DA AJ .5'&5G' HE,'D #9E'DG' ('.*D'A 'DE,*E9 /'.D 'D/HD) 9F E,*E9 'D,E'9) 'D/HDJ)  'D' #F 'DE1C2 'DB'FHFJ DD/HD)  (E' J*6EFG EF -BHBG' H9F'51 3J'/*G'  D' JECF #F JCHF AJ E1*() #BD EF *DC 'D*J 9DJG' 'DE1C2 'DB'FHFJ DDA1/ HE' J*E*9 (G EF -BHB /'.D E,*E9 'D/HD) . A'0' C'F 'DEJ+'B J,3/ _ (-B _ B'FHF EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 'D#9DI H'D#3'3J  HB/ *6EF E,EH9) EF 'D*/'(J1 'DE.*DA) AJ E,'D -A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJ  A'F B(HD 'D/HD 'D#96'! AJ G0G 'DEF8E) D%-C'E 'DEJ+'B AJ G0' 'D4#F J,9D E,D3 'D#EF EBJ/ (*DC 'D*/'(J1 'DEF5H5 9DJG' (EH,( G0G 'D#-C'E  H'D*J *1'6* 'D/HD 9DI 'D'E*+'D DG' (-3('FG' */'(J1 9B'(J) 3*HB9 9DJG' %F GJ .'DA* #-C'E HE('/& G0' 'DEJ+'B . HDE' C'F 'DABG 'D/HDJ JC'/ J,E9 9DI #F " 'D1/9 'D9'E " GH 'DG/A 'D#3'3J EF 'D,2'! HDJ3 " 'D2,1 H'D%JD'E "  A'FG D' J*5H1 H,H/ 0DC 'D1/9 'D9'E '0' DE *CF 'D#A9'D 'DE,1E) H'D9BH('* 'DEB11) DG' E-//) 3DA'K HJ(BI DE,D3 'D#EF 'D3D7) AJ *B1J1 '*.'0 'D*/'(J1 'DEF'3() %2'! 'DH'B9) 'D*J JB11 (4#FG' E' '0' C'F* *E+D *G/J/'K H%F*G'C'K DD3DE  #H 9ED EF #9E'D 'D9/H'F  H*F-51 (9/ 0DC 3D7'*G AJ '.*J'1 #J 'D*/'(J1 #C+1 ED'&E) DEH',G) G0' 'DEHBA EF (JF E,EH9) 'D*/'(J1 'D*J F5 9DJG' G0' 'DA5D EF 'DEJ+'B  H'DE1,9 AJ 0DC 9/) '9*('1'* F0C1 EFG' E' JDJ : #F #J *H3J9 AJ F7'B 3D7'* H'.*5'5'* E,D3 'D#EF 'D9B'(J) AJ E,'D -A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJ J3*D2E _ AJE' 9/' E' *B6J (G BH'9/ 'D*A3J1 'DEH6H9J) CB'9/) %9E'D 'DF5 _ *9/JD 'DEJ+'B HAB'K DD71JB) 'D*J '*AB 9DJG' H'69HG ()  HAJ 0DC 0G( 'D#3*'0 'D/C*H1 9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F 'DI " #F 'D,2'!'* D' JECF 'D*H39 AJG' 'H 'DBJ'3 9DJG' D#FG' 9BH('* D'(/ DG' EF 'DF5 'D51J- H'DH69 GF' J4(G ('DC'ED 'DH69 AJ 'DB'FHF 'D,F'&J " ( ). 9/E H,H/ 6'(7 DE/I 9/'D) E,D3 'D#EF AJ *B1J1G (4#F 'DEHBA E-D 'D(-+  H'D*/'(J1 'D*J JECF '*.'0G' %2'! 'D/HD) 'D*J B/ J+(* 'F*G'C *51AG' 'H %.D'DG ('D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJ #H J9*(1 9/H'F'K  'D#E1 'D0J J*9'16 E9 %97'! 'DE,D3 3D7) *H3J9 F7'B 'D,2'! 9E' GH EH6- AJ 'DEJ+'B *,F('K D*#+J1 'D'9*('1'* 'D3J'3J) 'DF'*,) 9F 3J71) 'D/HD /'&E) 'D96HJ) 9DI '*,'G'* HB1'1'* 'DE,D3 ()  .'5) '0' 9DEF' #F (96 'DABG J9*1A (#F #3'3 %D2'E 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E JF-51 AJ 5/H1G 9F %1'/) 'DA&) 'DE3J71) HGJ 'D/HD /'&E) 'D96HJ) AJ E,D3 'D#EF H'3*&+'1G' (*HBJ9 'D,2'!  H'D*J *('41 G0G 'DH8JA) 9DI :1'1 'D-CHE) 'DH'B9J) ()  'D#E1 'D0J J9*(1 E9G 'D*3DJE DE,D3 'DEF _ 'D0J *3J71 9DJG H9DI 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) *DC 'D/HD 'DC(1I _ (E+'() %9D'F 51J- (%FGJ'1 419J) F8'E 'D9BH('* 'D/HDJ) HF81J) 'D#EF 'D,E'9J 'D/HDJ . #F (B'! 'DBH) 9F51'K #3'3J'K _ D/I (96 'DABG _ AJ 'D,2'! C6'EF D*A9JD /H1 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ AJ 'D-J') 'D/HDJ)  H(/HF G0G 'DBH) D' JECF *-BJB 0DC ()  J,9D 'D:'D(J) EF 'DABG 'D/HDJ **4CC AJ E5/'BJ) *DC 'D/HD 'DE*E*9) ('E*D'C G0G 'DBH) AJ '3*./'EG' /HF 'F-1'A 'H *-BJB #G/'AG' 'D.'5) H/HF E1'9') 'DE5D-) 'D9'E) DDE,*E9 'D/HDJ ( )  'D#E1 'D0J J,9D EF E(/# 419J) 'D,1JE) H'D9B'( BJ/' G'E'K 9DI -1J) E,D3 'D#EF  #H ('D"-1I 9DI -1J) G0G 'D/HD 'DC(1I AJ 'D'F-1'A (3D7) 'D9B'( . #F 'DG/A 'D#3'3J DF8'E 'D#EF 'D,E'9J GH 'D9ED 9DI '3*B1'1 'DH69 'D/HDJ H9/E *:JJ1G 'H 'D'.D'D (G AJ 'D'*,'G 'D0J J./E E5D-) %-/I 'D/HD 9DI -3'( :J1G'  H0DC 9F 71JB '*.'0 ',1'!'* H*/'(J1 /HDJ) ,E'9J) *-HD /HF 0DC  H#F 49H1 #J /HD) *AC1 AJ 'D9/H'F ('FG' 3*H',G (G0G 'D*/'(J1 3J,9DG' *-,E 9F G0G 'D3DHC ()  A%0' #7DB* J/ E,D3 'D#EF _ 'D0J *3J71 9DJG 'D/HD 'DC(1I /'&E) 'D96HJ) _ AJ *H3J9 FH9 H-,E 'D*/'(J1 'D,E'9J) ADF J*-BB G0' 'D'3*B1'1 'DEF4H/ DDE,*E9 'D/HDJ AJ 8D 7:J'F E9'JJ1 'DBH) H'D(74 H'D'F*B'E  .'5) H'F 'D/HD 'D*J 91A 9FG' E3DCG' 'D9/H'FJ 'D/'&E _ E+D '31'&JD _ DF *9/E 'DH3JD) AJ *,F( *HBJ9 'D,2'! 9DJG' '3*F'/'K DE' **E*9 (G EF -E'J) .'5) EF #-/ #GE 'D/HD /'&E) 'D96HJ) AJ E,D3 'D#EF HGJ 'DHD'J'* 'DE*-/) 'D#E1JCJ) H'D0J J4CD HBHAG' (,'F( 'DEH'BA 'D'31'&JDJ) 'D9/H'FJ) 9/H'F'K ".1 HDCF (4CD :J1 E('41  'D#E1 'D0J *F9/E AJ 8DG #J) E9'JJ1 EH6H9J) AJ *HBJ9 'D,2'! '0' E' #7DB* 3D7) E,D3 'D#EF EF CD BJ/  .'5) HGH J.69 -'DJ'K DG0G 'D/HD) 'D98EI 0'* 'DFG, 'D9/H'FJ AB/ ,H(G 'D91'B ,1'! 'F2D'BG AJ 'DCHJ* (9/H'F E3D- E3*E1 /'E #C+1 EF +D'+) 9419'E'K H'F*GI (*/EJ1 G0' 'D(D/ H'-*D'DG HC'F #:D( G0G 'D',1'!'* E3*F/) 'DI B1'1'* 5'/1) 9F E,D3 'D#EF () 'D.'*E) : '0' C'F EF 'DH',( #F J*BJ/ E,D3 'D#EF AJ 4#F E' J*.0G EF */'(J1 H%,1'!'* AJ %7'1 '.*5'5'*G (-A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF (EJ+'B EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) ('9*('1G 'DB'FHF 'D#9DI H'D*41J9 'D#3'3J 'DEF8E DBH'9/ H"DJ'* 9ED *DC 'DEF8E) H#,G2*G' 'D1&J3J) A#F 3D7) E,D3 'D#EF 'D*B/J1J) AJ E/I ED'&E) 'D*/(J1 'DE*.0 H*B/J1 'DH'B9) E-D 0DC 'D*/(J1 D'(/ H'F *.69 D1B'() 'DE41H9J) AJ 6H! 'DG/A 'D0J EF ',DG '*.0 G0' 'D*/(J1  HH,H( 'F51'AG 'DI *-BJB 'D5'D- 'D9'E DD,E'9) 'D/HDJ) AJ '7'1 'DE-'A8) 9DI 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF  H'D' C'F E9J('K (9J( 'D'F-1'A ('D3D7) '0' C'F B/ '3*G/A *-BJB :16 ".1 . HAJ 8D :D() 'DE9'JJ1 'D3J'3J) 9DI #/'! E,D3 'D#EF  F81' DDH69J) 'D.'5) ('D/HD 'DC(1I /'&E) 'D96HJ) 'D*J *3*#+1 (A5D 'D.7'( AJ 4'F '*.'0 'D,2'!'* #H */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J  A'F %.6'9 3D7) E,D3 'D#EF AJ *B1J1 'D,2'! DE(/# 419J) 'D,1'&E H'D9B'( J95E ('BJ 'D/HD _ 9DI 'D#BD EF 'DF'-J) 'DB'FHFJ) 'DF81J) _ EF 3J71) H'3*(/'/ 'D/HD 'DC(1I AJ *HBJ9 'D,2'! 6/ EF *4'! HE*I HCJA *1J/ 0DC 'D#E1 'D0J J$0F ('FGJ'1 419J) B1'1'* E,D3 'D#EF (D H'DF8'E 'D/HDJ ('31G . HDE' C'F E,D3 'D#EF D' J*E*9 (3D7) .'5) AJ 6H! '.*5'5'*G 'D*J -//*G' EH'/ 'DEJ+'B (4#F *F8JE 'D*3DJ- HF29 'D3D'- . H-J+ 'F F29 'D3D'- B31'K H,(1'K 9F %1'/) 'D/HD)  HC#3DH( EF #3'DJ( 'D9B'( #H */'(J1 'D#EF 'D,E'9J  J,3/ .1H,'K 9DI E(/# 419J) 'D,1'&E H'D9B'(  .'5) AJ 8D 'F9/'E 'DF5 'D9B'(J (4#F G0' 'D,2'! AJ EH'/ 'DEJ+'B  CE' D' *H,/ #J 3'(B) AJ 9G/ 'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ E'13 (EH,(G' 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ G0' 'D,2'! 6/ /HD) .'DA* 'DB'FHF 'DEF8E DD9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) AJ G0' 'DE,*E9 . A'F E,D3 'D#EF JCHF B/ .1, 9F -/H/ #-C'E 'D419J) 'D/HDJ) 9F/E' F5 AJ 'DB3E (,JE) EF B1'1G 1BE 687 (1991) 9DI F29 #3D-) 'D/E'1 'D4'ED 'D91'BJ)  'D#E1 'D0J DE J$J/G F5 AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ #H 3'(BG EF 3H'(B 'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ 'DE9'51 AJ G0' 'D4#F . HD' J9/H B1'1 F29 #3D-) 'D/E'1 'D4'ED 'D91'BJ) 3HI #F JCHF FH9'K EF 41H7 'D*3DJE 'D*J A16G' 'D*-'DA 'DEF*51 AJ -1( 'D.DJ, 'D+'FJ) 6/ 'D91'B . H%0' C'F 0DC C0DC  .'5) H#F E,D3 'D#EF DE J3*F/ AJ *(1J1 F29 #3D-) 'D/E'1 'D4'ED 'D91'BJ) 'DI F5 9B'(J +'(* AJ F5H5 'DEJ+'B  #H 3'(B) /HDJ) EE'+D)  DCFG 3'B E,EH9) EF 'D*(1J1'* 0'* 7(J9) 'D3J'3J)  HB/ -'HD (G' #F J(1GF 9DI E41H9J) E' B6I (G AJ G0' 'D4#F . HGJ : #HD'K : 'F*G'C 'D91'B D'-C'E (1H*HCHD ,FJA D3F) 1925 HE9'G/) -81 'F*4'1 'D#3D-) 'DFHHJ) D3F) 1968 . +'FJ'K : '3*./'E 'D91'B DB0'&A *'J3'1J) DE 3(BG' '3*A2'2 HGJ D'*E* DDH'B9 (5D) H(9J/ CD 'D(9/ 9F 'DHB'&9 CE' (JF'G AJ 5D( (-+F' G0' E1',9 'D(-+ : #HD' K : ('DD:) 'D91(J) : #- 'DB1"F 'DC1JE . (- 'DEH'+JB : 9G/ 95() 'D#EE . EJ+'B EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) . ,- 'D13'&D : /.9(/'DA*'- E-E/ '3E'9JD  ,GH/ 'D#EE 'DE*-/) DF29 'D3D'-  13'D) /C*H1'G  EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'D-BHB ,'E9) 'DB'G1) 3F) 1972 . /- 'D/H1J'* : /. '(1'GJE 'D9F'FJ  -1( 'D41B 'D#H37 HF8'E 'D#EF 'D,E'9J  E,D) 'D9DHE 'DB'FHFJ) H'D'B*5'/J)  1974 . /. '-E/ ,D'D 92 'D/JF  'D#EF H2EF 'D#2E)  5-JA) 'D#G1'E AJ 26/1/1991 . @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@  ,HG1 'D#EF  5-JA) 'D'G1'E AJ 11/1/1997 . /. #-E/ 'D14J/J  *7HJ1 F8'E 'D,2'!'* AJ ,'E9) 'D/HD 'D91(J)  E,D) 4$HF 91(J)  9// (71) 3(*E(1 1992. /. 5D'- 'D/JF 9'E1  B'FHF 'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ _ 'DF81J) 'D9'E)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  1984 . /. 9(/ 'DDG 'D91J'F  EAGHE -BHB 'D/HD H H',('*G'  E,D) 'D3J'3) 'D/HDJ)  9// (55)  JHDJH 1978 . G@- 'DC*( 'DE*.55) : /. '-E/ 'D14J/J  3D7'* E,D3 'D#EF AJ E,'D A16 'D,2'!'* /1'3) DD#-C'E 'D9'E) E9 'D*7(JB 9DI -'D) 'D#2E) 'DDJ(J) _ 'D:1J() _ E,D) E3*B(D 'D9'DE 'D'3D'EJ  E1C2 /1'3'* 'D9'DE 'D'3D'EJ E'D7'  3F) 1991. 'FJ3 D. CDH/ . 'DF8'E 'D/HDJ H'D3D'E 'D9'DEJ  *1,E) : 'D/C*H1 9(/'DDG 'D91J'F  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1964 /. '3E'9JD 5(1J EBD/  'D9D'B'* 'D3J'3J) 'D/HDJ)  /1'3) AJ 'D5HD H'DF81J'*  E7(H9'* ,'E9) 'DCHJ*  3F) 1971 . @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@  'D'3*1'*J,J) H'D3J'3) 'D/HDJ)  E$33) 'D#(-'+ 'D91(J)  (J1H* 1985 . /. (713 :'DJ  'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ  'DB'G1) 3F) 1956. (HD CJF/I  F4H! H3BH7 'DBHEJ 'D98EI  *1,E) E'DC 'D(1J1J  'D#GDJ) DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  'D#1/F  71 3F) 1994 . /. *HAJB -3F A1,  'DE/.D DD9DHE 'DB'FHFJ)  'DB'G1)  3F) 1976 . /. -'E/ 3D7'F  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E AJ HB* 'D3DE  72  /'1'DFG6) 'D91(J)  3F) 1965 . -E/J -'A8 HE-EH/ 'D41B'HJ  F29 'D3D'- H'D3DE 'D9'DEJ  3D3) C*( 3J'3J) 'D/'1 'DBHEJ) DD7('9) H'DF41  9// (225) E'13 3F) 1962 . /HF'D/ (1JF'F  F29 'D3D'- H-81 'D*,'1( 'DFHHJ)  *1,E) : /. 1'4/ 'D(1'HJ  'D7(9) 'D#HDI  'DB'G1)  3F) 1968. /. 3EJ1 9(/ 'D3J/ *F':H  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DDB'FHF  'DB'G1)  3F) 1973 . /. 3DJE'F E1B5  'DE/.D DD9DHE 'DB'FHFJ)  'DB'G1)  3F) 1967 . /. 4E3 'D/JF 'DHCJD /1H3 AJ 'DB'FHF  'DB'G1) 3F) 1966 . /. 7D9* 'D:FJEJ  'D'-C'E 'D9'E) DB'FHF 'D#EE _ /1'3) AJ CD EF 'DAC1 'DE9'51 H'DAC1 'D'3D'EJ  'D'3CF/1J)  1971 . /. 9(/'D12'B 'D3FGH1J H /. '-E/ -4E* #(H 3*J*  #5HD 'DB'FHF  'DB'G1)  3F) 1953 . /. 9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F  /H1 E-CE) 'D9/D 'D/HDJ) AJ *3HJ) 'DEF'29'* 'D/HDJ) H'13'! E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E E9 'D*7(JB 9DI E4CD) 'D41B 'D#H37  72  'DB'G1) 1986. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DB'G1) . @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@  (96 'DGH'E4 'DB'FHFJ) D#2E) 'D.DJ, 'DE9'51) AJ 6H! B1'1'* E,D3 'D#EF  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1) 1997 @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@  #2E) 'DEF8E'* 'D91(J) H'D%3D'EJ) AJ 951 'DGJEF) 'D#E1JCJ) 'D%31'&JDJ)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1998 . /. 9(/'D92J2 E-E/ 31-'F  '31'&JD H'D91( 3D'E #E -1( 'E '1G'( _ /1'3) AJ F7'B F81J*J 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) H'DEF'29'* 'D/HDJ) EF H'B9 'DH+'&B 'D13EJ) ('D*7(JB 9DI 'DF2'9 'D91(J 'D'31'&JDJ  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  1997 . /. 9(/'DA*'- 9(/ 'D('BJ  F81J) 'D-B  'D7(9) 'D+'FJ)  E7(9) FG6) E51  1965 . /. 9(/'DDG 'D#49D  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD,2'!'* :J1 'D93C1J) AJ 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1997 . /. 9(/ 'DEF9E 'D5/G  #5HD 'DB'FHF  'DB'G1) 3F) 1972 . /. 9(/ 'DF'51 'D97'1  E('/& 'DB'FHF  'DB'G1) 3F) 1970 . /. 9DJ 5'/B '(H GJA  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E _ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) _ 'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ _ 'DEF'29'* 'D/HDJ) _ 'D-1( H'D-J'/  'D,2! 'D+'FJ 72  3F) 1975  'D'3CF/1J) . EF4#) 'DE9'1A . /. E#EHF 3D'E)  B'FHF 'D9BH('* _ 'DB3E 'D9'E  /'1 'DAC1 'D91(J  'D7(9) 'D1'(9)  3F) 1983-1984 . /. E-E/ 'D9'DE 'D1',-J  F81J) -B 'D'9*1'6 AJ E,D3 'DEF  71  /'1 'D+B'A) 'D,/J/) 1990 . /. E-E/ 9(/'D92J2 4C1J  'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ 'D9'DEJ (JF 'DF81J) H'DH'B9  /'1 'DAC1  /E4B  1973 . /. EE/H- 4HBJ E57AI C'ED  'D#EF 'DBHEJ H'D#EF 'D,E'9J 'D/HDJ  71  E7(9) ,'E9) 'DB'G1) 1985 . /. E57AI 3D'E) -3JF  'D#EE 'DE*-/)  /'1 'DE7(H9'* 'D,'E9J)  'D'3CF/1J)  3F) 1986 . @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@  '2/H',J) 'DE9'ED) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  3F) 1987. /. F2JG 'DEG/J  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DDB'FHF  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  3F) 1982. H- C*( 'DD:) : D3'F 'D91(  D'(F EF8H1  'D7(9) 'D#HDI  'DE7(9) 'D#EJ1J) (JHD'B 3F) 1304 G@ 'DEF,/ 'D#(,/J  'D7(9) 'D#HDI /'1 'DE41B  (J1H*  3F) 1967 . E.*'1 'D5-'- DD4J. 'D#E'E E-E/ (F '(J (C1 'D1'2J  'DE7(9) 'D'EJ1J) ('DB'G1)  1926 . +'FJ'K : ('DD:) 'D'FCDJ2J) : ANZILOTTI,  Cours de droit international Public , Paris, 1929 BOWETT(D.W.) the Law of International Institutions, London , Sweet & Maxwell 1982 BRIERLY (U.L)  The covenant and the charter , B.Y..B.I& L ., 1946. CAVARE (L) ,  I .idee des sanctions et sa mis en oeuver en droit international public , 1937 , tome XI CAVARE (L.),  les sanctions dans le pacte de la S.D . N. et dams la charter de l.O.N .U. ,R.G.D.I. P. , 1950 COMBACAU (J.) ,  le pouvoir de sanctions deI  O.N.U., etude theorize de la coeritionnon- militaire , paris : pedone , 1974. Dictionnaire de la Terminologie du Droit International, sirey , 1960. HIGGINS (R) ,  International Law , Rhodesia and The UN , world today , March , 1967. JACQUE(BALL), L, O.N.U.et les ope, ration de la maintien de la paix . paris, 1971 KEISEN(HANS),  general theory of law and state  N.Y, 1945 KUNZ (J.) , sanctions in international law , A.J.I.L ., vol.54 , 1960 . LAW BLACKS DICTIONARY , 4th ed .1957 , west publishing company. NORMAN D.PALMER and HOWARD C-PERHINS , International Relations the Riverside Press Cambridge basin 2nd edition , 1957 REISMAN(W..M.),  the Enforcement of international judgments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et les ope ration de la maintien de la paix . paris, 1971 , p.68. (1) /. 5D'- 'D/JF 9'E1  B'FHF 'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ _ 'DF81J) 'D9'E)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B 5 254 . (2) /. '(1'GJE 'D9F'FJ  -1( 'D41B 'D#H37 HF8'E 'D#EF 'D,E'9J  E,D) 'D9DHE 'DB'FHFJ) H'D'B*5'/J)  1974  516 . (3) /. 7D9* 'D:FJEJ  'D'-C'E 'D9'E) DB'FHF 'D#EE _ /1'3) AJ CD EF 'DAC1 'DE9'51 H'DAC1 'D'3D'EJ  'D'3CF/1J)  1971  586 . (4) /. 9(/'D92J2 E-E/ 31-'F  '31'&JD H'D91( 3D'E #E -1( 'E '1G'(  E5/1 3'(B  569 . (1) /. '-E/ ,D'D 92 'D/JF  'D#EF H2EF 'D#2E)  'D#G1'E AJ 26/1/1991  510 . (2) (HD CJF/I  F4H! H3BH7 'DBHEJ 'D98EI  *1,E) E'DC 'D(1J1J  'D#GDJ) DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  'D#1/F  71 3F) 1994  5212 . (3) /. '-E/ ,D'D 92 'D/JF  ,HG1 'D#EF  'D'G1'E AJ 11/1/1997  5 10 . (1) 1',9 AJ 0DC : #-C'E 'DA5D 'D1'(9 EF 'DEJ+'B AJ 'DEH'/ EF (10 'DI 14) (4#F H8'&A 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) H3D7'*G' . (2) /. EE/H- 4HBJ E57AI C'ED  'D#EF 'DBHEJ H'D#EF 'D,E'9J 'D/HDJ  71  E7(9) ,'E9) 'DB'G1) 1985  5 635 . (1) /. 9(/ 'DDG 'D91J'F  EAGHE -BHB 'D/HD H H',('*G'  E,D) 'D3J'3) 'D/HDJ)  9// (55)  JHDJH 1978  5 130 . (2) /. 9(/ 'D92J2 E-E/ 31-'F  '31'&JD H'D91( 3D'E #E -1( 'E '1G'(  E5/1 3'(B  57 . (3) /. EE/H- 4HBJ E57AI C'ED  'D#EF 'DBHEJ H'D#EF 'D,E'9J 'D/HDJ  E5/1 3'(B  5 404 . (1) /. 9(/'DA*'- 9(/ 'D('BJ  F81J) 'D-B  'D7(9) 'D+'FJ)  E7(9) FG6) E51  1965 5 86 . () ANZILOTTI,  Cours de droit international Public , Paris, 1929 , P. 121 et ss . (1) /. 9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F  /H1 E-CE) 'D9/D 'D/HDJ) AJ *3HJ) 'DEF'29'* 'D/HDJ) H'13'! E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E E9 'D*7(JB 9DI E4CD) 'D41B 'D#H37  72  'DB'G1) 1986  5 74 . (2) 1',9 : F5 'DE'/) (104 ) EF 'DEJ+'B . (3) 1',9 : F5 'DE'/) (24) EF 'DEJ+'B . (1) 1',9 : F5 'DE'/) (25) EF 'DEJ+'B . (1) 'F81 *A5JD 0DC AJ EH'/ 'DA5D 'D3'(9 EF 'DEJ+'B . (1) 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) 23 EF 'DEJ+'B . HDB/ *E 2J'/) 9// #96'! 'DE,D3 :J1 'D/'&EJF 'DI 941) #96'!  F*J,) D2J'/) 9// #96'! 'D#EE 'DE*-/) HGH 'DE41H9 'D0J *E '9*E'/G AJ 17/12/1963 H,1I 'D9ED (G AJ #HD JF'J1 1966 . (2) /. 9DJ 5'/B '(H GJA  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E _ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) _ 'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ _ 'DEF'29'* 'D/HDJ) _ 'D-1( H'D-J'/  'D,2! 'D+'FJ 72  3F) 1975  'D'3CF/1J) . EF4#) 'DE9'1A 5 628 . (3) /. -'E/ 3D7'F  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E AJ HB* 'D3DE  72  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  3F) 1965  5 950. (1) #FJ3 .D. CDH/  E1,9 3'(B  5 205 . (2) /. E-E/ 'D9'DE 'D1',-J  F81J) -B 'D'9*1'6 AJ E,D3 'D#EF  71  /'1 'D+B'A) 'D,/J@@@/) 1990  5 85. (3) #FJ3 .D. CDH/  E5/1 3'(B  5 123 . () BOWETT(D.W.) the Law of International Institutions, London , Sweet & Maxwell 1982 ,p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and HOWARD C-PERHINS , International Relations the Riverside Press Cambridge basin 2nd edition , 1957 p.243 . (1) 1',9 : F5 'DE'/) (11) EF 'DA5D 'D1'(9 EF 'DEJ+'B . (2) 1',9 : F5 'DE'/) (26) EF 'DA5D 'D1'(9 EF 'DEJ+'B . (3) 1',9 : F5 'DE'/) (47/1) EF 'DA5D 'D1'(9 EF 'DEJ+'B . (1) /. 9(/'DA*'- E-E/ '3E'9JD  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 410 H 411 . (1) 'DE5/1 FA3G  5 412 . (2) *E 'F4'! D,F) 'D7'B) 'D01J) (EH,( B1'1 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) DD#EE 'DE*-/) (*'1J. 24 JF'J1 3F) 1946  CE' *E 'F4'! D,F) F29 'D3D'- (B1'1 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) 1BE 502 (*'1J. 11 JF'J1 3F) 1952 CJ *-D E-D D,F*J 'D7'B) 'D01J) . (1) -E/J -'A8 HE-EH/ 'D41B'HJ  E5/1 3'(B  5 24  85 . (1) 'F81 : F5 'DE'/*JF 26  47 EF 'DEJ+'B . (1) ,'! AJ /J(',) 'DB1'1 1BE 687 (1991) 'DI E,D3 'D#EF #F J3'H1G 'DBDB (3(( 'D*B'1J1 'D*J D/I 'D/HD 'D#96'! H'D*J *AJ/ (#F 'D91'B B/ -'HD 'D-5HD 9DI EH'/ D(1F'E, D%F*', 'D'3D-) 'DFHHJ) (E' J*F'AI E9 'D*2'E'*G 'DEB11) (EH,( E9'G/) .71 'F*4'1 'D'3D-) 'DFHHJ) HEF GF' J*6- 'F E.'DA) 'D91'B *CEF AJ E-'HD) 'D-5HD (1'E, 'F*', '3D-) FHHJ) HE5/1 'DE9DHE'* GJ *B'1J1 D/I 'D/HD 'D#96'! . CE' '4'1* 'D/J(',) 0'*G' 'DI #F 'D91'B B/ .'DA '-C'E (1H*HCHD ,FJA D3F) 1925 H0DC (*G/J/G ('3*./'E '3D-) J-81G' G0' 'D(1H*HCHD '6'A) 'DI 3'(B) '3*./'E 'D91'B DD'3D-) 'DCJEJ'HJ) HGH E' J,3/ 'F*G'C'K DD'D*2'E'*G 'DEB11 (EH,( G0G 'D'-C'E . 'D' #F 'D-BJB) GJ #F 'D91'B C'F *G/J/G E9DB'K 9DI 417 GH BJ'E '31'&JD ('D'9*/'! 9DJG HGH #E1 E41H9  CE' #F (1H*HCHD ,FJA B/ -1E '3*./'E 'D'3D-) AJ 'DEF'29'* 'D/HDJ) HDE J-1E E,1/ 'D*G/J/ ('3*./'EG'. #E' E'BJD 9F '3*./'E 'D91'B DD:'2'* 'D3'E) 6/ 3C'F -D(,) 'D91'BJ) ADJ3 DG 3F/ EF 'D5-) D'F 'D*B'1J1 'D'E1JCJ) 'D5'/1) AJ *DC 'DA*1) 'C/* #F 'D'J1'FJHF GE 'D0JF (/#H' (B5A G0G 'DB1J) ('D:'2'* 'D3'E) HDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD 1',9 E,D) 'D3J'3) 'D/HDJ) 'D9// 99/ JF'J1 /1991 /549 ... G0' H'F 'DB1'1 7'D( 'D91'B (EH,( 'DAB1) 7 EF 'DB3E (,) EFG (#F J$C/ EF ,/J/ /HF #J 417 'D*2'E'*G 'DEB11) (EH,( (1H*HCHD ,FJA D-81 '3*9E'D 'D-1(J DD:'2'* 'D.'FB) 'H 'D3'E) #H E4'(GG' EF H3'&D 'D-1( 'D(C*1HDH,J) 'DEHB9 AJ ,FJA AJ 17/6/1925 HC0DC '*A'BJ) 'F*', H*.2JF 'D'3D-) 'D(C*1HDH,J) H'D*C3JFJ) H*/EJ1 *DC 'D'3D-) H'DEHB9) AJ ,FJA 10/4/1972 . H9DI G0' J5(- 'D91'B 'D/HD) 'DH-J/) AJ 'D9'DE 'DED*2E) 7(B'K DG0' 'DB1'1 ('D*5/JB 9DI E9'G/) /HDJ) E9JF) EF -J+ #F BJ'E /HD) ('D*5/JB 9DI #J E9'G/) GH EF 5EJE '.*5'5 'D3D7'* 'D/3*H1J) 'D/'.DJ) EF 'D/HD) H'D*J *EDC 'F *B11 'DBJ'E 'D*5/JB 9DI 'DE9'G/) #H 9/E 'D*5/JB 9DJG' H1A6G'' CDJ'K HG0' *7(JB DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D91AJ HD'*A'BJ) AJF' DB'FHF 'DE9'G/'* D3F) 1969 . == ==H'.J1'K ,'! AJ E(11'* E,D3 'D#EF DF29 '3D-) 'D/E'1 'D4'ED 'D91'BJ) GJ '3*./'EG DB0'&A *3J'1J) AJ G,E'* DE J3(BG' '3*A2'2  HB11 'DE,D3 (F29 G0G 'DB0'&A H*/EJ1 E1'ABG' 'D*5F9J) H'D'F*',J) '0' 2'/ E/'G' 9F 150CE  HAJ 'DH'B9 'F 'D91'B ('E*D'CG 'H '3*./'EG DG0G 'DB0'&A DE J.'DA EJ+'B /HDJ CE' #FG D' *H,/ EH'+JB /HDJ) '5D'K **9DB ('2'D) *DC 'D#F8E) EF /HD) 'E*DC*G' ('DA9D . (1) /. 9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  E5/1 3'(B  552 H 53 . (2) /. EAJ/ 4G'(  'D#EE 'DE*-/) (JF 'D'FGJ'1 H'D*/9JE  'DE,D) 'DE51J) DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ  9// (64) 3F) 1968  5 448 . (1) /. E-E/ 3'EJ 9(/'D-EJ/  #5HD 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  72  E$33) /'1 'D+B'A) 'D,'E9J)  'D'3CF/1J)  1980 . (2) 'DE5/1 FA3G  5 33 . (1) /. F2JG 'DEG/J  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DDB'FHF  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  3F) 1982  515  G'E4 24 . (2) /. 3EJ1 9(/ 'D3J/ *F':H  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DDB'FHF  'DB'G1)  3F) 1973  5 7 . (3) 1',9 AJ 0DC CD EF: /. 4E3 'D/JF 'DHCJD  /1H3 AJ 'DB'FHF  'DB'G1) 3F) 1966 511- /. 9(/ 'DF'51 'D97'1  E('/& 'DB'FHF  'DB'G1) 3F) 1970 517 _ /. 9(/ 'DEF9E 'D5/G  #5HD 'DB'FHF  'DB'G1) 3F) 1972 513 _ /. *HAJB -3F A1,  'DE/.D DD9DHE 'DB'FHFJ)  'DB'G1)  3F) 1976  515 . (4) /. 9DJ 5'/B #(H GJA  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 76 HE' (9/G'  H'F81 C0D@@C : /. -'E/ 3D7'F  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E AJ HB* 'D3DE  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 16  18 . (1) /. 9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  538 . (2) /. 7D9* 'D:FJEJ  'DH3J7 AJ B'FHF 'D3D'E H'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 54 . (3) /.9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 38 . (4) /. E-E/ 3'EJ 9(/ 'D-EJ/  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 38 . (1) 1',9 : D3'F 'D91( D'(F EF8H1 _ E'/) (,2J) , 18  'D7(9) 'D#HDI  'DE7(9) 'D'EJ1J) ((HD'B  3F) 1304 G@ . H'F81 C0DC : " 'DEF,/ 'D#(,/J "  'D7(9) 'D#HDI  /'1 'DE41B _ (J1H*  3F) 1967  5 325 _ H#J6'K : E.*'1 'D5-'-  AJ ('( (,2I )  DD4J. 'D#E'E E-E/ (F '(J (C1 9(/ 'DB'/1 'D1'2J  'DE7(9) 'D#EJ1J) ('DB'G1)  1340 G@ -1926 E  5 103 . (2) Dictionnaire de la Terminologie du Droit International, sirey , 1960 ,pp .551 -552 . () LAW BLACKS DICTIONARY , 4th ed .1957 , west publishing company ,p.1507 . (1) /. 9(/'DDG 'D#49D  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD,2'!'* :J1 'D93C1J) AJ 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1997  5 9  10 . (2) /. 9(/'D12'B 'D3FGH1J H /. '-E/ -4E* #(H 3*J*  #5HD 'DB'FHF  'DB'G1)  3F) 1953  5 36  27 . () KEISEN(HANS),  general theory of law and state  N.Y, 1945 , pp.18-19. (4) /. 3DJE'F E1B5  'DE/.D DD9DHE 'DB'FHFJ)  'DB'G1)  3F) 1967  5 16 . (5) HB/ 9(1 9F 0DC 'DABJG 'DC(J1 CAVARE AJ *91JAG DD,2'! ('FG :  un procede social destine a assurer I application d une regle de droit en realisant la repression de ses violations 'F81: CAVARE (L) ,  I .idee des sanctions et sa mis en oeuver en droit international public , 1937 , tome XI,p. 388 HDE J.*DA 9F 0DC 'DABJG KUNZ AJ *91JAG DD,2'! *91JA'K H8JAJ'K  (BHDG :  Legal sanctions constitute the reaction of the legal community against a delict  . = =='F81: KUNZ (J.) , sanctions in international law , A.J.I.L ., vol.54 , 1960 , p.324 (1) /.9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  538 . H'F81 C0DC : /. #-E/ 'D14J/J  *7HJ1 F8'E 'D,2'!'* AJ ,'E9) 'D/HD 'D91(J)  E,D) 4$HF 91(J)  9// (71) 3(*E(1 1992  5 44 . (2) /. E#EHF 3D'E)  B'FHF 'D9BH('* _ 'DB3E 'D9'E  /'1 'DAC1 'D91(J  'D7(9) 'D1'(9)  3F) 1983 -1984  5 627 . () COMBACAU (J.) ,  le pouvoir de sanctions deI  O.N.U., etude theorize de la coeritionnon- militaire , paris : pedone , 1974 , p. 18 . () CAVARE (L.) , op.cit .. pp .421 -424 . (2) /. 9(/ 'DDG 'D'49D  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD,2'!'* :J1 'D93C1J) AJ 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  5 11 . () REISMAN(W..M.),  the Enforcement of international judgments , A.J.I.L. , No , 63,19. () BRIERLY (U.L)  The covenant and the charter , B.Y..B.I& L ., 1946, p. 83 . () CAVARE (L.),  les sanctions dans le pacte de la S.D . N. et dams la charter de l.O.N .U. ,R.G.D.I. P. , 1950 , P.650. (4) /. E57AI 3D'E) -3F  '2/H',J) 'DE9'ED) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  3F@) 1987  5 27 . () HIGGINS (R) ,  International Law , Rhodesia and The UN , world today , March , 1967 , p.102. (2) /. -'E/ 3D7'F  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E HB* 'D3DE  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 998 . (3) /. 9DJ 5'/B #(H GJA  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 514 . (4) /. 9(/ 'DDG 'D'49D  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD,2'!'* :J1 'D93C1J) AJ 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 206 HE' (9/G' . (1) 9(1 9F 0DC 'D'3*'0 'D/C*H1 " EAJ/ 4G'( " (BHDG : " #FG E9 9/E 'FC'1 '.*D'A 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ 9F 'DE,*E9 /'.D 'D/HD) (E' J,9D 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ (E+'() B'FHF *F3JB  #E' 'DB'FHF 'D/'.DJ AGH B'FHF .6H9  A%F 0DC D' JF29 9F51 'D,2'! 9F 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ) 'D/HDJ) H'F '.*DA* 5H1 'D,2'! AJ CD EF 'DE,*E9JF " . #F81 E$DA) : 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 29 H 30 . () GUGGENHEIM, (P.) ,  traite de droit international public  Geneve , 1954 p.264 . (3) /. 9(/ 'DDG 'D'49D  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD,2'!'* :J1 'D93C1J) AJ 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  5 209 . (4) /. 9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DB'G1)  5 39 . (1) /. E#EHF 3D'E)  B'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 24 H 25 . (2) 3H1) JH3A  'D"J*JF 73 H 74 . (1) /. 9(/'D92J2 31-'F  #2E) 'DEF8E'* 'D91(J) H'D%3D'EJ) AJ 951 'DGJEF) 'D#E1JCJ) 'D%31'&JDJ)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1998  5 124 . (1) /. '-E/ 'D14J/J  3D7'* E,D3 'D#EF AJ E,'D A16 'D,2'!'* /1'3) DD#-C'E 'D9'E) E9 'D*7(JB 9DI -'D) 'D#2E) 'DDJ(J) _ 'D:1J() _ E,D) E3*B(D 'D9'DE 'D'3D'EJ  E1C2 /1'3'* 'D9'DE 'D'3D'EJ E'D7'  3F) 1991  5 155 . (1) /. 9(/ 'D92J2 31-'F  (96 'DGH'E4 'DB'FHFJ) D#2E) 'D.DJ, 'DE9'51) AJ 6H! B1'1'* E,D3 'D#EF  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1) 1997  5 121 . () BRIERLY(U..L.) Op .cit .p. 83. (3) /. E-E/ 3'EJ 9(/ 'D-EJ/  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  1980  592 . () KUNZ(J.) ,  Sanctions in Intern ational Law  , op.cit.,347 . (5) /. 9(/'D92J2 31-'F  '31'&JD H'D91( 3D'E #E -1( H%1G'(  E5/1 3'(B  5 65 . (1) /. '3E'9JD 5(1J EBD/  'D9D'B'* 'D3J'3J) 'D/HDJ)  /1'3) AJ 'D5HD H'DF81J'*  E7(H9'* ,'E9) 'DCHJ*  3F) 1971  5 185 -186 . (2) ('3*+F'! 'D9/H'F 'D0J -/+ AJ 20/3/2003 H'D0J C'F 9ED'K EFA1/'K 'D@ USA H(1J7'FJ' 'D' #FG 159 ('DB1'1 1441 'D0J H5AGE' (CHFGE' /HD*J '-*D'D H'DB1'1 1483 'D0J 'FGI 'D'-*D'D 4CD'K H'(B'GO EH6H9'K HE6EHF'K .     PAGE 196 F29 #3D-) 'D/HD) CH3JD) D*-BJB 'D#EF 'D,E'9J PAGE 149 E,D) 'D1'A/JF DD-BHB  'DE,D/ (11)  'D9// (41)  'D3F) (2009) Rafidain Of Law Journal, Vol. (11), No. (41), Year (2009) Rafidain Of Law Journal, Vol. (11), No. (41), Year (2009) Vlp hP0 0Jn >$ & F a$gd_$ & F ^a$gd$y4$`a$gd$y4$`a$gd_hfhjlDFHL^`bdfh.026DFHJNP,.0(bdfhhh_Z^J_HaJhh_^J_HaJh$y4Z^J_HaJo(hh_^J_HaJo((jhh_0JUZ^J_HaJ!hh_H*Z^J_HaJo(hh_Z^J_HaJo(:468::<>@8:<>\j@BDFHJ02VXZ\^`z|ɼɡɡɮɮɮɮɡɓhh_Z^J_HaJhh_^J_HaJhh_^J_HaJo(h$y4Z^J_HaJo(hh_Z^J_HaJo((jhh_0JUZ^J_HaJ!hh_H*Z^J_HaJo(:BP2`Hh6"^&$ & F $ ^a$gd_$`a$gd_$ & F a$gd_XZ\^,.02rRTVX  &(*,Lhjlprtvx J$h$y4h_5Z\^J_HaJo(hh_^J_HaJ(jhh_0JUZ^J_HaJ!hh_H*Z^J_HaJo(hh_Z^J_HaJo(C&0L|t~.Z  Zd"B*+++$ & F! ^a$gd$y4 $a$gd_$`a$gd_ $h^ha$gd_JLNP|~    v!x!z!~!""$$%%@*B*+++++++++<<n>ɻɻɻth 2Z^J_HaJo(h.sh_CJZ^JaJ o(hh$y4Z^J_HaJo(h$y4Z^J_HaJo(h_Z^J_HaJo(hh_^J_HaJo(hh_Z^J_HaJo((jhh_0JUZ^J_HaJ!hh_H*Z^J_HaJo(-+++R0347j9:<b=n>p>>>>?&?^?$ & F, hh^ha$gd_$0^`0a$gd_$`a$gd 2$`a$gd_ $a$gd.s $a$gd_n>p>>>>>"?$?X?\?A4BDDGG`HHNJPJJJLLMMQ0RxRRSSVV^\`\]^b_d_z_|___|`~`,a.ahaͽzzhh_^J_HaJhh_Z^J_HaJhZ^J_HaJo(h 2Z^J_HaJo(hh_^J_HaJo(hh_Z^J_HaJo($h.sh_5Z\^J_HaJo(h.sh_CJZ^JaJ o(h 2h_Z^J_HaJo(0^?x?p@@bAAB`CDDEFG`H6IIJKKL$ & F/ hh^ha$gd_$ & F. hh^ha$gd_$ & F- hh^ha$gd_ $a$gd_LM*NNOPPQxRST\VVWRXX$ZZ[`\ ]]^F_$ & F/ h^h`a$gd_$ & F/ hh^h`a$gd_F_d_`~`.ahaabccdeDf gg&hh6i"jjj$ & F1A$a$gd_$ & F1A$a$gd_$ & F0 hh^ha$gd_ $a$gd_haaabbbccdeDffg ggh2i6iij"jjsaQD8Գhh_H*^JaJhh_^J_HaJhh_CJ^J_HaJo("hh_CJZ^J_HaJo(hh_^JaJmH sH  hh_CJ^JaJmH sH  hh_^J_HaJmH sH hh_CJ^J_HaJhh_CJ^JaJ&hh_Z^J_HaJmH o(sH hh_^JaJhh_Z^J_HaJo( hS}eh_^J_HaJmH sH jjjjjjjjjjjjjjkk k"k$k&k(k.k0k6k8k:k@  X\^`bf؇ڇ܇އptvxzԿɦԉhsw;CJZaJo("h+hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJaJ!jh+hsw;0JCJUaJhsw;CJ_HaJh+hsw;CJaJh+hsw;CJZ_HaJo(hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJZ_HaJo(6z|hlVXZ\֌،ڌ܌ތDHJLNPRX^fhrvxz|~㧓㧓s hsw;CJOJQJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJOJQJZaJo(&h+hsw;CJOJQJZ_HaJo(h+hsw;CJOJQJZaJh+hsw;CJaJ"h+hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(h+hsw;CJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJZ_HaJo(-nVڌJxd’2\ $L^La$gd$L^L`a$gd$hA$^h`a$gd $a$gd_ $a$gd$`a$gd^bdfhjܐސ’ĒƒȒ2468Ƕǫhsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(h+hsw;CJH*aJh+hsw;CJaJ!jh+hsw;0JCJUaJhsw;CJ_HaJh+hsw;CJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJZ_HaJo("h+hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(8ž֤hR2d ƨDҬ\. $L^La$gd 2 $a$gd 2$L^L`a$gd 2 $a$gd_ $a$gd$L^L`a$gd]: $L^La$gd֤ؤڤܤdfhjlnRTVX2468dfhj "$&ƨȨʨ̨jlDFHJҬԬ֬ج@B~XZh+hsw;CJ_HaJ"h+hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(h+hsw;CJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJZ_HaJo(GZ.02ޱftvxz|~z|~BDFHJLº{n_nnnNnn𺩺!h 2hsw;CJH*Z_HaJo(hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJ_HaJh+hsw;CJ_HaJh+hsw;CJH*aJh+hsw;CJaJ!jh+hsw;0JCJUaJhsw;CJaJh+hsw;CJZ_HaJhsw;CJH*_HaJmH sH  hehsw;CJ_HaJmH sH h+hsw;CJZ_HaJo(.z~F޴tҷbܹZ* $a$gd$y4 $a$gd_ $A$a$gd 2 $A$a$gd$y4 $a$gd 2$L^L`a$gd 2$hA$^h`a$gd 2LN޴prtvx|µз b ڹܹۺۺ۫ۺ躚ۺۉۺqۺ۫ۺbhehsw;CJaJmH sH hsw;CJH*Z_HaJo(hsw;CJ_HaJ h 2hsw;CJ_HaJmH sH  hS}ehsw;CJ_HaJmH sH hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(h+hsw;CJZ_HaJo(!h 2hsw;CJH*Z_HaJo(hsw;CJZ_HaJo(h+hsw;CJ_HaJh+hsw;CJaJ& VXZ\^`vx&(*,.2ܿ޿νί΢vkaaVNaNVhsw;CJaJh+hsw;CJaJhsw;CJ_HaJhsw;CJZaJo(h+hsw;CJZ_HaJh+hsw;CJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJH*Z_HaJo(hsw;CJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJ_HaJmH sH  h05hsw;CJ_HaJmH sH  hehsw;CJ_HaJmH sH hehsw;CJaJmH sH !jh+hsw;0JCJUaJ*~vPD* $A$a$gd$y4$^`a$gd 2$L^L`a$gd 2 $a$gd 2$^`a$gdsw;$hA$^h`a$gd 2~tvxz|.0LNPRTVDFHJ`b&²сvggYh+hsw;CJZ_HaJhsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(h+hsw;CJaJhsw;CJaJhsw;CJZaJo(!h 2hsw;CJH*Z_HaJo(hsw;CJZ_HaJo(h+hsw;CJZ_HaJo(hJ@hsw;CJaJmH sH !jh+hsw;0JCJUaJ hJ@hsw;CJ_HaJmH sH h+hsw;CJ_HaJ"&(*,.0   Ŵ{!hJ@hsw;CJH*Z_HaJo(h+hsw;CJZ_HaJhsw;CJH*Z_HaJo(hsw;CJaJmH sH !jh+hsw;0JCJUaJhJ@hsw;CJaJmH sH hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(h+hsw;CJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJZ_HaJo(, xz|~ 4<DFJLѾѣцyuhX6h+hsw;CJ_HaJh+hsw;CJZ_HaJhsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJ_HaJ!jh+hsw;0JCJUaJhsw;CJaJh+hsw;CJaJh+hsw;CJZ_HaJo(hsw;CJZ_HaJo("h+hsw;0JCJZ_HaJo(+|JLPRVX\^bd~$ P&dPa$gd D$&`#$gdFZ$$L^L`a$gd 2 $A$a$gd$y4 $a$gd_LNRTXZ^`dfrtz|~2׭ĝmZmmZKh=hsw;5CJZ\^J$hIhhsw;0JCJOJQJ^JaJ0jhIhhsw;0JCJOJQJUZ^JaJhsw;$h=hsw;5CJZ\^JaJo(hsw;5CJZ\^JaJo(,h 0JCJOJQJZ^JaJmHnHu$h Dhsw;0JCJOJQJ^JaJ0jh Dhsw;0JCJOJQJUZ^JaJhX6jhX6UZ^Jrtfhjl $gd:$$dA$N`a$gdi$$dA$N`a$gd:$$&dP`a$gdi$&`#$gdFZ$h&dP]h`a$gd= 26LPfnprt@D`dfhjlǵǵѕhCJZ\^J_HaJo(hX6h`3hsw;5\^Jh`3hsw;5CJ\^JaJh`3hsw;5<\ hsw;5\h`3hsw;5\hsw;h=hsw;CJZ_H o(h=hsw;5CJZ\^Jhsw;5CJZ\^Jo(C0&P P:p:<0BP' (5!"#$% (2~$$If!vh5#v:V l V0  54F@F 9'/J $A$a$_HaJhmH sH tH<@< 9FH'F 1$@& CJ^JaJ<@< 9FH'F 2$@& CJ^JaJB@B 9FH'F 3$@&5CJ \^JaJ H@H 9FH'F 4$$@&a$5CJ \^JaJ N@N 9FH'F 5$$ & F@& CJ^JaJB@B 9FH'F 6$@&5CJ\^JaJN@N 9FH'F 7$$d@&a$5CJ\^JaJ>A@> .7 'DAB1) 'D'A*1'6JPi@P  ,/HD 9'/J :V 44 la ,k, (D' B'&E) 8B@8 F5 #3'3J CJ^JaJ8@8 F5 -'4J) 3ADJ)@&@@ E1,9 -'4J) 3ADJ)H*^JRC@"R F5 #3'3J (E3'A) ('/&) CJ^JaJ@ @2@ *0JJD 5A-)  9r aJ,)@A, 1BE 5A-)^J<@R< 1#3 5A-)  9r aJBP@bB F5 #3'3J 2$a$ CJ^JaJzsz v 4(C) ,/HD7:V0$A$^JdR@d =F5 #3'3J (E3'A) ('/&) 2$dx^BU@B _i Hyperlink>*OJQJ^Jo(ph-I"l> *z!P"#9&m(+h.0/3S4X6I78n;IgNHP.RcUVBXXY[Sb$cdficqNuvw}j*Fo8:ܭ[uپdLs\!$35X(8Nk{$g(}@wR:(pr: Z ips "  < + * D[r*a)8d S8Q !d!!!6###^$$%Y%'()))4***Z++*,x,,4-..a///00n11!2]222r3D4G4wR 0Il)  )cT# ) MB0 ~!#1$$=&q()+l.o/022P2}24333X45N78::r; <I<>?@BCaDEaF HHIKKKMMlNLPQQ4RORSiUVFXXZ]]]](]p]`aKaqa)cdefhiijljlmmnn.phqSrrptSuv w y5y{{}}82J{nɈʊ.KtΐP2—Eџ5n6s =}>ʳy ;GiQfx`%L76 e\,;Rpg(Cs-:!vr!4CTp}r q  . C    \   D  P?$7QdsXuI F\!"\J*7   \!!/"|""B##$$$9%%%&&&'D'((5)^)))M*L++7,,,x---..f.}...L////10K0"1Z11334"78,:u::Z;s;;$<2==*>>>?o?X@@@AA0B{BB3C:CCCDDEE9FFFVGGH|HHLIIIVJKLLLM*MMN OCOOOPPfQgQiQjQlQmQoQpQrQsQQQQQQQ7R8RtRuRxR0000 0 00000 0 0 0 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0 00 0 00* 0* 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0 0 00000000000000000000 03 03 0300000000 03 03 03000 0 0 0 0 0000 0 00000000000000000000000000000 0 0 0 00 000000000 000000 03 03 03 0 3 0 3 00000000000000000000000000! 0! 0! 0! 00000000000000000000, 0, 00- 00. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 00/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 / 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 000 00 00 001 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0I00@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@000D4@0I00@0I00@0I00@0I00@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0I00t0>"  \!!/"}...L////10K0"1Z1334"78,:u::gQQQxR@0K00UK00+I00I0000 00K00I00I00@0@0K00xI00I00@0@0@0@0@0I0 0@0@0K00mI00I00@0@0@0@0@0 00D4K00}@0 % 00 GN8 l0jChJn>hajl8t{ zZL&L2llmoqswxz{}~d^1_|RJ'jH&+^?LF_jzn.*lknprtuvy|j GNR!!t  ,b$δRR%QR@H 0(  0(  B S  ?wRidvii<9iiDwiwi| ii4 i t i <i \ igiDgiDR(*(*F@l@2HHHIxR     .*.*M@{@8HIIIxR  B *urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagscountry-region9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplaceC*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsmetricconverter> *urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PersonName8*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCity Х(-1926 Ela S.Dla Terminologie ProductID      J M O S w ~ RV>B'+<?]_ &w { !!r"t"""##$$$$_%d%%%%%''))],_,y,~,,,,,--F0H0'3)3`3e3]4_4779999::C=F=y?{???AA)B.BFF HHHHlHnHHH*I,IeInIJJLLQQRR2S7SUXXXYX`X\\p]s]__qataaaaaWbZbbbeeee.g6gSgVg`ggggg%h,hEhGh\h^hbhehhhukkmmVo[o\oaorruuyyzz'{,{O|U|Y|`|G}J}(014{26ʂ͂-08>{~/:ʆΆNPϋҋ*-]`28]_~٢ۢY[=A! cfRU 8:BDEILNbdֱٱѴԴ|!$HMٸܸpsKQڽ8;%+BHINOT np48!)MS68eiEJru!%(ehps=B#*DK%,w~FIJL\aSVpsJMv{BECF:=:<dfgn EL }-5envyNQx|&(_b$*         J Q    #     |  $%+`gX_bi`f&4;OQRWBIJP0347FM#&<DuIF!"hq QZho;    h!o!r!y!!!!!!!!!""""""""$#+###$$$$$$@%I%%%3&9&'''(*(+(.(((q)x)\*c***++N,U,,,--- -B-I-----E.L./0 00R0W00011/262w2~22222223 3331363e3j333333333333333-444x4444445$5;5?5C5M5W5\5i6k66666666666677718888888 99^9f9g9q9r9u99999999::;E;O;;;<<F=I=6>=>O?W???@ @Y@Z@\@@A A AAAAAABBB3C:CC=DCD=FFFFFGH{HIIIIeJlJJJKL*L0L1M:MNNVNlNtNuNzNOOOOOOP!PPPPP6Q:QJQQQfQgQgQiQiQjQjQlQmQoQpQrQsQQQQQR8R@RuRxR).  222#2T3[34%4< <FCTC]D`DMMbUfU]]``aaiiojwjclillm.p3pOuRu/7#/JR$rz TV2:'/|  +34@s|8 B d j   FO#+u>AI F'3!"  7    ##$$%%''((9)?)q)z))))),,--..P/V/////^1d1::;;%=+=X@@@@AA>BDBB2C:CCCCCCEE9FFFFZGbGjGoGGGGGH{HHHHHYI`IKLMM$O,OXO`OOOfQgQgQiQiQjQjQlQmQoQpQrQsQQQQQQuRxR333333333333333333I22MM4ROR](]`aC}. C dsXu!"f.}.DEM*MgQgQiQiQjQjQlQmQoQpQrQsQR6R`RsRuRxR!"fQgQgQiQiQjQjQlQmQoQpQrQsQuRxR18lT&P{l"\br< x,QjVn#ydu&X.n?-[=(D8-Mc!yzoV&zz8)`"0j(ļQ#1` fi'5 F6P,47 $8rN-hn9,H9{m4::;E: a>|nY?Dr,DCd;GӢGدbmk"f>ln:;tuE::UuRV wxCL({(D8 ^`o(hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. Z Z ^Z `hH. **^*`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. jLj^j`LhH.h ^`hH.h   ^ `hH.h  L ^ `LhH.h xx^x`hH.h HH^H`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.h^`o(-h ^`hH.h pLp^p`LhH.h @ @ ^@ `hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h PLP^P`LhH. ^`o(hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. Z Z ^Z `hH. **^*`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. jLj^j`LhH.^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. ]`CJ^JaJ.^`o(-.^`o(- pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.0 ^`o(hH- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. ^`o(hH. ""^"`hH.  L ^ `LhH.   ^ `hH. ^`hH. bLb^b`LhH. 22^2`hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH.^`_Ho(-.^`o(-$ $ ^$ `OJPJQJ^Jo( @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.^`o(- pp^p`hH. @ L@ ^@ `LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. PP^P`hH.  L ^ `LhH.^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.^`o(-.^`o(- pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.h ^`hH.h   ^ `hH.h  L ^ `LhH.h xx^x`hH.h HH^H`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.h hh^h`hH.h 88^8`hH.h L^`LhH.h   ^ `hH.h   ^ `hH.h xLx^x`LhH.h HH^H`hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH. ^`o(hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. Z Z ^Z `hH. **^*`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. jLj^j`LhH.h ^`hH.h   ^ `hH.h  L ^ `LhH.h xx^x`hH.h HH^H`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.0^`CJo(hH. ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH..^`o(- pp^p`hH. @ L@ ^@ `LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. PP^P`hH.  L ^ `LhH. hh^h`o(hH. ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.^`OJPJQJ^Jo(-pp^p`OJ QJ ^J o(hHo@ @ ^@ `OJ QJ o(hH^`OJQJo(hH^`OJ QJ ^J o(hHo^`OJ QJ o(hH^`OJQJo(hHPP^P`OJ QJ ^J o(hHo  ^ `OJ QJ o(hH hh^h`o(hH. ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.h ^`hH.h   ^ `hH.h  L ^ `LhH.h xx^x`hH.h HH^H`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.^`OJPJQJ^Jo(hH- ^`hH. pp^p`hH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. ^`hH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PP^P`hH.^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH..^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. hh^h`o(hH. ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. ^`o(hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. Z Z ^Z `hH. **^*`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. jLj^j`LhH.^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.0^`5\hH- ^`hH. pp^p`hH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. ^`hH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PP^P`hH.^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. ^`o(hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. Z Z ^Z `hH. **^*`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. jLj^j`LhH.^`CJo(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.h ^`hH.h   ^ `hH.h  L ^ `LhH.h xx^x`hH.h HH^H`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.0^`CJo(hH. ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. ^`o(hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. Z Z ^Z `hH. **^*`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. jLj^j`LhH. ^`o(hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. Z Z ^Z `hH. **^*`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. jLj^j`LhH.h hh^h`hH.h 88^8`hH.h L^`LhH.h   ^ `hH.h   ^ `hH.h xLx^x`LhH.h HH^H`hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH..^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. ^`o(hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. Z Z ^Z `hH. **^*`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. jLj^j`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h pLp^p`LhH.h @ @ ^@ `hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h PLP^P`LhH.0^`CJo(hH. ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. hh^h`hH.^`OJQJo(hH$ $ ^$ `OJPJQJ^Jo(hH- @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. ^`hH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PP^P`hH.^`CJo(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. hh^h`o(hH. ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.^`o(- pp^p`hH. @ L@ ^@ `LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. PP^P`hH.  L ^ `LhH.1bM  E:l >f>l GiXd;G $8dfi'5UB=kH9Uu&X0OAYgH[r< &q O8l) q^-MnY?6 Na>k"Q^        <^        bY                         V                                                  V          Ƃ      B                b        N< vo=WRSl Tvo2FZVf h8' ~ D A vsIha5d%\uARrG3_\-p5 2!\!z!m"X#g($p$v&>&(A(%^(7@+'- z-K.s/]3`3=.4K4K4$y4|47)%767]7:]:;sw;K)=0=^?+@6@{]@m6AiB4"C D-EXJK/BK2O4Q GRkU#W$XoYMjZS$\#x\T^X_DzeS}ek}g_i]j kelR:lrlPm(nCBnUomqnqshs5wpw*xAx>z||.})a}n~:}Gs  ,6G}=@J"qp(K V"S*VSp.s+`!z090&?_gyETizbNKbpwV.= $? R}8[_x+99 /]2aVvVEnzruLQowQs-54:NFd6p0h(Ku*8m"WvwyL" 2u\`} P@]~i"VPSdy< fjB*zLc_ X6be\)RZ0"SDgQiQlQoQrQRxR@pZL@ :mwRPP P|PPUnknown Gz Times New RomanMSymbolWingdings 33& z ArialQ`@PT Simple Bold RuledA @Ali-A-Sahifa3LathaM`@Traditional ArabicK @Simplified Arabic;SimSun[SO?5 z Courier New;Wingdings#hHfHfG׆**!4d 2qHP?K42$'D*#EJF EF 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ) DDE-'EJrasha Mohamad Jamal1                           ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . / 0 Oh+'0 $ D P \ ht|( rashaNormalMohamad Jamal2Microsoft Office Word@@O@HW@HW*՜.+,0 hp  matoush %   !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !#$%&'()0Root Entry F W2Data 1TableWordDocumentE SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8"CompObjn  F Microsoft Office Word MSWordDocWord.Document.89q