ࡱ> egbcdq`0rbjbjqPqPE::)z   n=n=n=8=> ́J?@(*@*A*ABBB?AAAAAA$hLe! WDBBWDWDe *A*AhjjjWD *A *A?jWD?jj9z {*A>? F/n=dlzˀt0́zІIiNІ({{nІ 7|BZB@j0C4dCBBBeej^BBB́WDWDWDWD D)4 4  E(/# '3*BD'D '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J(*) 'D3J/ E57AI F'7B 5'D- E7DH( E/13 'DB'FHF 'D*,'1J 'DE3'9/ CDJ) 'D-BHB / ,'E9) 'DEH5D'DEB/E) : 'D-E/ DDG 1( 'D9'DEJF  H'D5D') H'D3D'E 9DI 3J/F' E-E/ H9DI 'DG H5-(G  HEF 3'1 9DI FG,G H'*(9 G/'G %DI JHE 'D/JF. H(9/... #HD': 'D*91JA (EH6H9 'D(-+ H#GEJ*G: J9/ #3DH( 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J EF 'D#3'DJ( 'DEGE) H'D61H1J) 9DI F7'B 'D*9'ED'* 'D*,'1J)('D/'.DJ) H'D/HDJ))  H0DC D-3E #J .D'A J8G1 (JF 'D%71'A 'DE*F'29) (3(( E' J*E*9 (G EF E2'J' H3E'* ,9D* 'DE*F'29JF JD,'$F 'DJG (9J/' 9F 3'-'* 'DB6'!  H'F 'DD,H! DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J J*E EF .D'D "DJ) E-//) HE9JF) DCJ JECF -D 'DF2'9'* 9F 71JB 'D*-CJE  H'F G0G 'D"DJ) GJ ('*A'B 'D*-CJE) H'D0J J*E+D (5H1*JG 'D4'&9) 'DHBH9 9EDJ' (417 'D*-CJE HE4'17) 'D*-CJE) AEF .D'D G'*JF 'D5H1*JF J*E 'D'*A'B 9DI #3DH( 'D*-CJE D-D #J F2'9 (JF 'D71AJF  H'FG F81' DD#GEJ) 'D*J J*E*9 (G' '*A'B 'D*-CJE H'D0J J9/ (-B 'D9EH/ 'DAB1J 'D0J JBHE 9DJG F8'E 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J H'DD,H! 'DJG 1#JF' 'F F9'D, (4CD EH,2 EAGHE '*A'B 'D*-CJE H41H7 'F9B'/G H(J'F EHBA 'DBH'FJF EFG DCJ J*E AGEG B(D 'D-/J+ 9F '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. HD'(/ D'F9B'/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J EF 41H7 DCJ JCHF 5-J-' AEF 'D61H1J *H'A1 'D16' H'D#GDJ) H'DE-D H'D3(( AJ G0' 'D'*A'B ('D%6'A) D41H7 4CDJ) #.1I C'DC*'() H'D*HBJ9. HC+J1' E' JB*1F '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J ('D9B/ 'D#5DJ E+'1 'DEF'29) HJ-5D AJ #-J'F C+J1) 'FG B/ J(7D #H JA3. #H JD:I 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ H'D0J 6EFG 0C1 417 'D*-CJE EE' B/ J$/J 'DI E4CD) .7J1) HGJ GD #F 417 'D*-CJE J(7D *(9' DD9B/ 'E J(BI B'&E' E3*BD' 9DI 'D1:E EF A3. 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ 'H %(7'DG D#J 3(( HEF GF' H(9/ *7H1 C(J1 9DI 59J/ 'D#F8E) 'DB'FHFJ) AJ /HD 'D9'DE  *E '9*E'/ E(/# EGE H#3'3J AJ 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J HGH (E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J) H'D0J J$/J 'D#.0 (G 'DI (B'! 417 'D*-CJE B'&E' (0'*G HE3*BD' 9F CJ'F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ E'/'E B/ 'F9B/ 5-J-' (JF 71AJG. +'FJ': #3('( '.*J'1 'DEH6H9: *CEF 'D#3('( H1'! '.*J'1 G0' 'DEH6H9 'DI 'D*3'$D 'D0J EF 'DEECF 'F J8G1 -HD E5J1 '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'DE/1, E9 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ '0' *916 G0' 'D'.J1 'DI (7D'FG 'H A3.G D'J 3(( C'F AGD J2HD E9G '*A'B 'D*-CJE 9DI #3'3 'FG J9/ EF 6EF 41H7 H(FH/ 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ 'E J(BI B'&E' (-/ 0'*G HE' GH 'D'3'3 'D0J JBHE 9DJG '3*BD'D '*A'B 'D*-CJE 9F 'D9B/ DH 3DEF' ((B'&G 5-J-' HE3*BD' 9F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ  A6D'K 9F -HD 'D5J':) 'D:'E6) 'D*J B/ JC*( (G' 417 'H E4'17) 'D*-CJE EE' B/ J$/J DDC+J1 EF 'D*A3J1'* HGH E' J7DB 9DJG (@(417 'D*-CJE 'DE9*D)  HE4CD) DH C*( 'D'*A'B ('DC*'() :J1 'D*BDJ/J)('DC*'() 'D'DC*1HFJ)) AGD J9*1A (G0G 'DC*'() D/I 'D*41J9'* H'D#F8E) 'DE.*DA) +'D+': EFG, 'D(-+: *E '9*E'/ EFG, 'D/1'3) 'DEB'1F) (JF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE 83 D3F)1969 'DE9/D H'DBH'FJF 'D*-CJEJ) D9/) /HD E9 'D%4'1) D#-C'E 'D'*A'BJ'* H'DBH'9/ 'D*-CJEJ) 'D/HDJ). 1'(9': .7) 'D(-+: DE9'D,) G0' 'DEH6H9 *E *B3JE 'D(-+ C'D#*J: 'DEB/E). 'DE(-+ 'D#HD: EAGHE '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. 'DE7D( 'D#HD: 'D*91JA ('*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J H5H1G. 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ: 41H7 'F9B'/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. 'DE(-+ 'D+'FJ: EAGHE E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. 'DE7D( 'D'HD: 'D*91JA (E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J H#3'3G 'DB'FHFJ. 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ: EHBA 'D*41J9'* H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) HB6'! 'D*-CJE EF 'DE(/#. 'D.'*E). 'DE(-+ 'D#HD EAGHE '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. J9/ 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J EF 'GE H3'&D -3E 'DEF'29'* AJ 'DHB* 'D1'GF  DE' J*E*9 (G EF 'DE2'J' 'DEGE) H'DC+J1) H'D*J #/* 'DI D,H! #71'A 'DF2'9 'DJG  H'F F8'E 'D*-CJE DCJ J8G1 DDH,H/ C"DJ) A9'D) H5-J-) D-3E 'DF2'9 (JF 'D71AJF  D'(/ EF '*A'B 'D71AJF 9DI 'D*-CJE HJ*E 0DC EF .D'D 'D'*A'B 'D.'5 (JF 'D71AJF 'DE*F'29JF HGH E' J7DB 9DJG (('*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J) HD' JCHF G0' 'D'*A'B 9DI 4CD H'-/ (D B/ JCHF 9DI 5H1 E*9//) H-3(E' J*AB 9DJG 'D71A'F. HD'(/ DCJ J8G1 G0' 'D'*A'B DDH,H/ EF E1'9') 41H7 .'5) (G DCJ JF9B/ (4CD B'FHFJ HE9*(1 HJCHF F'A0' (-B 71AJG. HEF .D'D E' 3(B 3F9'D, G0G 'DE3'&D 'DEGE) B(D 'D(/! ((-+ E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J H0DC EF .D'D 'DE7D(JF 'D"*JJF: 'DE7D( 'D#HD: 'D*91JA ('*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J H5H1G. 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ: 41H7 'F9B'/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. 'DE7D( 'D#HD 'D*91JA ('*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J H5H1G J9/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J GH 'DH3JD) H'D#/') D-3E 'DF2'9 9F 71JB F8'E 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J  HJECF *91JA '*A'B 'D*-CJE ABG' (#FG: (( %F'7) -D E' JF4# (JF 'D#A1'/ EF EF'29'* 9DI E-CE H'-/ 'H 'C+1 DJA5DH' AJG (9J/' 9F %,1'!'* 'DB6'! 'D9'/J)).(1)  H91AG 'D(96 ('FG: (( 'D'*A'B 'D*-CJEJ GH 9B/ J*AB (EH,(G 4.5'F 'H 'C+1 9DI 'F J-JDH' 'DI 4.5 'H 'C+1 'DA5D (JFGE AJ F2'9 B'&E A9D' 'H E*HB9 'D-/H+ AJ 'DE3*B(D (.5H5 *FAJ0 9B/ E9JF (/D' EF 'D'D*,'! 'DI 'DB6'!))(2). 'E' EF -J+ EHBA 'D*41J9'* EF *91JA '*A'B 'D*-CJE  AEF E7'D9) 'DC+J1 EF 'DBH'FJF H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) 'D.'5) ('D*-CJE 'D*,'1J F,/G' AJ ':D(G' B/ ,'!* (*91JA DG0' 'D'*A'B  A91A* 'DE'/)(10) EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J 'DE1BE27 D3F)1994 'DE9/D ('FG: " GH '*A'B 'D71AJF 9DI 'D'D*,'! 'DI 'D*-CJE D*3HJ) CD 'H (96 'DEF'29'* 'D*J F4#* 'H JECF 'F *F4# (JFGE' (EF'3() 9D'B) B'FHFJ) E9JF) 9B/J) C'F* 'E :J1 9B/J) "(3)  H91AG 'J6' B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DJEFJ 'DE1BE 22 D3F)1992 AJ 'DE'/)(2) 9DI 'FG: " EH'AB) 'D71AJF 9DI 'D'D*,'! %DI 'D*-CJE H'D*J *4EDG' H+JB) 'D*-CJE (#J 9B/ E3*BD) 'H 417 'D*-CJE (#J (F/ AJ 'D9B/ ". H,'! B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D*HF3J 'DE1BE 42 D3F)1993 AJ 'DA5D(2) (*91JA DD'*A'B ('FG: "'D*2'E #71'A 9DI 'F JA6H' (H'37) 'D*-CJE CD 'H (96 'DF2'9'* 'DB'&E) 'H 'D*J B/ *BHE (JFGE (4#F 9D'B) B'FHFJ) E9JF) *9'B/J) C'F* 'H :J1 *9'B/J) H*C*3J 'D'*A'BJ) 5J:) 'D417 'D*-CJEJ 'H 5J:) 'D'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE "(4)  HJ7DB 'DB'FHF 'D'FCDJ2J DD*-CJE 'D5'/1 AJ 16/-2J1'F/1996 'DF'A0 9DI '*A'B 'D*-CJE ('D9B/ 'D*-CJEJ HB/ 91AG A@@@@@@@@J 'DE'/)(6) EFG 9DI 'FG: " D':1'6 G0' 'DA5D  'F 9('1)('D9B/ 'D*-CJEJ) *9FJ #J '*A'B J-JD 'DI 'D*-CJE 'DF2'9'* 'DF'4&) 'H 'D*J 3*F4' 3H'! 'C'F* 9B/J) 'H :J1 9B/J) ". H91A* BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'DFEH0,J DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ H'D5'/1 AJ 21/-2J1'F/1985 '*A'B 'D*-CJE ('FG: " GH '*A'B (JF 'D71AJF 9DI 'F J-JD' 'DI 'D*-CJE ,EJ9 'H (96 'DEF'29'* 'DE-//) 'D*J F4#* 'H B/ *F4' (JFGE' (4#F 9D'B) B'FHFJ) E-//) *9'B/J) C'F* 'H :J1 *9'B/J).....". H91A* '*A'BJ) 9E'F DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J D9'E1987 AJ 'DE'/)(1/7) '*A'B 'D*-CJE ('FG: "'*A'B 'D'71'A C*'() 9DI 'DD,H! 'DI 'D*-CJE 3H'! B(D F4H! 'DF2'9 'H (9/G "(1). HAJ 'D-BJB) H(9/ CD *DC 'D*9'1JA -HD '*A'B 'D*-CJE  JD'-8 'F F8'E 'D*-CJE GH '/') JB5/ EFG' -D F2'9 E9JF (71JB) .'5) HGH B6'! .'5 J3*F/ AJ H,H/G 'DI '*A'B H**7D9 AJG %1'/) 'D#71'A (/H1 C(J1 AJ *-/J/ %,1'!'*G H'DB'FHF 'DH',( 'D*7(JB. 'F 'D'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE JEF9 'DB6'! EF F81 'D/9HI HJF4& /A9' (9/E B(HD 'D/9HI HD' JF4I! /A9' (9/E 'D'.*5'5(2)  HJ5- 'D*3'$D GF' 9F 'DA1B (JF '*A'B 'D*-CJE H9B/ 'D*-CJE 'E 'FGE' H,G'F D9ED) H'-/) 'D,H'( 9DI G0' 'D*3'$D 3JCHF 'F GF'DC A1B' E' (JF '*A'B 'D*-CJE H9B/ 'D*-CJE  A'*A'B 'D*-CJE CE' 3(B (J'FG  GH '*A'B (JF 71AJF 9DI '-'D) E' B/ JF4# (JFGE' 'DI 'D*-CJE D-3EG (9J/' 9F 'DB6'! 'D9'/J  A'71'A G0' 'D'*A'B GE' 'DE*9'B/'F 'H 71A' 'D9D'B) 'DB'FHFJ) 'D'5DJ) 9B/J) C'F* 'E :J1 9B/J)(3)  'E' (.5H5 9B/ 'D*-CJE A'F9B'/G (4CD 5-J- JBH/ 'DI 'F 'DE-CE J*HDI ',1'! 9EDJ) 'D*-CJE DCJ J5D 'DI '5/'1 B1'1G AJ *3HJ) 'DF2'9  A#71'A G0' 'D9B/ J.*DA 9FG AJ '*A'B 'D*-CJE  A'D71A 'D#HD AJ 9B/ 'D*-CJE GE '71'A 'DF2'9  'E' 'D71A 'D+'FJ A'D'E1 J.*DA ('.*D'A FH9J) 'D*-CJE A'F C'F *-CJE' .'5'(1) (Ad-hoc)A'F 9B/ 'D*-CJE J*E (JF 'DE-CE(A1/' C'F 'H GJ&)) H'71'A 'DF2'9  'E' AJ 'D*-CJE 'DEF8E('DE$33J)(2) A9B/ 'D*-CJE J(1E (JF 'DE$33) 'D*-CJEJ) EF ,G) H'71'A 'DF2'9 EF ,G) '.1I  -J+ *BHE G0G 'DE$33) (*F8JE 'EH1 'D*-CJE HAB' DBH'9/G' 'D.'5)(3). H'F H,H/ 9B/ 'D*-CJE 61H1J D'FG EF .D'DG J91( 'DE-CE 'H GJ&) 'D*-CJE 9F B(HDG' DEGE) 'D*-CJE H'DF81 AJ 'DF2'9 (JF '71'AG  AB(HD 'DE-CE AJ G0G D-'D) GH 'D0J J$/J 'DI '(1'E 9B/ '.1 J.*DA 9F '*A'B 'D*-CJE  HJ7DB 9DJG (9B/ 'D*-CJE(4)  HGH J9/ (E+'() "DJ) *FAJ0 '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'DE(1E (JF 71AJ 'DF2'9(5). #E' (.5H5 #FH'9 'H 5H1 '*A'B 'D*-CJE AJD'-8 'FG JFB3E 'D*-CJE EF -J+ 'D'*A'B 0'*G 'DI *-CJE EF5H5 9DJG AJE' J3EI ((417 'D*-CJE) H#.1 EF5H5 9DJG ((E4'17) 'D*-CJE)  HGF'C FH9 +'D+ EF 'D5H1 HGH E' J7DB 9DJG (@(417 'D*-CJE ('D'4'1)) AE'0' F9FJ (CD G0G 'D5H1 HCJA J*E 'D'*A'B 9DJG' D-D 'DF2'9 9F 71JB 'D*-CJE H9DJG F9FJ (417 'D*-CJE: (('D'*A'B 9DI 916 'D.5HE) 'D*J B/ *8G1 E3*B(D' H'DE*9DB) (*FAJ0 9B/ E9JF 9DI 'DE-CEJF DD(* AJG' H-3E 'DF2'9))(1). H*.*DA *3EJ'* 417 'D*-CJE AJ (96 'D*41J9'* CE' AJ B'FHF '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ) 'DD(F'FJ 'DE1BE 90 D3F)1983 H'DE9/D ('D*41J9 1BE 5 D3F) 1985 %0 '7DB 9DI 417 'D*-CJE *3EJ)('D(F/ 'D*-CJEJ) HF8EG ('DEH'/ EF762-764EF 'DB'FHF. HJD'-8 'DI 'F 417 'D*-CJE JECF 'F J1/ (5H1 +D'+ HGJ: C417 EF 41H7 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ FA3G %0 J'*J 417 'D*-CJE CAB1) EF AB1'* 41H7 'D9B/ 'D'.1I. C'*A'B B'&E (0'*G HJ1/ GF' EFA5D 9F 'D9B/ 'D0J J+H1 'DF2'9 -HD *FAJ0G 'H *A3J1G. C417 9'E HGH 'D0J J5/1 EF '-/I 'D,G'* 'D-CHEJ) 'H :J1G' DCD EF J*9'B/ E9G' C41H7 'DEB'HD'* D'9E'D 'DGF/3) 'DE/FJ) 'D.'5)(2). HF,/ 'F 'D*41J9'* 'DE.*DA) #.0* (E41H9J) 'D'*A'B 9DI '-'D) 'DEF'29'* 'DE3*B(DJ) DD*-CJE E'/'E 16' 'D.5HE 5-J-'  HD'FG JCAJ *-/J/ 'DEF'29'* 'DE3*B(DJ) (*-/J/ FH9G'(3)  HEF G0G 'D*41J9'* 9DI 3(JD 'DE+'D B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J 'DE1BE27D3F)1994 AJ 'DE'/)(10/2)  HF5 'DE'/) (11) EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D#1/FJ 'DE1BE31D3F)2001  H'DE'/)(10/2) EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D9E'FJ 'DE1BE47 D3F)1997. 'E' E4'17) 'D*-CJE A*91A 9DI 'FG': (('D'*A'B 'D0J J*E (JF 'D71AJF (9/ BJ'E 'DF2'9 (JFGE' D:16 916G 9DI 'D*-CJE HJ*EJ2 ('FG J*E (9/ F4H! 'DF2'9 HDG0' A'FG J*6EF *-/J/ DDEH6H9'* 'D*J 3*71- 9DI 'D*-CJE HJ3EI 'J6' (H+JB) 'D*-CJE 'D.'5)(1))).HJ7DB 'DE419 'DD(F'FJ AJ B'FHF '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ) 9DJG '3E('D9B/ 'D*-CJEJ)(2). H9DJG AAJ 'DE4'17) J*E 'D'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE ('*A'B EFA5D 9F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ J*E *-1J1G (9/ F4H( 'DF2'9 (JF 71AJG(3)  H*(12 #GEJ) 'D*A1B) (JF 417 'D*-CJE HE4'17) 'D*-CJE EF .D'D 'FG D'(/ AJ 'DE4'17) EF *-/J/ 'DE3'&D 'DE*F'29 9DJG' H'D*J J4EDG' 'D*-CJE  H'D' C'F* ('7D)(4)  CE' #4'1 D0DC F5 'DE'/)(10/2) *-CJE E51J H'DE'/)(10/2) *-CJE 9E'FJ. 'E' AJ 417 'D*-CJE AD' J*H,( 0DC D'F 'DF2'9 AJ G0G 'D-'D) JCHF '-*E'DJ' AB/ JB9 'H D'JB9 '5D'  H*,/1 'D'4'1) 'F 417 'D*-CJE D' J9/ EF B(JD 'D/9'HI 'H 'D*51A'* 'DH',( 4G1G' H'FE' GH E,1/ '*A'B 9DI 916 'DF2'9 9DI 'DE-CEJF H'DF2HD 9DI -CEGE(5). H*,/1 'D%4'1) GF' 'DI 'FG GF'C 5H1) +'D+) DD'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE HGJ(417 'D*-CJE ('D'4'1))#J JH,/ AJ 'D9B/ '4'1) C#F JD*2E 'D71A'F (,EJ9 'D'H1'B #J 'F 'D'-'D) DD*-CJE GF' J3*4A EF 'D'H1'B H'DE2'J/) H'DEF'B5) 'DEH,H/) (JF 'D'71'A H'D*J *9*(1 ,2!' D' J*,2# EF 'D9BH/(1). HEF -J+ EHBA 'DBH'FJF EF '*A'B 'D*-CJE (C417 HE4'17))  AF,/ 'F B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE 83D3F)1969 'DE9/D '.0 (GE' E9' (F5 'DE'/)(251)  H'.0 B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J 'DF'A0 'J6' ('DE'/)(10/2)  HB'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D#1/FJ 'DF'A0 AJ 'DE'/)(11)HC0DC B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D3H1J 'DE1BE4 D3F)2008 AJ 'DE'/)(7/1)  HB'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DJEFJ 'DE1BE22D3F)1992 AJ 'DE'/)(16) HC0DC 'DA5D(3H4)EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D*HF3J 'DE1BE 42D3F)1993  HDB/ F5* 'DE'/)(10/3) *-CJE E51J 9DI 'FG: " HJ9*(1 '*A'B' 9DI 'D*-CJE CD '-'D) *1/ AJ 'D9B/ 'DI H+JB) **6EF 417 *-CJE '0' C'F* 'D'-'D) H'6-) AJ '9*('1 G0' 'D417 ,2!' EF 'D9B/ ". HJD'-8 'F 'DB6'! 'DA1F3J EF0 *'1J. 10/*EH2/1843E (BJ E3*B1 9DI (7D'F 417 'D*-CJE 'D3'(B DDF2'9  -J+ C'F J9*1A (E4'17) 'D*-CJE AB7  D-JF 5/H1 B'FHF 9'E1925 '9*1A (5-) 'D417 'D*-CJEJ AJ 'DEF'29'* 'D*,'1J) AB7  H9F/ 5/H1 B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DA1F3J D9'E1981 'DF'A0 '.0 ('*A'B 'D*-CJE (5H1*JG H'9*1A (GE' /HF 'J) BJH/(2). HDB/ '.0* 'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) ('*A'B 'D*-CJE 'J6' HEFG' 'D'*A'BJ) 'D'H1(J) D9'E1961 AJ 'DE'/)(1) EFG'  H(1H*HCHD ,FJA D9'E1923 AJ 'DE'/) (1) HC0DC E' ,'! AJ 'DE'/)(2) EF '*A'BJ) FJHJH1C 'D.'5) ('D'9*1'A H*FAJ0 '-C'E 'D*-CJE 'D',F(J) D9'E1958. HJ*1*( 9DI '*A'B 'D*-CJE '+'1 EGE) **E+D AJ '+1 'J,'(J GH 'D-B AJ 'D'D*,'! DD*-CJE H'+1 3D(J GH F29 'H 3D( HD'J) 'DB6'! 9F F81 'D/9HI E-D 'D*-CJE(1)  A%0' 1A9* 'D/9HI 'E'E 'DB6'! (.5H5 G0G 'DEF'29) J-B DDE/9J /A9G' EF .D'D H,H/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE  H'F 'D/A9 ('D*-CJE GH /A9 ('D*F'2D 9F 'D.5HE) 'DB6'&J)(2). 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ 'F9B'/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. DCJ J8G1 DDH,H/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE (5H1*JG('D417 H'DE4'17))  D'(/ EF H,H/ EBHE'* H41H7 #3'3J) DCJ JECF 9/ G0' 'D'*A'B 5-J-'  AD'(/ EF *1'6J 'D71AJF DD,H! 'DI 'D*-CJE H*H'A1 'D#GDJ)  H9DI E'0' J1/ 'D*-CJE(E-DG)  HGD 'F CD 'DEF'29'* *5D- D'F J,1J AJG' 'D*-CJEH9DJG 3J*E (-+ 'GE 'D41H7 'DE*9DB) (5-) 'F9B'/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE EF .D'D (J'F 'D41H7 'DEH6H9J) H'D41H7 'D4CDJ) DG. #HD': 'D41H7 'DEH6H9J) D'*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. **E+D G0G 'D41H7 (9/) E3'&D EGE)  HD'(/ EF E1'9'*G' EF B(D 'D'4.'5 'D0JF J1:(HF (9B/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE  HG0G 'D#EH1 GJ 61H1) *H'A1 'D#GDJ) 'DD'2E) H'D*1'6J  H61H1) (J'F E-D '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J H'D3((  AJE' J.5 'D#GDJ) 'DH',( *HA1G' AJ4*17 *H'A1 #GDJ) 'D*51A AJ 'D-BHB 'DE*9DB) ('DF2'9 'DE1'/ -3EG' ('D*-CJE  AD' *CAJ 'GDJ) 'D*B'6J AB7(3). H('D*'DJ JCHF '*A'B 'DB'51 H'DE-,H1 9DJG ('7D(1)  'E' 'DEAD3 'DEEFH9 EF 'D*51A (-BHBG A*CHF :J1 F'A0G *,'G 'D/'&FJF(2). HDB/ F5* 'DE'/)(254) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0: " 9DI 'F 'D*-CJE D' J5- 'D' EEF DG 'GDJ) 'D*51A AJ 'D-B EH6H9 'DF2'9... "HEF 'DE91HA 'F E91A) BH'9/ 'D#GDJ) J*E 'D1,H9 'DI 'DB'FHF 'D4.5J D'71'A 'DF2'9  HAJ 'D91'B A'DB'FHF 'D4.5J GH B'FHF 'D,F3J)(3)  HJ5- 'D'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE EF B(D 'D#4.'5 'D7(J9JJF HC0DC 'D#4.'5 'DE9FHJ). H#C/* 'DE'/)(11) EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J 'DF'A0 9DI: " D' J,H2 'D'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE 'D' DD4.5 'D7(J9J 'H 'D'9*('1J 'D0J JEDC 'D*51A AJ -BHBG...." HF5* 'DE'/)(2/1)EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) D9'E1961 9DI ,H'2 'F *(1E 'D'4.'5 'DE9FHJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE  HC0DC 'D-'D E' ,'!* (G 'DE'/)(2) EF '*A'BJ) 9E'F 'D91(J) DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J 9DI 'F G0G 'D'*A'BJ) *F7(B 9DI 'DEF'29'* 'D*,'1J) 'D*J *F4# (JF '4.'5 7(J9JF HE9FHJJF 'J' C'F* ,F3J*GE.....  HF5* 'DE'/)(12) EF BH'9/ F8'E 'D*-CJE 'D91(J H'DA1F3J 'DF'A0) AJ 1/1/20059DI: " #J 4.5 91(J 'H A1F3J-'H EF 'J) ,F3J) '.1I-3H'! 'C'F 4.5' 7(J9J' 'H '9*('1J' JECFG 'DD,H! 'DI 'D*-CJE....."(4) 'E' 'D*1'6J AJ9/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE '*A'B' 16'&J'  HJ*-BB 'D16' (*D'BJ 'D%1'/*JF 9DI 'DD,H! DD*-CJE D-3E 'DF2'9 -J+ D'(/ EF *H'A1 'D%J,'( H'DB(HD (JF 'D71AJF -3( 'DBH'9/ 'D9'E)(1)  HE'/'E GH C0DC AD'(/ EF 'F D' *4H( '1'/) 71AJG #J 9J( EF 9JH( 'D'1'/) HGJ('D%C1'G H'D:D7 H'D:(F E9 'D*:1J1 H'D'3*:D'D)  H9DJG 0G(* 'DE-CE) 'D/3*H1J) 'D9DJ' AJ E51 AJ 'C+1 EF -CE DG' 9DI 9/E ,H'2 %,('1 '-/ 'D71AJF 9DI 'D*-CJE(2). 'E' (.5H5 E-D '*A'B 'D*-CJE  'H CE' J7DB 9DJG (B'(DJ) -D 'DF2'9 (71JB 'D*-CJE  AJ4ED EH6H9 'DEF'29) #H 'DEF'29'* 'D*J *0C1 AJ '*A'B 'D*-CJE H*916 (9/ 0DC 9DI GJ&) 'D*-CJE  HJ4*17 AJ G0' 'DE-D 'F JCHF EH,H/' 'H EECF 'DH,H/ HE9JF' 'H B'(D DD*9JJF HE41H9' 'J EE' D' J.'DA 'DF8'E 'D9'E H'D"/'( 'D9'E) H'D' C'F 'D'*A'B ('7D'  HJ6'A D0DC E' B/ J3*(9/ EF (96 'DEF'29'* EF 916G' 9DI 'D*-CJE(3)  HDB/ F5* 'DE'/)(254) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0 9DI: " D' J5- 'D*-CJE 'D' AJ 'DE3'&D 'D*J J,H2 AJG' 'D5D-...." H'DE3'&D 'D*J J,H2 AJG' 'D5D- #H1/G' 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ AJ 'DE'/)(704)-J+ F5* 9DI: " 1. J4*17 #F JCHF 'DE5'D- 9FG EE' J,H2 '.0 'D(/D AJ EB'(D*G HJ4*17 'F JCHF E9DHE' 'F C'F EE' J-*', 'DI 'DB(6 H'D*3DJE  2. HD' J,H2 'D5D- AJ 'DE3'&D 'DE*9DB) ('DF8'E 'D9'E 'H 'D"/'( 'D9'E) HDCF J,H2 'D5D- 9DI 'DE5'D- 'DE'DJ) 'D*J **1*( 9DI 'D-'D) 'D4.5J) 'H 'D*J *F4# 9F '1*C'( '-/I 'D,1'&E ". HF5 B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J 'DF'A0 AJ 'DE'/)(11) 9DI 9/E ,H'2 'D*-CJE 'D' AJ 'DE3'&D 'D*J J,H2 AJG' 'D5D-  HDB/ *H39 G0' 'DB'FHF AJ E/DHD 'DEF'29'* 'D*J *CHF E-D' DD*-CJE A','2 AJ 'DE'/)(1) EFG " ...('F *CHF (EF'3() 9D'B) 9B/J) 'H :J1 9B/J) 9'E) 'H .'5) E/FJ) 'H *,'1J) 'H 'DE*9DB) ('D#EH1 'D%/'1J)(1). HD'(/ 'F JCHF E-D 'D*-CJE 9DI HAB '*A'BJ) FJHJH1C EF 'DE3'&D 'D*J J,H2 *3HJ*G' 9F 71JB 'D*-CJE -3( F5 'DE'/)(2/1). HEF CD E' *B/E  D' J,H2 'D*-CJE AJ 'DE3'&D 'DE*9DB) ('D-'D) 'D4.5J) DD%F3'F C'D#GDJ) 'H *9/JD '-C'E 'D'GDJ) ('*A'B .'5  'H 'DE3'&D 'DE*9DB) ('D(FH) #H (5-) 9B/ 'D2H', 'H (7D'FG 'H 'DE3'&D 'DE*9DB) ('DEH'1J+ CHFG' *9/ EF 'DF8'E 'D9'E D' J,H2 'D'*A'B 9DI .D'AG'  HC0DC JB9 ('7D' CD '*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE AJ 'D,1'&E(2)  HJF5 'DA5D(7) EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D*HF3J 'DF'A0 9DI 9/E ,H'2 'D*-CJE AJ 'DE3'&D 'DE*9DB) ('DF8'E 'D9'E 'H AJ F2'9'* 'D,F3J) 'H 'DE*9DB) ('D-'D) 'D4.5J)  ('3*+F'! 'D.D'A'* 'DE'DJ) 'DF'4&) 9FG'.... 'E' 'D3(( AJ '*A'B 'D*-CJE AJCHF AJ '*,'G '1'/) 'D'71'A ('3*(9'/ 3D7) 'DB6'! EF F81 'DF2'9 H*AHJ6 'D'E1 DDE-CEJF HGH 3(( E41H9 'D' '0' +(* 'F 'DEB5H/ EF 'DD,H! DD*-CJE GH 'D*G1( EF '-C'E 'DB'FHF (E' J*6EFG EF BJH/ EE' J$/J D*-BB -'D) 'D:4 F-H 'DB'FHF(1)  AJCHF 'D*-CJE H3JD) :J1 E41H9) (G0' 'D5//. +'FJ': 'D41H7 'D4CDJ) D'*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. D' JB*51 'F9B'/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 3H'! #C'F 417 'H E4'17) 9DI 61H1) *H'A1 'D41H7 'DEH6H9J) 3'(B) 'D0C1  H'FE' *4*17 :'D(J) 'D*41J9'* 41H7' #.1I 4CDJ) DCJ JCHF G0' 'D'*A'B 5-J-'  HEF G0G 'D41H7 417 'DC*'() AJ '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. *0G( 'DC+J1 EF 'D*41J9'* H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D.'5) ('D*-CJE HBH'9/ 'D*-CJE 'D/HDJ) 'J6'  'DI 61H1) 'F JCHF '*A'B 'D*-CJE EC*H('  'D' 'FG' *.*DA AJ *CJJA 417 'DC*'() G0' H'+1G 9DI BJ'E 'D'*A'B  AF,/ 'F B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0 F5 AJ 'DE'/)(252) 9DI: " D' J+(* 'D'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE 'D' ('DC*'()....." A'9*(1 B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ H,H/ 'DC*'() DD%+('* AB7 HDJ3 DD'F9B'/  HC0DC C'F 9DJG 'D-'D E9 B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE51J 'DE1BE 13 D3F)1968 'DED:I AJ 'DE'/)(501) EFG  H#J6' E' F5 9DJG 'DA5D(6) EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D*HF3J 'DF'A0  H*9/ 'DC*'() D'2E) D%+('* CD 417 EF 41H7G  D'F HD'J) 'DE-CEJF *B*51 9DI E' 'F51A* %DJG %1'/) 'D#71'A HG0' JB*6J %+('* 'D*-CJE HCD 41H7G(2). 'E' (96 'D*41J9'* 'D#.1I AB/ 9/* H,H/ 'DC*'() 417' D5-) H'F9B'/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE H'D' C'F ('7D'  HEFG' 9DI 3(JD 'DE+'D B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J 'DF'A0 -J+ *H39 (EAGHE 'DC*'() -*I 4ED* 0DC 'DC*'() 'D'DC*1HFJ) 9(1 'D-H'3J( H'D'F*1F* -J+ F5 AJ 'DE'/)(12) EFG 9DI 'FG : " J,( 'F JCHF '*A'B 'D*-CJE EC*H(' H'D' C'F ('7D'  HJCHF '*A'B 'D*-CJE EC*H(' '0' *6EFG E-11 HB9G 'D71A'F 'H '0' *6EFG E' *('/DG 'D71A'F EF 13'&D 'H (1BJ'* 'H :J1G' EF H3'&D 'D'*5'D 'DEC*H() ".AJ/D G0' 'DF5 9DI 'DH,H( 51'-) AJ 61H1) *H'A1 'DC*'()  H'D'.0 (H3'&D 'D'*5'D'* 'D-/J+) AJ 'DC*'(). HJ9/ 417 'DC*'() E*-BB' '0' *E 'DF5 AJ 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ 9DI 'D%-'D) DH+JB) **6EF 417 'D*-CJE  C'D'-'D) 9DI 9B/ FEH0,J AJ E,'D 'DFBD 'D(-1J 'H (J9 'D(6'&9(1)  -J+ 'F 417 'D*-CJE B/ D' J1/ E9 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ (D (H+JB) '.1I HC'F* G0G 'D'-'D) H'6-) AJ '9*('1 G0' 'D417 ,2!' EF 'D9B/(2). H'.0 ('DC*'() C417 'F9B'/ D'*A'B 'D*-CJE 'DE'/)(7/2) EF 'DB'FHF 'DFEH0,J DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ D9'E1985  H'DE'/)(10)EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D#1/FJ 'DF'A0  H'DE'/)(12) EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D9E'FJ 'DF'A0  H'DE'/)(15)EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DJEFJ 'DF'A0. HF,/ AJ 'DE'/)(1443) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DA1F3J D9'E 1981 'FG ,9D* EF 'DC*'() 417' D5-) '*A'B 'D*-CJE H'F9B'/G H%D' C'F ('7D'  HG0' #J6' E' F5* 9DJG 'DE'/)(5/1) EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D'FCDJ2J D9'E 1996. HEF 'D61H1J 'F J*E *HBJ9 G0' 'D'*A'B (JF 'D71AJF DCJ JCHF /DJD' 9DI '1'/) CD EFGE' H%FGE' '7D9' 9DI CD (FH/ 'D'*A'B HH'AB' 9DJG. H*,/1 'D%4'1) 'FG E9 'D*7H1 'D-/J+ 'D-'5D AJ 'D*BFJ'* 'D-/J+) DD'*5'D'* H./E'* 'D(1J/ 'D'DC*1HFJ(e-mail)  8G1 (E' J3EI 'DC*'() 'D'DC*1HFJ) H'D*HBJ9 'D'DC*1HFJ(3)  H'D*J '9*1A* 'DC+J1 EF 'DBH'FJF H'D'*A'BJ'* H'DBH'9/ 'D/HDJ) (G' H'97* DG' -,J) B'FHFJ) C'ED) AJ 'D'+('* CE' AJ 'DB'FHF 'DFEH0,J DD*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D5'/1 9F 'D'EE 'DE*-/) 9'E 1996 AJ 'DE'/)(6)  H'9*1A 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DA1F3J C0DC (G' (EH,( 'D*9/JD 'DE1BE 230 D3F)2000 H'D0J 9/D 'DE'/)(1316)EFG  H'D*J 3'H* 'DC*'() 'D*BDJ/J) ('DC*'() 'D'DC*1HFJ)  HGF'C *41J9'* 91(J) .'5) ('D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) '97* -,J) B'FHFJ) C'ED) DD'/D) 'D'DC*1HFJ) HE3'H'*G' ('DE3*F/'* 'DH1BJ)  CE' AJ 'D'E'1'* H'D'1/F H'D(-1JF(1)  HF5H5 'D*-CJE CE' AJ 'DE'/)(12)*-CJE E51J H'DE'/)(15) *-CJE JEFJ H'DE'/)(10/() *-CJE #1/FJ HE' F5* 9DJG 'DE'/)(8)EF B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D3H1J 'DE1BE 4 D3F)2008  H9DJG AD'(/ EF 'D'.0 ('DEA'GJE 'D-/J+) DDC*'() H'D*HBJ9 HJ*H39 (GE' DCJ *3*H9( 'D*7H1'* 'D-/J+) AJ H3'&D 'D'*5'D'* H'D*BFJ'* 'D,/J/). 'E' AJ 'D91'B A'FG H(EH,( B'FHF 'D'+('* 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE 107 D3F)1979 'DE9/D A'F 'D71JB) 'DE*(9) AJ 'D'+('* GJ 'DC*'() 'D*BDJ/J) H'D*HBJ9 'D9'/J  H'F 'D'.0 (G0' 'DEAGHE 'D6JB DDC*'() H'D*HBJ9 J,9D EF 'D59( 9DI 'DB6'! 'D91'BJ 'D'9*1'A ('D(J'F'* 'D'DC*1HFJ) HEF-G' 'D-,J) 'DC'ED)  'D' 'F B'FHF 'D'+('* 'D91'BJ ','2 AJ 'DE'/)(104) EFG 9DI 'F DDE-CE) 'F *3*AJ/ EF H3'&D 'D*B/E 'D9DEJ AJ '3*('7 'DB1'&F 'DB6'&J)  HE9 0DC A'F G0' 'DF5 D' JCAJ CHFG B'51' 9F E9'D,) 'DE3'D) (F7'B #H39 D'F F7'B 'D%+('* ('DB1JF) E-// (%+('* 'DHB'&9 'DE'/J) H'D*51A 'DB'FHFJ 'D0J D' J*,'H2 BJE*G(5000)/JF'1 H'F ,9D G0G 'DH3'&D 'D'DC*1HFJ) CB1'&F B6'&J) AGJ GF' 3*.69 D3D7) 'DB'6J H*B/J1G EE' B/ J$/J D*F'B6 #-C'E 'DB6'! AJE' (JFG'.(2) HEE' 3(B J*6- DF' 'FG DH C'F GF'C '*A'B *-CJE (4CD 'DC*1HFJ  AEF 'DEECF 'D'9*1'A (E+D G0' 'D'*A'B H'9*E'/G (4CD 5-J- E'/'E GF'C '9*1'A B'FHFJ (G0G 'DC*'()  HH,H/ 'D6E'F'* 'DC'AJ) D-E'J*G' EF #J *-1JA 'H *2HJ1  H'F H'B9 'D*,'1) 'D/HDJ) ('* J51 HJ*,G F-H '9*E'/ 'D9BH/ 'D'DC*1HFJ) H'D*HBJ9 'D'DC*1HFJ DEH'C() 'D*7H1'* 'D31J9) AJ *CFHDH,J' 'DE9DHE'* H'D*3GJD 9DI 'DE*9'B/JF AJ E,'D 'DE9'ED'* 'D*,'1J) #J6'. HD'(/ EF 'D%4'1) %DI E3'D) EGE) HGJ 'FG B/ J-5D 'F J-J7 '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J(417 'H E4'17)) :EH6' HJ-*ED G0' 'D:EH6 D9/) *A3J1'* H',*G'/'*  9DI 'D1:E EF 'F 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J #3DH( '.*J'1J '*A'BJ JECF DD%71'A EF .D'DG *6EJF 'D417 'H 'DE4'17) 'J) 9('1'* J1:(HF (%/1',G' AJG DD'(*9'/ 9F 'DB6'!(1)  HE9 0DC B/ J-5D 'F 8'G1J) 'D'*A'B B/ D' JB5/ EF H1'&G' E' '*,G* 'DJG '1'/) 'D71AJF AE+D G0G 'D-'D) *5J( 'D'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J (.DD HJ3EI AJ G0G 'D-'D) (@(417 'D*-CJE 'DE9*D)  HJECF E9'D,*G EF .D'D 'D*A3J1 'D5-J- DD'*A'B AJCHF EF 'D#A6D /'&E' 9F/ 9B/ '*A'B 'D*-CJE EF *H.J 'D-01 H'D/B) AJ '3*9E'D 'D9('1'* -*I D' J$/J 0DC 'DI 'D:EH6 'H 'DD(3 H'D4C AJG(2)  HEF 'D#E+D) 9DI 'D:EH6 'H 'D4C 'D0J J5J( '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J  C#F JF5 'D'*A'B 9DI *3HJ) 'DF2'9 -3( BH'9/ E1C2 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'DE51J AJ 'DB'G1)  'H E1C2 'D*-CJE 'D/HDJ 'D'E'1'*J AJ /(J HJ(/H 'D:EH6 GF' 'FG D' JH,/ E1C2 DD*-CJE AJ 'DB'G1) (G0' 'D'3E HC0' 'D-'D AJ /(J  HG0' J+J1 *3'$D -HD B5/ 'D'71'A EF 'D9('1'* 'DH'1/) AJG(1) HEF 'D*7(JB'* 9DI 417 'D*-CJE 'DE9*D 'DB6J) 'D*J -5D* (JF '71'A 'DE'F '(1EH' 9B/ J*6EF 417 *-CJE C'D'*J: ((AJ -'D) 9/E 'D'*A'B 'DH/J *-3E ,EJ9 'DEF'29'* 'DE-*ED) HAB' DBH'9/ 'D*-CJE DD:1A) 'D*,'1J) 'D/HDJ) AJ 2JH1J.  H9F/E' -5D 'D.D'A 7D( '-/ 'D'71'A EF G0G 'D:1A) '*.'0 'D',1'!'* 'D*-CJEJ) HDCF 'D:1A) 0C1* 'FG' :J1 E.*5) H'-'D* 'DB6J) DD:1A) 'D*,'1J) 'D/HDJ) AJ ('1J3  %0 'F :1A) *,'1) 2JH1J. DJ3* D,F) /HDJ) AJ 'D*-CJE H9DJG B11* E-CE) 'D*-CJE DD:1A) 'D*,'1J) 'D/HDJ) AJ ('1J3 ('F 'DEB5H/ EF 417 'D*-CJE GH 'F JCHF EC'F 'D*-CJE 2JH1J. H'F 'DF2'9 J*E -3EG ('D*-CJE 9F 71JB 'D:1A) 'D*,'1J) 'D/HDJ) AJ ('1J3(2)  H9DJG JECF 'F F9*(1 '*A'B 'D*-CJE 5-J-' HF'A0' AJ -'D) 'D*H5D 'DI *A3J1 EF'3( J2JD E' 'C*FA 'D'*A'B EF 9D) H'D*H5D 'DI E91A) 'D'1'/) 'DE4*1C) DD71AJF  'E' '0' C'F '*A'B 'D*-CJE D' JECF '2'D) G0G 'D9D) EFG D9/E 'D*H5D DE91A) FJ) HB5/ 'D71AJF AJCHF 417 'D*-CJE GF' ('7D'  HAJ 3(JD 'D'(*9'/ 9F E+D G0G 'DE4'CD *69 'DC+J1 EF 'DE$33'* 'D/HDJ) 'D*-CJEJ) F5' .'5' 'H 417' FEH0,J' D:16 'D'-'D) 'DI 'D*-CJE HEFG' BH'9/ :1A) 'D*,'1) 'D/HDJ) 'DF'A0) AJ ('1J3 D9'E1998 -J+ F5*: " ,EJ9 'D.D'A'* 'D*J *F4' 'H 'D*J DG' 9D'B) (G0' 'D9B/ J*E -3EG' FG'&J' HAB' DF8'E 'D*-CJE 'D*'(9 D:1A) 'D*,'1) 'D/HDJ) (H'37) E-CE 'H 9/) E-CEJF J*EE *9JFGE 7(B' D0DC 'DF8'E ". 'DE(-+ 'D+'FJ EAGHE E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J (9/E' (JF' AJ 'DE(-+ 'D#HD EF G0' 'D(-+ E3#D) '*A'B 'D*-CJE H41H7 'F9B'/G  HEHBA 'DBH'FJF H'D'*A'BJ'* H'DBH'9/ 'D/HDJ) AJ 0DC  F5D 'DI E3'D) EGE) ,/' 'D' HGJ E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J  %0 F(JF EAGHE G0' 'DE(/# H'3'3G 'DB'FHFJ  HGD JF7(B 9DI '*A'B 'D*-CJE (5H1*JG('D417 H'DE4'17))  'E JB*51 9DI 5H1) /HF 'D'.1I HD'(/ EF (J'F E/I '.*5'5 'DE-CE ('D3J1 ('D',1'!'* 9F/ 'D'/9'! ((7D'F 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ  E3*916JF AJ 0DC *7H1 E(/' 'D'3*BD'DJ) H(J'F EHBA 'DBH'FJF H'D'*A'BJ'* H'DBH'9/ 'D*-CJEJ) AJ 0DC  H3F9'D, CD 0DC AJ 'DE7D(JF 'D"*JJF: 'DE7D( 'D#HD: 'D*91JA (E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J H#3'3G 'DB'FHFJ. 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ: EHBA 'D*41J9'* H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) HB6'! 'D*-CJE EF 'DE(/#. 'DE7D( 'D#HD 'D*91JA (E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J H#3'3G 'DB'FHFJ. *+J1 E3'D) 'D'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE #J' C'F* 5H1*G *3'$D'K -HD E' E/I '1*('7 'D'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE ('D9B/ 'D#5DJ 'D0J #+J1 (4#FG 'DF2'9 #H (9('1) #.1I GD J*#+1 'D'*A'B 'D*-CJEJ 9F/ %(7'D 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ 'H A3.G HF4J1 GF' 'DI 'F '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J *F7(B 9DI 417 'D*-CJE AB7 /HF 'DE4'17) H417 'D*-CJE ('D'4'1) H0DC D'F 'DE4'17) *F9B/ (9/ 'F JB9 'DF2'9 HD' *CHF E/1,) ('D9B/ 'D'5DJ (JF 'D71AJF AD' J$+1 9DJG' (7D'F 'H A3. 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ  HC0' 'D-'D ('D5H1) 'D'.1I. HJD'-8 'FG B(D '3*B1'1 E(/# 'D'3*BD'DJ) C'F GF'C '*,'G *BDJ/J D/I (96 'D#F8E) 'DB'FHFJ) J0G( %DI 'FG %0' C'F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ ('7D' 'H A3. D#J 3(( C'F A'F 0'* 'D#+1 JF51A 9DI 417 'D*-CJE ('9*('1G *'(9' DG H,2! EF 'D9B/ A'DF*J,) 'D7(J9J) D0DC GH 'F*G'! 'D417 *(9' D'F*G'! 'D#5D(1). 'D' 'FG HE9 'D*7H1 'D-'5D AJ F8'E 'D*-CJE HBH'9/G '3*B1 9DI 'F 9/E E41H9J) 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ 'H 9/E 5-*G 'H (7D'FG 'H A3.G D'J 3(( C'F  D' J$+1 9DI 5-) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 3H'! 'C'F G0' 'D'*A'B E/1,' AJ 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ 'E C'F E3*BD' 9FG AJ 5H1) '*A'B H'D3(( AJ 9/E *'+1 '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J ((7D'F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ CHF 'F '*A'B 'D*-CJE J9'D, EH6H9' E.*DA' 9F EH6H9 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ  %0 'D'*A'B *51A' B'&E' (0'*G DG CJ'FG 'DE3*BD 9F 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ(2)  HEF 'D#E+D) 9DI 0DC DH '(1E (#) 9B/ (J9 E9 (() /HF 'F J*6EF 'D9B/ 417 *-CJE HAJ 'DHB* 0'*G JCHF(#) :J1 #GD D%(1'E G0' 'D9B/ HAJ HB* D'-B J*AB 'DE*9'B/'F 9DI 'F #J F2'9 (4'F 9B/GE' J-'D DD*-CJE HC'F(#) B/ #5(- "GD' D%(1'E G0' 'D'*A'B 'D,/J/  AAJ G0G 'D-'D) JCHF 9B/ 'D(J9 ('7D' AJ -JF JCHF 'D'*A'B 9DI 'D*-CJE 5-J-' HJ9ED (G. H'DBHD ('3*BD'D 417 'D*-CJE 9F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ J$/J 0DC D9/E *#+1 417 'D*-CJE ('-*E'D A3. 'H (7D'F 'D9B/ 'D0J C'F G0' 'D417 '-/ (FH/G(3)  HJD'-8 'FG -*I 'D5D- AJ 4#F EH6H9 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ D' J$/J D3BH7 417 'D*-CJE  H'9*FB G0' 'DE(/# -CE'K Texaco and California oil company)) 6/(The government Libaian) AJ 4'F 'DF2'9 9DI 'E*J'2 'D(*1HD 'DDJ(J '0 'H6- 'D-CE 'DE0CH1 (B'! '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D0J J,9D 'D'.*5'5 DE-CE) 'D*-CJE B'&E' 9DI 'D1:E EF -H'D) 9B/ 'D'E*J'2 'D-'5D F*J,) 'D*'EJE(4). HGF'C ,ED) EF 'DF*'&, 'D*J **1*( 9DI 'D'.0 (E(/# 'D'3*BD'DJ) HGJ: 'F (7D'F CD EF 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ 'H (7D'F 417 'D*-CJE D' J$+1 9DI 5-) 'H (7D'F 'D'.1  %0 'F '(7'D 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ JECF 9F/&0 'D*E3C (5-) 417 'D*-CJE H-3E 'DF2'9 ('D*-CJE  'E' DH C'F 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ 5-J-' H417 'D*-CJE ('7D' AGF' JECF D'J EF 71AJ 'DEF'29) 'DD,H! DDB6'! DA6 'DF2'9(1). DJLV D Ǻvl_SE4 hLqhLq5Z\^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^JaJo(hECJ ^J_HaJ hECJ Z^JaJ o(hE^JnH tH hECJOJQJ^JaJhECJZ^JaJo(hECJZ^J_HaJo(hLqCJZ^J_HaJo(hECJZ^JaJhLqCJZ^JaJo(hV CJZ^JaJo(hKhKCJ ^JaJ hKhKH*OJQJZhhLqhLqCJ Z^JaJ o(L YI$`a$gdEbkd$$IfTl    V0  44 la$ $G$If^ a$gdV $ $If^ a$gdV $ $If^ a$gdV $a$gdLq]fp H ` TL^& : T #$%0&$`a$gd s $a$gd~?$`a$gdLq $a$gdLqD F H \^ DFV^Txz: &&&&((z**--p1v1R2b2f2j2ӷӬӷӷӜӌ|nnneZZh$Z^JaJo(h F0JZaJhE;hLq0JZ^JaJh$hICJZ^JaJo(h$hLqCJZ^JaJo(h shLqCJZ^JaJo(h<~Z^JaJo( h shLq5Z\^JaJo(h~?Z^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^JaJo( hLqhLq5Z\^JaJo(h~?5Z\^JaJo(#0&&&&*,/h2j23578^:@:CEFrHHI*J$KN$h`ha$gdLq$ & Fa$gdLq$`a$gd$ $a$gdLqj26699<<>>>>>?????@@@@BBBB0C2C4C6CFF(J*JK K"K$KlLrLOOPPrQxQRRUU0W6WD^J^L^N^Va\abh{0JZaJhE;hLqZ^J_HaJo(hI0JZaJhE;hLq^JaJo(hE;hLq^JaJhE;hLq0JZ^JaJo(hE;hLq0JZ^JaJh F0JZaJhE;hLqZ^JaJo(9NP:S"U:W[N^2`bbbe fhiXl"q$qNt:{}x~r$`a$gd s $a$gdLq$`a$gdLq$h`ha$gdLqbbbbbe fhhii i"iiikkVlXl$n&nq q"q$qzrrDtJtJwPw}}fl讞te\\\\\\hD0JZaJhU"hLqH*Z^JaJo(hLqH*Z^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^J_HaJo(hE;hLq0JZ^JaJo(hE;hLq0JZ^JaJ h shLq5Z\^JaJo(h shLqCJZ^JaJo(hLqZ^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^JaJo(h{0JZaJ$rƄ"(xBȸʸ̸θиDzƾD$`a$gd s $a$gdLq$`a$gdLqlƄ"$vxڗTZBHXZ\^ƸȸиBD򙉙򙉙~nanh sCJZ^JaJo(h shLqCJZ^JaJo(hDZ^JaJo(hE;hLq0JZ^JaJo(hE;hLq0JZ^JaJhE;hLqZ^J_HaJo(hE;hLq^JaJh sZ^JaJo(hLqZ^JaJo(hD0JZaJ h shLq5Z\^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^JaJo(&DD vxz|$.Z^`bdhhjlnprPR򹩙򩙇wwhE;hLq^J_HaJo(U"hE;hLq0JZ^J_HaJo(hE;hLq0JZ^J_HaJhE;hLqZ^J_HaJo(hE;hLq^JaJhE;hLq0JZ^JaJo(hE;hLq0JZ^JaJh shLqCJZ^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^JaJo(.D HhrRb\r $`a$gd s$h`ha$gdLq$ & Fa$gdLq$`a$gdLq $a$gdLqEF 'DEECF 'F J-5D '.*D'A (JF 'DB'FHF 'D0J J-CE '*A'B 'D*-CJE 9F 0DC 'D0J J.69 DG 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ  'D' 'F *7(JB B'FHF E9JF 9DI 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ B/ J9/ B1JF) 9DI 'F51'A FJ) 'D'71'A D*7(JB 0DC 'DB'FHF 9DI '*A'B 'D*-CJE E'DE JH,/ '*A'B (.D'A 0DC(2) H0DC J9/ *7(JB' DD'*,'G 'DABGJ 'D:'D( AJ *F'29 'DBH'FJF H'D.'5 (H-/) 'DB'FHF 'DH',( 'D*7(JB D'F '3*BD'D '*A'B 'D*-CJE D' J-HD /HF 'E*/'/ 'DB'FHF 'DH',( 'D*7(JB 9DI G0' 'D9B/ 'DI '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'J6'(3). EF 'DF*'&, 'D#3'3J) DE(/# '3*BD'DJ) GJ 'FG JECF DDE-CE 'H GJ&) 'D*-CJE 'DF81 AJ '.*5'5G('H '.*5'5G')  %0 JECF 'D'3*E1'1 ('D',1'!'* 'D*-CJEJ) HGH 'D0J JB11 CHFG E.*5' ('DF81 AJ EH6H9 'DF2'9 'E D'(4)  HJA5D ('J /A9 J.5 9/E 5-) '*A'B 'D*-CJE. H9DJG HEE' 3(B JD'-8 'F E(/' '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE GH EF 'DE('/& 'DE3*B1) AJ F8'E 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J  H('D#.5 9DI 59J/ 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ  H'F G0' 'DE(/' JE3 417 'D*-CJE AB7 /HF 'DE4'17) CHF 'F 'D'HDI J*E 'D'*A'B 9DJG' H*/1, E9 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ '(*/'!' (9C3 'DE4'17) AGJ D' *8G1 DDH,H/ 'D' 9F/ -5HD 'DF2'9. H(9/E' *#C/ DF' E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE D'(/ EF (J'F 'D'3'3 'DB'FHFJ 'D0J JBHE 9DJG G0' 'DE(/' AJECF 'F F,/ '3'3G AJ 'DBH'9/ 'D9'E) AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  H(E' J7DB 9DJG' ((F81J) 'F*B'5 'D9B/) %0 '.0 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0 (G' AJ 'DE'/)(139) %0 ,'! (G': " '0' C'F 'D9B/ AJ 4B EFG ('7D' AG0' 'D4B GH 'D0J J(7D. 'E' 'D('BJ AJ8D 5-J-' (5A*G 9B/' E3*BD' 'D' '0' *(JF 'F 'D9B/ E' C'F DJ*E (:J1 'D4B 'D0J HB9 ('7D' ". HE$/I G0G 'DF81J) *A*16 'F 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ DJ3 ('7D' ('DC'ED (D AJ ,2! EFG AB7  AJECF '2'D) 'D,2! 'D('7D H'D'(B'! 9DI 'D,2! 'D5-J-  HBJ'3' 9DI '*A'B 'D*-CJE A'FG AJ -'D) (7D'F 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ 'D0J J-HJ 417 'D*-CJE (6EFG A'F 'D9B/ J(7D DH-/G HJ(BI 'D417 5-J- AJ -'D) *H'A1 41H7G C'*A'B E3*BD H'D9C3 5-J-(1). 'E' (.5H5 F81J) *-HD 'D9B/ AGD EF 'DEECF *7(JBG' 9DI '3*BD'DJ) 417 'D*-CJE 'E D' 'D,H'( 3JCHF ('DFAJ D'F G0G 'DF81J) *A*16 'F JCHF GF'C 9B/' ('7D' ('CEDG DCJ J*-HD D9B/ '.1  'E' DH C'F AJ ,2! EFG ('7D' H'D'.1 5-J- HC'F G0' 'D*51A B'(D DD'FB3'E AGF' JF*B5 'D9B/ HD' J*-HD(2). H9DJG A'F '*,'G '3*BD'DJ) 417 'D*-CJE JF7DB EF H'B9 9EDJ HGH 'F 3(( 417 'D*-CJE HG/AG AJ 'F H'-/ GH *3HJ) 'DF2'9 9F 71JB 'D*-CJE (/D' EF 'DD,H! DDB6'!  H'DF2'9 3**E *3HJ*G AJ ,EJ9 'D'-H'D HD' JEF9 'F **E G0G 'D*3HJ) 9F 71JB 'D*-CJE E'/'E 'F GJ&) 'D*-CJE 3*A5D (G HAB' DDB'FHF 'DH',( 'D*7(JB H'D*J 3*B6J ((7D'F 'D9B/ E+D' E9 *7(JB 'D'+'1 'DE*1*() 9DI 0DC EF *9HJ6 'H '9'/) 'D-'D 'DI E' C'F* 9DJG B(D 'D*9'B/(3). 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ EHBA 'DBH'FJF H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) HBH'9/ 'D*-CJE EF 'DE(/#. 3(B 'F (JF' '3*B1'1 E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 9F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ  'D' 'F 'D*41J9'* H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) 'DE.*DA) DE *CF 9DI EHBA H'-/ (4'F '9*E'/ G0' 'DE(/#  ADB/ '.0* 'DC+J1 EF 'DHB* DCJ **7H1 H*5D 'DI E' GH 9DJG 'D'F. AEF E7'D9) F5H5 'D*-CJE 'DH'1/) AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0 D' F,/ #J F5 51J- ('D#.0 ('3*BD'DJ) 417 'D*-CJE 9F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ(1)  HE9 0DC JECF 'D'.0 ('DBH'9/ 'D9'E) 'DH'1/) AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0('DE'/)139EFG)  H'D.'5) ('F*B'5 'D9B/ AJ *7(JBG' 9DI '*A'B 'D*-CJE(2)  HG0' GH 'D1#J 'D1',-. #E' 'D'*,'G 'DABGJ AJ E51 B(D 5/H1 B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J 'DF'A0 AB/ C'F EFB3E 'DI A1JBJF: 'D#HD J0G( D9/E 'EC'FJ) A5D 417 'D*-CJE 9F 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ  (JFE' 'D+'FJ A0G( 'DI 'D'.0 (E(/' 'D'3*BD'DJ)(3)  'D' 'F B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J 'D-'DJ ,'! (F5 51J- 9DI '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE H0DC ('DE'/)(23) -J+ J9/ 417 'D*-CJE '*A'B' E3*BD' 9F 41H7 'D9B/ 'D'.1I  HD' J*1*( 9DI (7D'F 'D9B/ 'H A3.G 'H 'FG'&G #J '+1 9DI 417 'D*-CJE 'D0J J*6EFG '0' C'F 'D417 5-J-' AJ 0'*G(4). 'E' 'D'*,'G 'DABGJ 'DA1F3J ADB/ C'F 'D',*G'/ 'DA1F3J JB6J ('F 417 'D*-CJE J*(9 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ  H('D*'DJ D' J,H2 DDE-CEJF 'DF81 AJ E3'D) (7D'F 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ  'D' 'FG 9'/* AJ ',*G'/ '.1 9/D* E-CE) 'DFB6 'DA1F3J) 9F ',*G'/G' 'D3'(B H#.0* (E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 9F 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ AJE' J*9DB ('D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ AB7 (B1'1G' 'D5'/1 AJ 18/1/1958(1)  HB/ *#+1 'DB6'! 'DA1F3J ('DB6'! 'DGHDF/J 'D0J J9/ #HD EF B11 G0' 'DE(/# (-CE 'DE-CE) 'DGHDF/J) AJ 27/12/1935(2)  H*9/ B6J) Gosset 6/ Carapelli 'D4GJ1) GJ 'D(/'J) 'D-BJBJ) F-H 'B1'1 'DB6'! 'DA1F3J ('3*BD'D 417 'D*-CJE 9F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ H5/1 'D-CE 9F E-CE) 'DFB6 'DA1F3J) 9'E 1963(3)  HAJ -CE DE-CE) 'DFB6 'DA1F3J) 9'E 1972 #4'1* AJG 'F '*A'B 'D*-CJE AJ EH6H9 'D*-CJE 'D/HDJ JE+D '3*BD'D' *'E'(4). H(9/ 5/H1 B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DA1F3J 9'E 1981 'DF'A0 F5* 'DE'/)(1446) EFG 9DI: "....'0' C'F 417 'D*-CJE ('7D' A'FG J9/ :J1 EC*H(...." AG0' 'DF5 J/D 9DI 'FG AJ -'D) (7D'F 417 'D*-CJE AJ 'D9B/ 'D'5DJ A'D417 D' H,H/ DG HJ(BI 'D9B/ 5-J-'  HEF EAGHE 'DE.'DA) DG0' 'DF5 J3*F*, 'FG '0' C'F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ ('7D' A'F 0DC D' J$+1 9DI 5-) 417 'D*-CJE(5)  'E' (/'J'* 'DB6'! 'D'FCDJ2J AC'F* *1A6 1A6' B'79' '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 9F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ  HE9 0DC *1',9 9F 0DC H'B1G 51'-)(6)  HB/ '.0 'DB'FHF 'D'FCDJ2J DD*-CJE D9'E 1996 ('D'3*BD'DJ) AJ 'DE'/)(7) HC0DC 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J D9'E 1961 AJ 'DE'/)(5). HJ*A19 9F E(/# 'D'3*BD'DJ) 'DE(/# 'DE3EI('D'.*5'5 ('D'.*5'5) HF9FJ (G 'F DDE-CE #H GJ&) 'D*-CJE 3D7) 'DA5D AJ E/I 5-) 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ #H (7D'FG -*I J*E 'D'3*E1'1 (%,1'!'* 'D*-CJE /HF 'D-',) DHBA 'D%,1'!'* H'D*H,G DDB6'! 'D9'/J  HEF ('( #HDI *.*5 GJ&) 'D*-CJE #J6' ('DA5D AJ E3'D) 5-) '*A'B 'D*-CJE EF 9/EG(1)  HDB/ #.0* (E(/# 'D'.*5'5 ('D'.*5'5 BH'9/ :1A) 'D*,'1) 'D/HDJ) AJ ('1J3 D9'E 1998 ('DE'/)(6) HBH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'DFEH0,J('D'HF3*1'D) 'D5'/1 9F 'D#EE 'DE*-/) D9'E 1976 ('DE'/)(21) H'DE'/)(41) EF '*A'BJ) H'4F7F D9'E1965 HGH EHBA B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J 'DF'A0 AJ 'DE'/)(22). 'D.'*E): (9/ 'D'F*G'! EF G0' 'D(-+ F5D 'DI E,EH9) EF 'DF*'&, H'D*H5J'* 'D#3'3J) H'D*J JECF (J'FG' ('D4CD 'D"*J: #HD': 'DF*'&,: *(JF DF' EF .D'D 'D(-+ #GEJ) E(/# '3*BD'D '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J AJ -3E 'DEF'29'* 'D*,'1J) 9DI 'D59J/JF ('DE-DJ H'D/HDJ). 'D'.*D'A 'D,HG1J H'DC(J1 'DEH,H/ E' (JF 5H1*J 'D'*A'B('D417 H'DE4'17))  AJ 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. 'G*E'E 'DC+J1 EF 'D/HD (EH,( BH'FJFG' 'DH7FJ) 'H 9F 71JB 'D'F6E'E DD'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) 'D.'5) ('D*-CJE 'D*,'1J ('D41H7 'DEH6H9J) H'D4CDJ) D'*A'B 'D*-CJE  H'D*#CJ/ 9DI 'D5J':) 'D/BJB) 9F/ C*'() '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J (E' JCAD '(9'/G 9F #J :EH6 AJ E6EHFG. 'D*#CJ/ 9DI E(/# '3*BD'DJ) '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J H('D#.5 '3*BD'DJ) 417 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 9F 'D9B/ 'D#5DJ H'9*('1G E(/# ,HG1J' H#3'3J' AJ %7'1 F8'E 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J. 'DB5H1 'DH'6- AJ F5H5 'D*-CJE 'DH'1/) AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0 H'D*J *9/ E*.DA) BJ'3' ('D/HD 'D#.1I 'DE,'H1) DD91'B. +'FJ': 'D*H5J'*: FH5J 'DE419 'D91'BJ (61H1) 'D%31'9 D%5/'1 B'FHF E3*BD J9'D, 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J AJ 'DEH'/ 'DE/FJ) H'D*,'1J)  H.5H5' 'F 'D91'B (9/ A*1) 'D'-*D'D 9'E 2003 '.0 ('D'FA*'- 9DI /HD 'D9'DE H*3'19 H*J1) 'D'3*+E'1'* 'D#,F(J) AJG. 61H1) 'D#.0 (E(/# 'D'3*BD'DJ) D417 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ (F5 51J- H/BJB  EF .D'D *9/JD G0G 'DF5H5 AJ 'DHB* 'D1'GF  HFB*1- (G0' 'D.5H5 'DF5 'D#*J: " J9/ 417 'D*-CJE '*A'B' E3*BD' 9F 41H7 'D9B/ HD' J*1*( 9DI (7D'F 'D9B/ 'H A3.G #J '+1 9DI 417 'D*-CJE 'D0J J*6EFG  '0' C'F G0' 'D417 5-J-' AJ 0'*G ". FH5J 'DE419 'D91'BJ 'DI 'D*H39 (EAGHE 'DC*'() H'D*HBJ9 DJ4ED E' '3*,/ AJ H'B9F' 'D9EDJ EF *7H1'* *BFJ) EGE) AJ 'D'*5'D'* H'DH3'&D 'D'DC*1HFJ)  H8GH1 'DC*'() 'D'DC*1HFJ) H'D*HBJ9 'D'DC*1HFJ H61H1) E3'H'*G' AJ 'D-,J) 'DB'FHFJ) AJ 'D%+('* ('DC*'() H'D*HBJ9 'D*BDJ/JJF D'FG EF 'DE*5H1 H,H/ '*A'B *-CJE 'DC*1HFJ EE' J3*H,( E9G %.6'9 0DC D-CE 'DB'FHF  HCD 0DC J*E EF .D'D %5/'1 *41J9 .'5 JG*E (E9'ED'* 'D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) H*9*1A (G'. E1',9 'D(-+ : #HD':'DC*(. 1- /.'/E HGJ( 'DF/'HJ  'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ)  ,'E9) (:/'/ 1988. 2- /. '(H 2J/ 16H'F  'D#33 'D9'E) AJ 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ  /'1 FG1 'DFJD  'DB'G1). 3- /.'-E/ #(H #DHA'  'D*9DJB 9DI F5H5 B'FHF 'DE1'A9'*  75  EF4#) 'DE9'1A ('D%3CF/1J). 4- /.'-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'D*-CJE 7(B' DDB'FHF 27 D3F)1994 H'F8E) 'D*-CJE 'D/HDJ)  72  'DB'G1)  2004. 5- /.'-E/ 41A 'D/JF  /1'3'* AJ 'D*-CJE AJ EF'29'* 'D9BH/ 'D/HDJ)  EF /HF EC'F F41 HD' ,G) F41 1992. 6- /.'EJF) 'DFE1  '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ)  'D/'1 'D,'E9J) 1988. 7- /.-3F 'DG/'HJ H/.:'D( 9DJ 'D/'H/J  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D.'5 'DB3E 'D+'FJ  H2'1) 'D*9DJE 'D9'DJ H'D(-+ 'D9DEJ  (:/'/  1988  8--3JF 'DE$EF  'DH,J2 AJ 'D*-CJE  E7(9) 'DA,1  (J1H* 1977. 9- /. .'D/ E-E/ 'DB'6J  EH3H9) 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ  71  /'1 'D41HB  'DB'G1) 2002. 10- /. 3'EJ) 1'4/  'D*-CJE AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) 'D.'5)  'DC*'( 'D'HD-'*A'B 'D*-CJE  'DB'G1) 1984. 11- /.39J/ JH3A 'D(3*'FJ  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D.'5 (*7H1 H*9// 71B -D 'DF2'9'* 'D.'5) 'D/HDJ))  EF4H1'* 'D-D(J 'D-BHBJ)  71  (J1H* 2004. 12- 49J( '-E/ 3DJE'F  'D*-CJE AJ EF'29'* *FAJ0 'D.7) 'D'B*5'/J) 'D9'E)  EF4H1'* H2'1) 'D+B'A) H'D'9D'E  /'1 'D14J/ DDF41  (:/'/  1981. 13- #./.9('3 'D9(H/J  41- '-C'E B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ)  /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H'DF41  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  2000. 14-9(/ 'D1-EF 'D9D'E  41- B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) 1BE83 D3F)1969  'D/'&1) 'DB'FHFJ)  H2'1) 'D9/D  ,4 (:/'/1990. 15- /.9(/ 'D1-EF 9J'/  '5HD 9DE 'DB6'!  E9G/ 'D'/'1) 'D9'E)  'D39H/J)  1981. 16- /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  ,1  'DB'G1). 17- /.AH2J E-E/ 3'EJ  'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ  72  ,'E9) (:/'/ 1992. 18- /. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE H#.9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J H#.E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  'DH,J2 AJ F81J) 'D'D*2'E AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ  ,1  (:/'/1980. 19- E-E/ C'ED E13J  'D9BH/ 'DE3E')  ,1 72 'DE7(9) 'D9'DEJ)  'DB'G1) 1952. 20- /.E-EH/ 'DCJD'FJ  9BH/ 'D*,'1) 'D/HDJ) AJ E,'D FBD 'D*CFHDH,J'  E7(9)9(J1 E51 1988. 21- /. E-EH/ E.*'1 (1J1J  'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ  73  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2004. 22- E9H6 9(/ 'D*H'(  E/HF) 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  ,1  EF4') 'DE9'1A ('D'3CF/1J)  1987. 23- /.EFJ1 9(/ 'DE,J/  'D*F8JE 'DB'FHFJ DD*-CJE 'D/HDJ H'D/'.DJ AJ 6H! 'DABG HB6'! 'D*-CJE  EF4') 'DE9'1A ('D'3CF/1J)  1997. 24- F(JD 9(/ 'D1-EF -J'HJ  E('/I! 'D*-CJE  'D9'*C D5F'9) 'DC*(  'DB'G1)  2007. +'FJ':'D(-H+ H'D/1'3'*. 1- /.'-E/ 9(/ 'D1-EF 'DED-E  9B/ 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'DE(1E (JF 'DE-CEJF H'D.5HE  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'D-BHB  E,D3 'DF41 'D9DEJ  'DCHJ*  'D9// 2  'D3F) 18  -2J1'F1994. 2- #./.,9A1 'DA6DJ H#./. 9('3 'D9(H/J  -,J) 'D3F/'* 'D'DC*1HFJ) AJ 'D'+('* 'DE/FJ AJ 6H! 'D*9/JD 'D,/J/ DDB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DA1F3J 'DE1BE230 D3F) 2000  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'D1'A/JF DD-BHB  ,'E9) 'DEH5D-CDJ) 'D-BHB  911 2001. 3- /.9('3 'D9(H/J  -,J) 'D#/D) 'D'DC*1HFJ) AJ 'D%+('* 'DE/FJ  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'DB'FHF 'DEB'1F  933 (:/'/ 2003. 4- /.95E* 9(/ 'DE,J/  E4CD) 'D%+('* (H3'&D 'D*BFJ'* 'D9DEJ)  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'DB6'!  'D9//'F 'D'HD H'D+'FJ 'D3F) 55  (:/'/2002. 5-9E1 E4GH1 -/J+) 'D,'2J  '*A'B 'D*-CJE AJ 8D B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D#1/FJ 1BE31 D3F)2001  (-+ EF4H1 AJ 'DE,D) 'DD(F'FJ) DD*-CJE 'D91(J H'D/HDJ  922 2003. 6- #./.E-EH/ 3EJ1 'D41B'HJ  'D*7H1'* 'D-/J+) AJ B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) E51 'DE9'51)  'DB'G1)  9:449H450  C'FHF 'D+'FJ-FJ3'F1998. +'D+':'D13'&D H'D'7'1J- 'D,'E9J). 1- 7D'D J'3JF 'D9J3I  'D9BH/ 'D/HDJ) H*7(JB'*G' AJ 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ  '71H-) /C*H1'G  CDJ) 'DB'FHF-,'E9) (:/'/ 1996. 2- E-E/ ,E'D E-E/ 7'G1  *3HJ) 'DEF'29'* 'D1J'6J) ('D*-CJE  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF-,'E9) 'DEH5D  2005. 1'(9':'DE5'/1 EF 'D4(C) 'D9'DEJ) DDE9DHE'*('D'F*1F*). 'DE5'/1 'D91(J): 1- '-E/ JH3A 'D.D'HJ  'FH'9 'D*-CJE  /1'3) EF4H1) 9DI 'D4(C) 'D9'DEJ) DDE9DHE'* H9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.moj.gov.sa/documentations/tahkeem/5new.doc" www.moj.gov.sa/documentations/tahkeem/5new.doc 2- '41A 'D9'5J  'D*A1B) (JF 'D417 H'DE4'17) C5H1 D'*A'B 'D*-CJE  /1'3) EF4H1) (*'1J.5/4/2006 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://center.alassy.net" http://center.alassy.net 3- ,E'D -E'E)  B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J JH'C( 'D*7H1 'D'B*5'/J  /1'3) EF4H1) (*'1J. 29/3/2008  9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.buildex.com" www.buildex.com 4- ,E'D 9(/ 'DF'51 E3'DE)  417 HE4'17) 'D*-CJE H5-) 5J':*GE' (E' J*AB E9 'DBH'9/ 'D/HDJ)  /1'3) EF4H1) (*'1J.18/5/2008  9DI 'DEHB9: .www.Syrialaw.com 5- -3F 'D(/1'HJ  'D*-CJE H'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J)  (-+ EB/E DF/H) 'DHJ(H 'DH7FJ) 'D*J F8E*G' 'DEF8E) 'D9'DEJ) DDEDCJ) 'DAC1J) H'D,'E9) 'D'1/FJ) 9E'F 2004 EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/ar/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04_11.doc" http://wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/ar/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04_11.doc 6- /.-AJ8) -/'/  9BH/ 'D/HD) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D.'5  E,EH9) E-'61'*  EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://jabercol.tripod.com/download/hafeeza.doc" http://jabercol.tripod.com/download/hafeeza.doc 7- /.-E2) -/'/  'D'*,'G'* 'D-/J+) AJ B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D#1/FJ 'DE1BE31 D3F)2001. HDFA3 'D('-+ 'D/1'3'* H'DEB'D'* '/F'G: '*,'G'* -/J+) AJ 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J AJ 'D/HD 'D91(J)  H1B) 9ED EB/E) DE$*E1 .5'&5 'DE-CE AJ /HD 'D(-1 'DE*H37 H'D41B 'D'H37  'DB'G1)2001. HE4'CD '*A'B 'D*-CJE AJ 'D/HD 'D91(J)  H1B) 9ED EB/E) DDE$*E1 'D'HD DD*-CJE DD'*-'/ 'D91(J DE1'C2 'D*-CJE 'DGF/3J 2008. H'+'1 '*A'B 'D*-CJE H3BH7G AJ 'D*-CJE 'D(-1J  H1B) 9ED EB/E) DDE$*E1 'D/HDJ DD*'EJF H'DFBD 'D(-1J  2008. H/H1 'D'71'A HE$33'* 'D*-CJE ('D9EDJ) 'D*-CJEJ)  H1B) 9ED EB/E) DDE1C2 'DJEFJ DD*HAJB H'D*-CJE 2001. ,EJ9G' EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.lac.com.jo" www.lac.com.jo 8-9E1H 3D'E)  '*A'B 'D*-CJE  /1'3) EF4H1) (*'1J. 4/9/2008 H9DI 'DEHB9: Egystadium.com 'DE5'/1 'D#,F(J): 1- Saleh Majid, Iraq Arbitration Law, on website:  HYPERLINK "http://www.iraqlawconsultant.com" www.iraqlawconsultant.com 2-Yjw Wijaytilake, Arbitration Clause Impartiality and Independence of Arbitrators, on website:  HYPERLINK "http://www.lawnet.lk/docs/articles/" www.lawnet.lk/docs/articles/ .'E3': 'DBH'FJF HBH'9/ H'*A'BJ'* 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ): 1- (1H*HCHD ,FJA D9'E1923. 2- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J 'DE1BE 131 D3F) 1948. 3- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE 40 D3F) 1951 'DE9/D. 4- B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D#1/FJ 'DE1BE 18 D3F) 1953'DED:I. 5- '*A'BJ) FJHJH1C 'D.'5) ('D'9*1'A H*FAJ0 '-C'E 'D*-CJE 'D',F(J) D9'E 1958 . 6- 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J D9'E1961. 7- B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE51J 'D3'(B 'DE1BE 13 D3F) 1968. 8-B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE83 D3F) 1969 'DE9/D. 9- B'FHF '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ) 'DD(F'FJ 'DE1BE 90 D3F) 1983 H'DE9/D ('D*41J9 1BE 5 D3F) 1985. 10- 'DB'FHF 'DFEH0,J DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J D9'E1985. 11- '*A'BJ) 9E'F DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J D9'E1987. 12- B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DJEFJ 'DE1BE 22 D3F)1992. 13-B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D*HF3J 'DE1BE 42 D3F)1993. 14-B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DE51J 'DE1BE 27 D3F) 1994 'DE9/D. 15-BH'9/ E1C2 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J D/HD E,D3 'D*9'HF 'D.DJ,J 'DF'A0G AJ 27/9/1995  'DBH'9/ EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.albazaie.com/ta7kem.aspk" www.albazaie.com/ta7kem.aspk 16-B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D9E'FJ 'DE1BE 47 D3F)1997. 17- B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D'1/FJ 'DE1BE 31 D3F) 2001 'DF'A0. 18- B'FHF 'DE9'ED'* 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D#1/FJ 'DE1BE 85 D3F) 2001. 19- B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D(-1JFJ D9'E 2002. 20- B'FHF 'E'1) /(J 'D.'5 ('DE('/D'* H'D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'DE1BE 2 D3F)2002. 21-BH'9/ F8'E 'D*-CJE 'D91(J H'DA1F3J 'DF'A0) AJ 1/1/2005  EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.ccfrance-arabe.org" www.ccfrance-arabe.org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http://www.albazaie.com/ta7kem.aspk" www.albazaie.com/ta7kem.aspk (2) /.'-E/ '(H 'DHA'  'D*9DJB 9DI F5H5 B'FHF 'DE1'A9'*  75  EF4#) 'DE9'1A ('D'3CF/1J)  51524. (3) /. '-E/ 9(/ 'D1-EF 'DED-E  9B/ 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'DE(1E (JF 'DE-CEJF H'D.5HE  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'D-BHB  E,D3 'DF41 'D9DEJ  'DCHJ*  'D9// 2  'D3F) 18  -2J1'F1994  5186H5187. (1) 'D*-CJE 'D.'5('D-1): GH -1J) 'D.5HE AJ '.*J'1 'DE-CE E9 *-/J/ BH'9/ 'D',1'!'* 'D*J J3J1HF 9DJG' H'DB'FHF 'DH',( 'D*7(JB HEC'F 'D*-CJE HD:*G H:J1G' AJCHF DD'71'A /H1 C(J1 AJ *F8JEG.DD*A'5JD JF81:/.'-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'D*-CJE 7(B' DDB'FHF 27 D3F)1994 H'F8E) 'D*-CJE 'D/HDJ)  72  'DB'G1)  2004  515. (2) 'D*-CJE 'DEF8E: HGH '*A'B 'D'71'A 9DI 'F J,1J 'D*-CJE EF B(D E$33) E9JF) H-3( BH'9/G' H*41A 'DE$33) (FA3G' 9DI 3J1 'D',1'!'* 'D*-CJEJ)  C:1A) 'D*,'1) 'D/HDJ) AJ ('1J3 HE1C2 'DB'G1) 'D'BDJEJ DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ. DD*A'5JD 'C+1 JF81:/.AH2J E-E/ 3'EJ  'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ  72  ,'E9) (:/'/ 1992  524. (3) /. '-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  515. (4) /.AH2J E-E/ 3'EJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5235. (5) /.'-E/ 9(/ 'D1-EF 'DED-E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5187. (1) /.'/E HGJ(  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5275.HF(JD 9(/ 'D1-EF -J'HJ  E('/I! 'D*-CJE  'D9'*C D5F'9) 'DC*(  'DB'G1)  2007  527. HYjw Wijaytilake, Arbitration Clause Impartiality and Independence of Arbitrators, P.1, on website:  HYPERLINK "http://www.lawnet.lk/docs/articles/" www.lawnet.lk/docs/articles/ (2) 49J( '-E/ 3DJE'F  'D*-CJE AJ EF'29'* *FAJ0 'D.7) 'D'B*5'/J) 'D9'E)  EF4H1'* H2'1) 'D+B'A) H'D'9D'E  /'1 'D14J/ DDF41  (:/'/  1981  5136H137. (3) /. 9(/ 'D1-EF 9J'/  '5HD 9DE 'DB6'!  E9G/ 'D'/'1) 'D9'E)  'D39H/J)  1981  558. (1) 9(/ 'D1-EF 'D9D'E  41- B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) 1BE83 D3F)1969  'D/'&1) 'DB'FHFJ)  H2'1) 'D9/D  ,4 (:/'/1990 5399. H'-E/ JH3A 'D.D'HJ  'FH'9 'D*-CJE  52  /1'3) EF4H1) 9DI 'D4(C) 'D9'DEJ) DDE9DHE'* H9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.moj.gov.sa/documentations/tahkeem/5new.doc" www.moj.gov.sa/documentations/tahkeem/5new.doc (2) /.'EJF) 'DFE1  '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ)  'D/'1 'D,'E9J) 1988 5357. (3) /.'-E/ 41A 'D/JF  /1'3'* AJ 'D*-CJE AJ EF'29'* 'D9BH/ 'D/HDJ)  EF /HF EC'F F41 HD' ,G) F41 1992  522. (4) E-E/ C'ED E13J  'D9BH/ 'DE3E')  ,1 72 'DE7(9) 'D9'DEJ)  'DB'G1) 1952  5544.H/.-E2) -/'/  /H1 'D'71'A HE$33'* 'D*-CJE ('D9EDJ) 'D*-CJEJ)  H1B) 9ED EB/E) DDE1C2 'DJEFJ DD*HAJB H'D*-CJE 2001  52  EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.lac.com.jo" www.lac.com.jo (5) '41A 'D9'5J  'D*A1B) (JF 'D417 H'DE4'17) C5H1 D'*A'B 'D*-CJE 51 /1'3) EF4H1) (*'1J.5/4/2006 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://center.alassy.net" http://center.alassy.net (1) /.-AJ8) -/'/  9BH/ 'D/HD) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D.'5  E,EH9) E-'61'* 54  EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://jabercol.tripod.com/download/hafeeza.doc" http://jabercol.tripod.com/download/hafeeza.doc. (2) /.39J/ JH3A 'D(3*'FJ  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D.'5 (*7H1 H*9// 71B -D 'DF2'9'* 'D.'5) 'D/HDJ))  EF4H1'* 'D-D(J 'D-BHBJ)  71  (J1H* 2004  5266H267. (1) /.E-EH/ 'DCJD'FJ  9BH/ 'D*,'1) 'D/HDJ) AJ E,'D FBD 'D*CFHDH,J'  E7(9) 9(J1  E51 1988 5512.H 9(/ 'D1-EF 'D9D'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B 5400 (2) /.'EJF) 'DFE1  'DE5/1 'D3'(B 5358. (3) F(JD 9(/ 'D1-EF -J'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  573. (1) *F5 'DE'/)(43) EF B'FHF 19'J) 'DB'51JF 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE 78 D3F)1980 9DI: " D' J,H2 DDHDJ 'H 'DH5J 'H 'DBJE E('41) 'D*51A'* 'D*'DJ) 'D' (EH'AB) E/J1J) 19'J) 'DB'51JF 'DE.*5) (9/ 'D*-BB EF E5D-) 'DB'51 AJ 0DC..... +'D+': 'D5D- H'D*-CJE AJE' 2'/ 9DI E'&) /JF'1 DCD B'51." (2) /.39J/ JH3A 'D(3*'FJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5286. H#./.9('3 'D9(H/J  41- '-C'E B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ)  /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H'DF41  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  2000  5351. (3) 'DE'/)(18/1) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 'DE1BE 40 D3F) 1951 'DE9/D. (4) G0G 'DBH'9/ EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.ccfrance-arabe.org" www.ccfrance-arabe.org (1) /. E-EH/ E.*'1 (1J1J  'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ  73  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2004  545.H9E1H 3D'E)  '*A'B 'D*-CJE  53H4  /1'3) EF4H1) (*'1J. 4/9/2008 H9DI 'DEHB9: Egystadium.com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www.Syrialaw.com (2) /. AH2J E-E/ 3'EJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B 5220 HE' (9/G'.H/. -E2) -/'/  E4'CD '*A'B 'D*-CJE AJ 'D/HD 'D91(J)  H1B) 9ED EB/E) DDE$*E1 'D'HD DD*-CJE DD'*-'/ 'D91(J DE1'C2 'D*-CJE 'DGF/3J 2008 55H6  EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.lac.com.jo" www.lac.com.jo (1) /.-E2) -/'/  '+'1 '*A'B 'D*-CJE H3BH7G AJ 'D*-CJE 'D(-1J  H1B) 9ED EB/E) DDE$*E1 'D/HDJ DD*'EJF H'DFBD 'D(-1J  2008  53H4  EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.lac.com.jo" www.lac.com.jo (2) /. AH2J E-E/ 3'EJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B 5221 (1) /. -E2) -/'/  '*,'G'* -/J+) AJ 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J AJ 'D/HD 'D91(J)  H1B) 9ED EB/E) DE$*E1 .5'&5 'DE-CE AJ /HD 'D(-1 'DE*H37 H'D41B 'D#H37  'DB'G1)2001  59  EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.lac.com.jo" www.lac.com.jo (2) /.EFJ1 9(/ 'DE,J/  'D*F8JE 'DB'FHFJ DD*-CJE 'D/HDJ H'D/'.DJ AJ 6H! 'DABG HB6'! 'D*-CJE  EF4') 'DE9'1A ('D%3CF/1J)  1997  5117. (3) /. '(H 2J/ 16H'F  'D#33 'D9'E) AJ 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ  /'1 FG1 'DFJD  'DB'G1)  537. (4) /. EFJ1 9(/ 'DE,J/  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5118. (1) /.AH2J E-E/ 3'EJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5208.H,E'D -E'E)  B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J JH'C( 'D*7H1 'D'B*5'/J  52 /1'3) EF4H1) (*'1J. 29/3/2008  9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.buildex.com" www.buildex.com (2) E-E/ ,E'D E-E/ 7'G1  *3HJ) 'DEF'29'* 'D1J'6J) ('D*-CJE  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF-,'E9) 'DEH5D  2005  543. (3) /. EFJ1 9(/ 'DE,J/  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5120. (4) /. '-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  563. (1) /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  ,1  'DB'G1)  5545.H/. 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-CJE H#.9(/ 'D('BJ 'D(C1J H#.E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1  'DH,J2 AJ F81J) 'D'D*2'E AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ  ,1  (:/'/1980  5125. (2) /. AH2J E-E/ 3'EJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5215. (3) /.-E2) -/'/  'D'*,'G'* 'D-/J+) AJ B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'D'1/FJ 'DE1BE31 D3F)2001  52  EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://www.lac.com.jo" www.lac.com.jo (1) HG0' -'D F5H5 'D*-CJE AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE51J 'D3'(B 'DE1BE 13 D3F) 1968. (2) Saleh Majid,Iraq Arbitration Law,P4, on website= HYPERLINK "http://www.iraqlawconsultant.com" www.iraqlawconsultant.com (3) 7D'D J'3JF 'D9J3I  'D9BH/ 'D/HDJ) H*7(JB'*G' AJ 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ  '71H-) /C*H1'G  CDJ) 'DB'FHF-,'E9) (:/'/ 1996 5155.H/. E-EH/ E.*'1 (1J1J  'DE5/1 'DE5/1 'D3'(B  570. (4) -3F 'D(/1'HJ  'D*-CJE H'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J)  (-+ EB/E DF/H) 'DHJ(H 'DH7FJ) 'D*J F8E*G' 'DEF8E) 'D9'DEJ) DDEDCJ) 'DAC1J) H'D,'E9) 'D'1/FJ) 9E'F 2004  55 EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9:  HYPERLINK "http://wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/ar/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04_11.doc" http://wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/ar/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04_11.doc HG0' EHBA B'FHF 'D*-CJE 'DJEFJ AJ 'DE'/)(16)  H'DB'FHF 'DFEH0,J DD*-CJE 'D*,'1J D9'E1985 AJ 'DE'/)(16)  H'DE'/)(19)EF BH'9/ E1C2 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J D/HD E,D3 'D*9'HF 'D.DJ,J D9'E1995. (1) /. 3'EJ) 1'4/  'D*-CJE AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) 'D.'5)  'DC*'( 'D'HD-'*A'B 'D*-CJE  'DB'G1) 1984 583HE' (9/G'. H/. 39J/ JH3A 'D(3*'FJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5293. (2) /. .'D/ E-E/ 'DB'6J  EH3H9) 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J 'D/HDJ  71  /'1 'D41HB  'DB'G1) 2002 5169. (3) D*A'5JD G0G 'DB6J) ('DC'ED JF81: /..'D/ E-E/ 'DB'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5168H169. (4) 7D'D J'3JF 'D9J3I  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5154.H/. E-EH/ 'DCJD'FJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  558. (5) /. 3'EJ) 1'4/  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  587H88. (6) /..'D/ E-E/ 'DB'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B 5169. (1) /. '-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  564.     PAGE 144 E(/# '3*BD'D '*A'B 'D*-CJE 'D*,'1J PAGE 113 E,D) 'D1'A/JF DD-BHB  'DE,D/ (12)  'D9// (43)  'D3F) (2010) Rafidain Of Law Journal, Vol. (12), No. (43), Year (2010) Rafidain Of Law Journal, Vol. (12), No. (43), Year (2010) RXZ\^\<B            rxrx ph shLqCJ Z^JaJ o(hE;hLqZ^JaJo(hE;hLq^J_HaJhE;hLq^JaJh shLqCJZ^JaJo(hLqZ^J_HaJo(h@0JZ_HaJ"hE;hLq0JZ^J_HaJo(hE;hLq0JZ^J_HaJhE;hLqZ^J_HaJo(+    :!$$$$$$$ $a$gdLq$ & Fa$gdLq$ & Fa$gdLq$`a$gd s $a$gdLq  8!:!$$$$$$$$H%L%&&`'h'((*(())**ʿsasasasasas"hE;hLqCJZ^J_HaJo(hE;hLqCJZ^JaJo($h6hLq5CJZ\^JaJo(h shLqCJ Z^JaJ o(hE;h6Z^JaJo(h6Z^JaJo(h sZ^JaJo(hLqZ^JaJo(hE;hLq^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^JaJo( h shLq5Z\^JaJo(!$H%%&b'*(()**~+,-d.D//l0012$]^`]gd6$]^`]a$gd6$]^`]a$gd6$^`a$gd6$^`a$gd6*~++,,|.~.D//0002@334555*6Z677Z9\9<:j<n<p<====>>>???@ξΰް΢Ώްނ΢rΏhE;hLqCJ^J_HaJo(hE;hLqCJ^JaJ$h6hLq5CJZ\^JaJo(hE;hLqCJ^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^JaJo(hE;hLqCJZ^JaJo(hE;hLqCJZ^JaJo("hE;hLqCJZ^J_HaJo(hE;hLqZ^J_HaJo('2@3345*6Z67V9<:@;j<==> $gdLq$^`a$gd6$^`a$gd6$^`gd6 $a$gdLq$]^`]a$gd6$]^`]a$gd6>??@@ABlCDDDDDDDEye'jhjchLqCJU^JaJ"hE;hLqCJZ^J_HaJo(hjchLqCJZ^JaJo('jhjchLqCJU^JaJhE;hLqCJZ^JaJo('jhjchLqCJU^JaJhjchLqCJ^JaJhjchLqCJZ^JaJ!jhjchLqCJU^JaJ"EEEE$G&G(G:G>GGGGGHHHI@IBITIXIIIIIJJ JJMMNNNNNNƵ槓Ɔr``"hE;hLqCJZ^J_HaJo('j9hjchLqCJU^JaJh6CJZ^JaJo('jhjchLqCJU^JaJhjchLqCJZ^JaJ!jhjchLqCJU^JaJhE;hLqCJZ^JaJo(hjchLqCJZ^JaJo(hjchLqCJ^JaJhjcCJZ^JaJo(%NNNNOO O"O$O@OBODOOOOPPxPzP|PPPPPPPPP QQQQQ󠰒sfsfsfsRff'j/h6hLqCJU^JaJh6hLqCJ^JaJh6hLqCJZ^JaJ!jh6hLqCJU^JaJhE;hLqCJ^JaJo(hjchLqCJZ^JaJo(hE;hLqCJZ^JaJo(!jhjchLqCJU^JaJ'jnhjchLqCJU^JaJhjchLqCJZ^JaJhjchLqCJ^JaJ NDOOOPxPQQtRRS|SSPTTNUU$V $a$gdLq $a$gdLq$A$^`a$gd6 $A$`a$gd6$ & Fa$gdLq $gdLq $A$a$gdjcQQQQQQ0R4R6R8RpRrRtRRSSPTRTTTRUU$V*VVVBWHWWNXYп俯~l~l\~\~l\l~hE;hLqZ^J_HaJo("hE;hLqCJZ^J_HaJo(hE;hLqCJZ^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^JaJo($h6hLq5CJZ\^JaJo(hjchLqCJZ^JaJo(!jhjchLqCJU^JaJ'jhjchLqCJU^JaJhjchLqCJ^JaJhjchLqCJZ^JaJ$VVBWWWNXX.ZZZn[[n\p\r\]]]]]n^ $^a$gd) $A$a$gdjc$]^`]a$gd6 $a$gdLq $a$gdLq$^`a$gd6YYYYYYYYYYYY(Z*Z,Z.Z4ZZZZZn[t[l\n\p\r\]]ұšqdWIhE;h6CJ^JaJo(h6CJZ^JaJo(hLqCJZ^JaJo(hE;hLqZ^JaJo(hE;hLqCJZ^JaJo("hE;hLqCJZ^J_HaJo(hjchLqCJZ^JaJo('j hjchLqCJU^JaJhjchLqCJ^JaJhjchLqCJZ^JaJ!jhjchLqCJU^JaJh6CJZ^J_HaJo(]]$](]0]6]b]f]h]j]]]]]]]]]]]] ^п俯r`J`<h+@hOCJZ^JaJ*h+@hO0JCJH*OJQJZ^JaJ#h+@hOCJOJQJZ^JaJh)CJZ^J_HaJo(hE;hLq^JaJo(hE;hLqCJZ^JaJo("hE;hLqCJZ^J_HaJo(hjchLqCJZ^JaJo(!jhjchLqCJU^JaJ'j hjchLqCJU^JaJhjchLqCJ^JaJhjchLqCJZ^JaJ ^^^ ^$^&^(^*^2^6^:^V^Z^\^^^`^h^n^t^v^^^^^x_z___@`B`H`J`bbbb ddǻǻǻymy`jhjchOU^Jh FhOCJaJo(h FhOCJZaJo(h FhOCJZaJh FhO0JCJZaJh :ohOCJaJo(h :ohOCJZaJo(h :ohOCJZaJh :ohO0JCJZaJh+@hOCJZ^JaJhOCJZ^JaJo(h+@hOCJZ^JaJo(%n^^z_B`b ddnef"ikk4llmLnnppdrRsst $a$gdjc $gdLq $A$a$gdjc$^`a$gd F $a$gdLqdd"d&d.d4dldpdrdtddddddlenetevefffffff i"iϾ찤|l|`RFh :ohOCJaJo(h :ohOCJZaJo(h :ohOCJZaJh :ohO0JCJZaJo(h :ohO0JCJZaJh FhOCJaJo(h FhOCJZaJo(h FhOCJZaJh FhO0JCJZaJ hjchO0J>*B*^JphjhjchOU^Jj hjchOU^JhjchO^JhjchOZ^J"i$i&i(i*ikkkkkkkkkkkk2l4l6l8l:l@ѵѵѵ}ѵpbj hjchOUhOCJZ_HaJo(h :ohOCJ_HaJo(h :ohOCJZ_HaJo(h :ohOCJaJo(h :ohOCJZaJo(h :ohOCJZaJh :ohO0JCJZaJo(h :ohO0JCJZaJ hjchOjhjchOUjLhjchOU$B$~֢|ԤV*``$^`a$gd0$ $A$a$gdy $A$a$gdjc $a$gdLq$^`a$gdU$^`a$gd@@BDFHJ"$&(*,|~Ԣ֢آڢܢޢpz|~ҤԤڤܤͽͽͽ͡ͽwldhjchOZjhjchOUh@hOCJZ_HaJo(h@hOCJZaJh@hO0JCJZaJh :ohOCJZaJo(h :ohOCJ_HaJo(h :ohOCJZ_HaJo(h :ohOCJZaJh :ohO0JCJZaJo(h :ohO0JCJZaJhjchOo(%¥ȥ  ,08>ptvx |qhUhOCJaJjhjchOUhOh@hOH*h@hOCJ_HaJo(h@hOCJZ_HaJo(h@hOCJZaJh@hO0JCJZaJhjchOZo(jhjchOUjhjchOUhjchOZ hjchO' VXZlp*02^`fh¯^`fh  ؾvjjvvjh@hOCJaJo(h@hOCJ_HaJo(h@hOCJZ_HaJo(h@hOCJZaJh@hO0JCJZaJh :ohOCJZ_HaJo(h :ohOCJZaJjhjchOU hjchOhjchOZjhjchOUh@hOCJZaJo(% dfjlprvx|~ޱxz$&dP`a$gdv$h&dP]h`a$gd=$&dPa$gdSt$&`#$gdFZ$ $a$gdLq bdfhlnrtxz~ܱޱrbOKhO$h=hO5CJZ\^JaJo(hO5CJZ\^JaJo(,hO0JCJOJQJZ^JaJmHnHu$hSthO0JCJOJQJ^JaJ0jhSthO0JCJOJQJUZ^JaJjh1dUZ^Jh1dh=8hOCJ^J_HaJo(h=8hOCJZ_HaJo(h=8hOCJZaJh=8hO0JCJZaJ8<RVltvxz̲в26FJ\dfjԮ}}}rb}}}rh`3hO5CJ\^JaJh`3hO5<\ hO5\h`3hO5\hOh=hOCJZ_H o(hO5CJZ\^Jo(h=hO5CJZ\^J,hO0JCJOJQJZ^JaJmHnHu$hIhhO0JCJOJQJ^JaJ0jhIhhO0JCJOJQJUZ^JaJ!zlnpr $^a$gd)$$$dA$N`a$gdvjlnprh)CJZ^J_HaJo(h1dhOh`3hO5\^JC0&P Pq:pO<0BP' (5!"#$% (2$$If!vh5#v:V l V0  5/  /  /  ?DyK /www.moj.gov.sa/documentations/tahkeem/5new.docyK lhttp://www.moj.gov.sa/documentations/tahkeem/5new.docDyK http://center.alassy.netyK 4http://center.alassy.net/DyK www.buildex.comyK 0http://www.buildex.com/DyK Qhttp://wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/ar/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04_11.docyK http://wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/ar/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04_11.doc5DyK 0http://jabercol.tripod.com/download/hafeeza.docyK `http://jabercol.tripod.com/download/hafeeza.docDyK www.lac.com.joyK .http://www.lac.com.jo/DyK www.iraqlawconsultant.comyK Dhttp://www.iraqlawconsultant.com/DyK www.lawnet.lk/docs/articles/yK Hhttp://www.lawnet.lk/docs/articles/DyK www.albazaie.com/ta7kem.aspkyK Hhttp://www.albazaie.com/ta7kem.aspkDyK www.ccfrance-arabe.orgyK >http://www.ccfrance-arabe.org/DyK www.albazaie.com/ta7kem.aspkyK Hhttp://www.albazaie.com/ta7kem.aspkDyK www.lawnet.lk/docs/articles/yK Hhttp://www.lawnet.lk/docs/articles/?DyK /www.moj.gov.sa/documentations/tahkeem/5new.docyK lhttp://www.moj.gov.sa/documentations/tahkeem/5new.docDyK www.lac.com.joyK .http://www.lac.com.jo/DyK http://center.alassy.netyK 4http://center.alassy.net/5DyK 0http://jabercol.tripod.com/download/hafeeza.docyK `http://jabercol.tripod.com/download/hafeeza.docDyK www.ccfrance-arabe.orgyK >http://www.ccfrance-arabe.org/DyK www.lac.com.joyK .http://www.lac.com.jo/DyK www.lac.com.joyK .http://www.lac.com.jo/DyK www.lac.com.joyK .http://www.lac.com.jo/DyK www.buildex.comyK 0http://www.buildex.com/DyK www.lac.com.joyK .http://www.lac.com.jo/DyK www.iraqlawconsultant.comyK Dhttp://www.iraqlawconsultant.com/DyK Qhttp://wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/ar/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04_11.docyK http://wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/ar/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04_11.docF@F 9'/J $A$a$_HaJhmH sH tH<@< 9FH'F 1$@& CJ^JaJ<@< 9FH'F 2$@& CJ^JaJB@B 9FH'F 3$@&5CJ \^JaJ H@H 9FH'F 4$$@&a$5CJ \^JaJ N@N 9FH'F 5$$ & F@& CJ^JaJB@B 9FH'F 6$@&5CJ\^JaJN@N 9FH'F 7$$d@&a$5CJ\^JaJ>A@> .7 'DAB1) 'D'A*1'6JPi@P  ,/HD 9'/J :V 44 la ,k, (D' B'&E) 8B@8 F5 #3'3J CJ^JaJ8@8 F5 -'4J) 3ADJ)@&@@ E1,9 -'4J) 3ADJ)H*^JRC@"R F5 #3'3J (E3'A) ('/&) CJ^JaJ@ @2@ *0JJD 5A-)  9r aJ,)@A, 1BE 5A-)^J<@R< 1#3 5A-)  9r aJBP@bB F5 #3'3J 2$a$ CJ^JaJzsz v 4(C) ,/HD7:V0$A$^JdR@d =F5 #3'3J (E3'A) ('/&) 2$dx^BB s Char Char^J_HhmH sH tH4U@4 # Hyperlink >*ph#g=|PulUV!6"#E$$T%&'"+,C-\00014=5"67:r<3>BDLE*H!JNP,RvSU^;`b\cdehf/g`kvlnoRp-q1rsttumvvxm;%\]kQ} a \ k  z'VfFi-[6qQQ !"C"o"B#n# $[$$%'4(((4)^))))m&B_z{$0 i  @ {   * G gJW|B45k/q[9 o !! #J$%&')'+,H-V-t-./a00,244'69:<;9=c>>}?Bomp6ruywyyy*z9zz{ ||)}:}~QXeɂsV.Tzɉ_ҋT{{Ž'jҐ Fē98 V<(Crܘ*[ƙ%Uۚ˛.k;/q՞ kEwΤvڥ-] ˪(*׬` ݰn/ N!vn6m~\Uƿ 5I?:fgijlmoprs-.jkn0000 0 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0 0 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0 0 000000000000000000 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 00000000@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@000)@0I00@0I00@0I00@0I00@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0@0I00`&B_z{$ XeɂsVT'j(Crܘ*[ƙ%Uۚ˛.k;] gn0K00K00K00@0 K00@0J6`6K00K00K00K00K00K00@0@0K0 0 fK0 0K0 0@0K00fK00K00@0@0@0@0K00fK00K00@0K00fK00K00@0K00 fK00K00@0@0@0K0%0K0&0@0@0@0K0(0 K0*0K0(0K0(0@0K0,0@0@0@0@0@0@0K030@0@00K00K00K00 0K00}@0 % 00 =D j2blDR*@ENQY] ^d"inPudy|n@  jrimoqst 0&NrD $2>N$Vn^ttzrjlnprupkd'OhҐFS“ ET :ϗxț;hmXXXXXXXXXX =DH!! =Z*]z6 { 4 Y h  x il!!!##$$$$/&&&)XXXXXXXXXXXXXXt  ,b$δRR%QR@H 0(  0(  B S  ?|[|d|[LCp|[|Bp|[d|[Ap|[Ζn̖ҖҖn9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplace8*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCityB*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagscountry-region _O~ILdf "?E  v {  & V _ ^ a 022459x|14CF.2TWjlsu+-giNT`bow59VX_bpr,09@RUsulnMO18DFUX %.1?E )-KO"%/6jly  A D E G Y [ ! !/!3!D!F!p!v!!!!!" " # ###'#+#####$$<$D$W$_$$$%%E%I%%%%%%%%%& & &&2&4&K&P&&&&&&'' '$'&'''.'D'K'm't'''''((L(P())))))))))U*Z*[*b***++++,+0+S+W+h+p+++,,3,7,~,,,,-- . .G.I...K/R/K0P000001!11141<1A1n1p11111222222231333j3l3333333/41484:4>4A4H4L4R4V4c4e4|444444Z5\5e5j55555'6*6D6F66666 77$7&7P7T777888888#9%9v9x99999E:J:~::::::::::;;;;;;;;;;;;w<{<<<<<9=<=c=h=i=p===========>>>>>??????????@ @%@=@?@@@BBcBgBC C;C?CfCiCCCCCCCCCDDUDXDjDpDDDDDDDDEEEE$EGGNGSGpHuHHHHHIIIIJJJJJJKKIKLKiKpKKKKK^LaLbLdLkLrL{LLLLLLLLNNOOOOOOPPPPPPPPPQ Q QQeQgQRRRRHRJRuRxRRRRRWS^SSSSSSSmTtTTTTTTTTTTTxUzUUUVVQVTV[VbVuVxVyV|VVV0W9WCWEWXW_W`WcWWW4X6X&Y)Y9Y{{{}}.1eh[_*1^a:@΂ӂۂ߂%,PUV^gkmqGI\^@IglgrƊ͊ip16flώ֎؎ݎ)0ۑ (278=ǕЕƖǖ̖BM ϙәGN ]btvΟџ"%y!Wbclcjoqţƣϣ(,6;=CMSwz{ЦԦ֦ڦchptmt>G6> acjlEGOV\asxknðǰ!EL CH*/<?rxд״>CKQRT]d'.5;KR!&׹ܹ!(!  RY!'=EpvLPggiijjlmoprs.6kn{05p s   @ F    # * / gjJPNZH-N-V-\->8D8hXnXZZ [[U[[[[[nnfuiuyy0z7z9z=z ||0}8} JT',؇ۇωՉKPmqNU}(.kpv25 `eRVҵصźtz޿ 38fj38ggiijjlmoprskn&B_  * JWH-V-hXwXn&n*z9z)}:}Ž V<vڥggiijjlmoprs,LiknggiijjlmoprsknC$/ =n`{=l˺c.pAz+%bOf4(dJ[ot^8k^`ko(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. ]`CJ^JaJ.k^`ko(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.k^`ko(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH..^`o(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.k^`ko(- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH. ^`o(hH- ^`hH. pLp^p`LhH. @ @ ^@ `hH. ^`hH. L^`LhH. ^`hH. ^`hH. PLP^P`LhH.otc.pAC$/ (d`{=bO-        Юz        dN        `d        w        l        }$o`6aS-RpS?TvoFZ%o hIT8' ~ a i@ D A ( vsIhd*%\u\;A~?R?~drG36\\-p4v5 >!m"X##3:#g($0$p$nf%v&>&(A(%^(v*'-K.2_.!3]3`3=.4K4|4)%767Y7_8;K)=0=>'>^? @+@6@{]@m6A4"C'CiCME-E>EME FXJK/BKRuL|O GR|jUkU$XNXMjZ=[S$\#x\B^T^X_6`arcjcg/dDze5=fk}g kelR:lrl"n(n9nCBn(oUomqnqsStvdUv5wpwx*xAx>z^^|c|.})a}<~P~im64D:}@Gs sE ,;\)|Uj}=Op( Sd Sp+`090b4&[gy{zbyNKbV.= $? R}8OK[_x+ %w9g,9 A/]2aVVEn#zrA^IO&w-cQss-bYNFd {)6M0w jK8J|Wvw{yL"uG} V D@]~iLq"X'AsjOV$KPS1dy[.f\Aj+$|HMB*Ybe\)T=8RZ{&z{˪gilorny_0@kdmppUnknownGz Times New Roman5Symbol3& z ArialQ @PT Simple Bold RuledA @Ali-A-SahifaK @Simplified Arabic3LathaM`@Traditional Arabic#hN{&&0'P'P!4d`` 2qHX?K42$'D*#EJF EF 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ) DDE-'EJrashaALAA(       Oh+'0  < H T `lt|( rashaNormalALAA17Microsoft Office Word@ @tA@ʃ@0/'՜.+,D՜.+,X hp  matoushP` %   8@ _PID_HLINKSA 'bhttp://www.ccfrance-arabe.org/,#$http://www.albazaie.com/ta7kem.aspkg<$http://www.lawnet.lk/docs/articles/S"http://www.iraqlawconsultant.com/1ohttp://www.lac.com.jo/zv 0http://jabercol.tripod.com/download/hafeeza.doc{ Qhttp://wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/ar/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04_11.docm2http://www.buildex.com/Rhttp://center.alassy.net/A6http://www.moj.gov.sa/documentations/tahkeem/5new.doc{'Qhttp://wipo.int/edocs/mdocs/arab/ar/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04/wipo_ip_uni_amm_04_11.docS$"http://www.iraqlawconsultant.com/1o!http://www.lac.com.jo/m2http://www.buildex.com/1ohttp://www.lac.com.jo/1ohttp://www.lac.com.jo/1ohttp://www.lac.com.jo/'bhttp://www.ccfrance-arabe.org/zv0http://jabercol.tripod.com/download/hafeeza.docR http://center.alassy.net/1o http://www.lac.com.jo/A6http://www.moj.gov.sa/documentations/tahkeem/5new.docg<$http://www.lawnet.lk/docs/articles/,#$http://www.albazaie.com/ta7kem.aspk  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQSTUVWXY[\]^_`afRoot Entry F` G/hData 91TableWordDocumentESummaryInformation(RDocumentSummaryInformation8ZCompObjn  F Microsoft Office Word MSWordDocWord.Document.89q