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HDCJ *CHF 'D/1'3) 'C+1 A'&/) -'HDF' ,G/ 'D'EC'F 'F F79EG' ('D'4'1) AJ 'DG'E4 'DI E' '.0* (G (96 'D*41J9'* 'DEB'1F) AJ G0' 'DE,'D . H3FBHE (*B3JE (-+F' G0' 9DI .E3) E7'D( F*CDE AJ 'D'HD 9DI *B/J1 'D61J() 9DI /.D 'D4.5 'D7(J9J  HAJ 'D+'FJ 9DI *B/J1G' 9DI /.D 'D41C'*  HAJ 'D+'D+ 9DI *B/J1G' 9DI 'DE4'1C'*  HAJ 'D1'(9 9DI *B/J1 'D61J() 9DI 'DECDA 9F FBD EDCJ) 'D9B'1 'H -B 'D*51A AJG  AJE' F*-/+ AJ 'D.'E3 9F *B/J1 'D61J() 9DI '1('- H3'&7 'DFBD H'DDG 'DEHAB . 'DE7D( 'D'HD *B/J1 'D61J() 9DI /.D 'D4.5 'D7(J9J 'D4.5 'D7(J9J 'E' 'F JCHF '92( 'H E*2H,'K HG0' 'D'.J1 B/ JCHF DG 'HD'/ HB/ D'JCHF . D0' 3F*F'HD CD '-*E'D EF G0G 'D'-*E'D'* 'D+D'+) AJ FB7) E3*BD) :- 'DA19 'D'HD :- *B/J1 'D61J() 9DI /.D 'DECDA 'D'92( :- 'F 'DECDAJF ED2EHF (*B/JE *B'1J1 'D/.D 'D3FHJ) 'D*J *-*HJ 9DI ,EJ9 'DE9DHE'* H'D(J'F'* 'D.'5) (/.D 'DECDA EF ,EJ9 E5'/1G  A*BHE 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) '3*F'/'K 'DI G0' 'D*B1J1 'H '3*F'/'K 'DI 'D6H'(7 'D3FHJ) 'D5'/1) 9F 'DGJ&) 'D9'E) DD61'&( (*B/J1 /.D 'DECDA (9/ ,E9G EF E.*DA 'DE5'/1  A'D*B/J1 D'J,1J 9DI CD E5/1 EF E5'/1 /.DG (5H1) E3*BD) (D 9DI E,EH9 /.HDG EF E.*DA 'DE5'/1 'DE(JF) AJ 'DE'/) 'D+'FJ) AJ 'DB'FHF 9/' '1('-G 9F '3GEG AJ 'D41C'* 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) H'D41C'* 'DE3'GE)  H(9/ 0DC *BHE 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) ('3*(9'/ ,EJ9 'D*C'DJA H'DFAB'* H.5E 'D3E'-'* 'D*J J3*-BG' 'DECDA D*CHF 'DF*J,) GJ /.D 'DECDA 'D5'AJ 'D0J *7(B 9DJG 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) 'D391 'D61J(J 'D*5'9/J (9/ *B3JEG 9DI 41'&- -3( G0' 'D391 H('DF*J,) 3J8G1 EB/'1 'D61J() 'DE3*-B) 9DI 'DECDA .() 'DA19 'D+'FJ :- *B/J1 'D61J() 9DI /.D 'DECDA 'DE*2H, 'D0J DJ3 DG 'HD'/ :- 91A* 'DAB1) (9) EF 'DE'/) 'D'HDI EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0 'DE*2H, ('FG 'D4.5 'D7(J9J 'DE1*(7 (9B/ 2H', 419J /'&E *B1G 'DBH'FJF 9DI 'F JCHF 'D2H,'F 9DI BJ/ 'D-J') HDE JB9 (JFGE' A1'B 'H 7D'B . EF 0DC J*6- 'F 'DE419 'D61J(J 'D91'BJ '-'D E' J*9DB (*-/J/ EAGHE 'DE*2H, 'DI E' JB1G B'FHF 'D'-H'D 'D4.5J) 'DE1BE 88 D3F) 1959 'DE9/D H.'5) AJ *-/J/ EAGHE 9B/ 'D2H', 'D419J  H('D1,H9 'DI G0' 'DB'FHF F,/ 'F 'DAB1) 'D'HDI EF 'DE'/) 'D+'D+) EFG F5* 9DI 'FG (( 'D2H', 9B/ 1,D H'E1#) *-D DG 419' :'J*G 'F4'! 1'(7) DD-J') 'DE4*1C) H'DF3D )). 'E' ABG'! AB/ H,/* 9/) *91JA'* DD2H', F#.0 EFG' 'FG (( 9B/ JAJ/ '3*E*'9 CD EF 'D1,D H'DE1') ('D'.1 9DI 'DH,G 'DE41H9 )). HJ3*.D5 EF G0' 'D*91JA 'A'/) 'D'+1 'DE('41 DD9B/ HGH -D 'D'3*E*'9 (E,1/ 'D'F9B'/ /HF 'D-',) 'DI 'F JB5/ 0DC 'D2H,'F  (D -*I DH B5/' :J1G . H('D9H/) 'DI *91JA 'DE419 F1I 'FG ,9D DD2H', :'J*JF GE' 'F4'! 1'(7) 2H,J) E4*1C) (JF 'D71AJF H'DF3D HG0' J*H'AB E9 E' H1/ AJ 'DB1'F 'DC1JE EF 'J'* E+D BHDG *9'DI AJ 'D'J) (21) EF 3H1) 'D1HE (( HEF 'J'*G 'F .DB DCE EF 'FA3CE '2H',' D*3CFH' 'DJG' H,9D (JFCE EH/) H1-E) )). HBHDG *9'DI AJ 'D'J) (72) EF 3H1) 'DF-D (( H'DDG ,9D DCE EF 'FA3CE '2H',' H,9D DCE EF '2H',CE (FJF H12BCE EF 'D7J('* )). H9F '1C'F 9B/ 'D2H', AB/ 'H1/ 'DE419 'D91'BJ AJ 'DE'/) 'D1'(9) EF B'FHF 'D'-H'D 'D4.5J) 1CFJF AB7 GE' 'D'J,'( H'DB(HD HG0'F 'D1CF'F J/D'F 9DI 1CFJF '.1JF GE' 'D1,D H'DE1') A'0' *H'A1* ,EJ9 G0G 'D'1C'F H*E 9B/ 'D2H', HAB' DE' F5 9DJG 'DE419 A%F 'DECDA 3H'! C'F 1,D' 'E 'E1') J9/ E*2H,' D':1'6 'D61J() .() HJ0C1 'F -/H+ #J 4C AJ +(H* 9B/ 'D2H', J,( 'D1,H9 AJG 'DI E-CE) 'D'-H'D 'D4.5J) .() HJD'-8 'FG 9F/E' 3F 'DE419 'D91'BJ B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'D'HD 3F) 1927 '.0 (E(/# H-/) /.D 'D'31) HB6I (61H1) /E, /.D 'D2H,JF H*B/J1 /.D 'D2H,JF ('3E 'D2H, HEF-G 'D3E'- 'DB'FHFJ 9F FA3G H9F 2H,*G H0DC *'+1' EFG ('D*41J9 'D'FCDJ2J 'D0J JF81 'DI /.D 'D2H,JF ('FG H-/) H'-/)  H(BJ 'D-'D GC0' -*I 5/H1 'DB'FHF 'DE1BE 82 D3F) 1973 'D0J B6I (A5D /.D 'D2H,) 9F /.D 2H,G' E9 'D'(B'! 9DI 'D-B DGE' (7D( /E, E/.HD'*GE' AJ -'D*JF AB7 H'5(- G0' 'DA5D *'E' (5/H1 B'FHF E3'H') 'DE1') ('D1,D 'DE1BE (191) D3F) 1975. () HB/ '(BI B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DE1BE (113) D3F) 1982 'DF'A0 9DI G0' 'DA5D H'6'A -'D) +'D+) JECF EF .D'DG' 7D( /E, /.D 'D2H,) (/.D 2H,G' HA16 'D61J() ('3E 'D2H, '0' *B/E 'D2H,'F (7D( 'D/E, .D'D 'DA*1) 'DEB11) D*B/JE *B'1J1 'D/.D #J B(D 'D'HD EF -2J1'F EF CD 9'E .() H-3F' A9D 'DE419 '0 B11 G0' (JF /.D 'D2H,JF A0DC J*H'!E E9 E' *B6J (G 'D41J9) 'D'3D'EJ) 'D:1'! 'D*J *9/ 0E) 'D2H,) 'DE'DJ) E3*BD) 9F 0E) 2H,G' HF-F (H5AF' '-/I /HD 'D9'DE 'D'3D'EJ J,( 'F F-'HD B/1 'D'EC'F 'D'.0 ('-C'E 'D41J9) 'D'3D'EJ) . HEF GF' J*(JF 'F 'DB'9/) D/I 'DE419 'D91'BJ GJ A5D 'D2H,JF H'D'3*+F'! GH 'D/E, AJ '-/I 'D-'D'* 'D+D'+ 'D"*J) :- '0' DE JCF DD2H, /.D .'69 D61J() 'D/.D :- HG0G 'D-'D) *4ED -'D) CHF 'D2H, DJ3 D/JG /.D '5D' (3(( CHFG E1J6'K 'H 9',2'K 'H 9'7D'K 'H 'F 'DECDA D/JG E5/1 DD1(- HDCF G0' 'DE5/1 :J1 .'69 D61J() 'D/.D H'FE' J.69 D61J() '.1I E+D 61J() 'D9B'1 CE' DH C'F ED'C' J1/G 1(- 9F *',J1 9B'1'*G HC'F D2H,*G /.D .'69 D61J() 'D/.D D'J-*HJG 3E'-G' 'DB'FHFJ .() '0' C'F* E/.HD'* 'D2H, /HF 'D3E'- 'DB'FHFJ :-EF- 'DE419 'D91'BJ AJ 'DE'/) (12) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 3E'-'* DDA1/ 'DEBJE *E+D 'D-/ 'D'/FI EF 'DFAB'* 'DD'2E) DE9J4) 'DA1/ A'0' C'F DD2H, /.D J.69 D61J() 'D/.D E+D '1('- 9ED *,'1J 'H 5F'9J 'H 9EHD'* 'H B79 'H AH'&/ HDCF EB/'1 'D/.D 'DF',E 9F G0G 'DE5'/1 C'F /HF 'D3E'- 'DB'FHFJ 'DEB11 DDECDA HC'F D2H,*G /.D .'69 D61J() 'D/.D D'J-*HJG 'D3E'- 'DB'FHFJ DG' AAJ G0G 'D-'D) J-B DGE' 7D( 'D/E, HA16 'D61J() ('3E 'D2H,.() '0' C'F* E/.HD'* 'D2H,) /HF 'D3E'- 'DB'FHFJ 'DEB11 DG' (H5AG' ECDA) E3*BD):- HAJ G0G 'D-'D) JCHF DD2H, E/.HD'* .'69) D61J() 'D/.D /HF 'F J-*HJG' 3E'-G 'DB'FHFJ HDCF 'D2H,) JCHF DG' E/.HD'* .'69) DD61J() 'D' 'F 3E'-G' 'DB'FHFJ ('9*('1G' ECDA) (0'*G' B/ '-*H'G' HGJ 9DI 'D9C3 EF 'D-'D) 'D3'(B) .() HAJ ,EJ9 'D-'D'* '9D'G JCHF '+('* *H'A1 -'D) 'D/E, (,EJ9 71B 'D'+('* 'D*J JECF EF .D'DG' 'BF'9 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) 'H D,F) 'D'3*&F'A ('9*('1 'F 'DE3'D) E3'D@) HB'&9 .() HJ0C1 'F 'D-'D'* '9D'G H1/* 9DI 3(JD 'D-51 HD' J,H2 'DBJ'3 9DJG' (H5AG' '3*+F'! A'D'5D GH A5D /.D CD EF 'D2H,JF 9F /.D 'D'.1 . HCE' '3DAF' A'F 7D( 'D/E, J,( 'F JB/E EF CD' 'D2H,JF HDJ3 EF '-/GE' H'F J*E 0DC .D'D A*1) 'B5'G' 31/5 EF CD 9'E . A'0' E' *E 0DC B'E* 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) (*B/J1 /.D 'D2H, EF ,EJ9 E5'/1G H*B/J1 /.D 'D2H,) EF ,EJ9 E5'/1G 'J6' H,E9G' H*F2JD 'D*C'DJA H'DFAB'* H'D3E'-'* 'DB'FHFJ) 'DEB11) DDECDA 9F FA3G H'D3E'- 'DEB11 DG 9F 2H,*G +E *7(JB 'D391 'D61J(J 'D*5'9/J HA16 'D61J() ('3E 'D2H, . 'DA19 'D+'D+ :- 'D61J() 9DI /.D 'DECDA 'DE*2H, 0J 'D'HD'/ :- HAJE' J*9DB ('D'HD'/ ('D(FHF H'D(F'*) AB/ '(BI 'DE419 'D91'BJ 9DI '*,'GG 'DB/JE  H-3F' A9D  HGH A16 'D61J() 9DI /.D 'HD'/ 'DECDA :J1 'DE*2H,JF 'D0JF DE J*EH' 'D+'EF) 941) EF 9E1GE ('3E 'D'( (9/ /E, E/.HD'*GE (/.DG HEF-G 'D3E'- 'DB'FHFJ 'D.'5 (G H'D3E'-'* 'D.'5) ('HD'/G.() AE+D' '0' C'F DDECDA HD/ ( 'H (F*) DE J*E 'D+'EF) 941) EF 9E1G HDE J*2H, (9/ HC'F DG /.D .'69 D61J() 'D/.D AAJ G0G 'D-'D) J/E, /.DG B'FHF' (/.D H'D/G H*A16 'D61J() 9DJG (#3E 'D'( #J 'F 'DE3#D) GF' D'*-*', 'DI *B/JE 7D( /E, DDE/.HD'* . HJCHF 0DC (,E9 /.D 'DHD/ EF ,EJ9 'DE5'/1 'J6' H*F2JD 'D*C'DJA H'DFAB'* H'D3E'-'* 'DB'FHFJ) DJ5(- 'D/.D 5'AJ' HEF +E *7(JB 'D391 'D61J(J 'D*5'9/J HA16 'D61J() (#3E 'D'(  'E' '0' C'F 0DC 'DHD/ E*2H,'K 'H C'F B/ '*E 'D+'EF) 941) A#FG J5(- ECDA' (0'*G J3*-B 3E'- 'DECDA (#3EG.() HAJ -'D) HA') 'D'( 9/ 'DE419 CD HD/ EF 'HD'/G 'D0JF DE J*EH' 3F 'D+'EF) 941) EF 'D9E1 ECDA' E3*BD' (0'*G H*B/1 9DJG 'D61J() (#3E 'D'E 'H 'DH5J 'H 'DBJE .() HF1I 'FG C'F J,/1 ('DE419 'D' JA1B (JF -'D) -J') 'D'( H-'D) EH*G A'D'A6D '97'$GE' -CE'K H'-/'K GH 9/ CD HD/ DE J*E 'D+'EF) 941) HDG /.D .'69 D61J() 'D/.D ECDA' E3*BD' (0'*G 9DI 'F *B/1 9DJG 'D61J() H*A16 (#3E 'D'( 'F H,/ H'D' A('3E 'D'E 'H 'DH5J 'H 'DBJE  AG0' 'D-CE J3GD EF ',1'!'* A16 'D61J() H*B/J1G' 9DI 'D'HD'/. HJF7(B 'D-CE FA3G 9DI -'D) 9/E H,H/ 'DH'D/JF #J *9/ CD HD/ EF 'D'HD'/ ECDA'K E3*BD'K (0'*G H*A16 9DJG 'D61J() (#3E 'DH5J 'H 'DBJE . HJF*B/ 'D(96() 9('1) (9/E H,H/ 'DH'D/JF) 'D*J 'H1/G' 'DE419 AJ 'DAB1) 'D.'E3) EF 'DE'/) 'D3'/3) EF 'DB'FHF ('9*('1 'F 'DE419 DE J(JF E' 'DEB5H/ (G0G 'D9('1) EE' J+J1 E4'CD AJ 'D*7(JB HJ*3'!D 9E' '0' C'F* *9FJ HA') 'DH'D/JF 'E AB/G' 'E 3CFGE' .'1, 'DB71 (5H1) D' **39 E9'JJ1 'D'B'E) 'D61J() 'F *F7(B 9DJGE' 'E 'F 'D'E B/ *2H,* (9/ HA') 'D'( HF1I 'F 'DF5 J4ED CD G0G 'D-'D'* (H5AG ,'! E7DB' H'DE7DB J,1J 9DI '7D'BG . HEF 'D,/J1 ('D0C1 'F 'DE'/) 'D+'FJ) 941) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0 '97* 'DECDA 'D7(J9J 3E'-'* *F2D EF /.DG 9F CD 3F) *B/J1J) H0DC 9DI '3'3 -'D*G AJ 'D3F) 'DE'DJ) %0 EF-G (6000) /JF'1 DG H (5000) /JF'1 D2H,*G ('H 2H,'*G) 1() 'D(J* 'D*J DJ3 DG' /.D H(1000) /JF'1 DCD HD/ EF 'HD'/G (0CH1' 'H 'F'+') H(8000) /JF'1 DD'1ED) 'H 'DE7DB) H (1000) /JF'1 DCD HD/ EF 'HD'/G'  'E' :J1 'DEBJE AJEF- 'D3E'- (F3() 9// 'D'4G1 'DC'ED) 'D*J 'B'EG' AJ 'D91'B 9/' 'D0JF J9EDHF D/I 'D-CHE) AJ 'D*/1J3 %0 JEF- 3E'-@@@@'K . H (5000) 3E'-'K '6'AJ'K DDECDA 'D0J *,'H2 3F 'D+'D+) H'D3*JF EF 'D9E1 H(5H1) 9'E) #J *:JJ1 J-/+ E9 -J') 'DECDA H9'&D*G EF 2H', 'H 7D'B 'H EJD'/ 'H HA') AJEF- 'H J-0A EF 3E'-) (F3() 9// 'D'4G1 'DI 'D3F) 'DC'ED) . 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ *B/J1 'D61J() 9DI /.D 'D41C'* HAJ G0' 'DE(-+ 3F*CDE 9DI 'DEB5H/ ('D41C) AJ B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D H*B/J1 'D61J() 9DI '1('-G' H'*.'0 -5) 'DE3'GE AJ 'D41C) 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) D':1'6 'D*5'9/ H*B/J1 'D'1('- 9F/ -D 'D41C) 'H *5AJ*G' H0DC AJ '1(9 FB'7 HCE' J#*J :- 'DA19 'D'HD :- E'GJ) 'D41C) AJ B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D :- 91A* 'DAB1) 'D3'/3) EF 'DE'/) 'D'HDI EF 'DB'FHF 'D41C) ('FG' :- 'D41C) 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) H'D41C) 'DE3'GE) 'DE$33) AJ 'D91'B 'H .'1,G H**9'7I 'D'9E'D 'D*,'1J) 'H DG' '/'1) 'H E-D 9ED 'H E1'B() AJ 'D91'B .() HJ8G1 EF 0DC 'F 'DE419 'D61J(J 'D91'BJ B/ 'D:I 'D9('1) 'D*J H1/* AJ 9,2 'DAB1) (6) EF 'DE'/) (1) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DE1BE 95 D3F) 1959 'DED:J 'D*J C'F* *F5 9DI 'D-CE FA3G 'DH'1/ AJ *91JA 'D41C) '9D'G A6D'K 9F 'D9('1) 'D"*J) ((& & . HCD '/'1) 'H E$33) DG' 4.5J) E9FHJ) C'DE5'1A H5F'/JB 'D'-*J'7)) H(0' F1I 'F EAGHE 'D41C) AJ 'DB'FHF 'DF'A0 D'J4ED G0G 'DA&'* CE' J9*B/ 'D(96() '0 DH '1'/ 'DE419 4EHDG' DE' 'D:I *DC 'D9('1) . HEF +E A%F EAGHE 'D41C) AJ B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DE1BE 13D3F) 1982 'DE9/D J4ED E' J#*J :- 'D41C) 'DE3'GE) 'D.'5) :-HGJ 'D41C) 'D*J **#DA EF 9// EF 'D'4.'5 D'JBD 9F .E3) JC**( AJG' 'DE3'GEHF ('D'3GE AJ 'C**'( 9'E HD' JCHFHF E3$HDJF 9F /JHF 'D41C) 'D' (EB/'1 'DBJE) 'D'3EJ) DD'3GE 'D*J 'C**(H' (G' .() 'D41C) 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) :- HGJ 'D41C) 'D*J **'DA EF 9// EF 'D'4.'5 D' J2J/ 9//GE 9F .E3) H941JF E3'GE JC**(HF AJG' (#3GE HD'JCHFHF E3$HDJF 9F /JHF 'D41C) 'D' (EB/'1 'DBJE) 'D'3EJ) DD'3GE 'D*J 'C**(H' (G' (). 'D41C) 'DE3'GE) H'D41C) 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) 'DE$33) .'1, 'D91'B (A1H9 'D41C'* 'D',F(J)) HJ4*17 AJG' 'F *2'HD 'D*,'1) AJ 'D91'B 'H 'F JCHF DG' AJG E,D3 '/'1) 'H DG' E-D 9ED 'H 'F *H,/ AJG 'DGJ&) 'D9'E) DD41C) 'D*J *BHE ('9E'D 'D1B'() H**'DA EF E,EH9 'DE3'GEJF H**HDI EF'B4) *B1J1 E,D3 '/'1) 'D41C) 'D3FHJ 9F '9E'D H-3'('* 'D41C) H*BHE (#*.'0 'DB1'1'* 'DD'2E) . HJ0C1 'F 'DE419 DE JA1B GF' (JF 'D41C'* 'D91(J) H'D41C'* 'D',F(J) . 'D41C) 'DE.*D7) :- HGJ 'D41C) 'D*J *$33 AJ 'D:'D( 9DI 4CD 41C) E3'GE) H*.69 AJ E98E BH'9/G' D'-C'E 'D41C) 'DE3'GE) H**CHF 'D41C) 'DE.*D7) EF '*A'B 4.5 'H 'C+1 EF 'DB7'9 'D'4*1'CJ E9 4.5 'H 'C+1 EF 'DB7'9 'D.'5 (1#3E'D E.*D7 D' *BD F3() 'DB7'9 'D'4*1'CJ EFG 9F 25% HJ,H2 '3*+F'!' *CHJF 41C) E.*D7) EF 4.5 EF 'DB7'9 'DE.*D7 H*#.0 'D41C) 'DE.*D7) 4CD 'D41C) 'DE3'GE) 'H 'DE-/H/) -51' .() HF$C/ AJ G0' 'DE,'D 'F E' 0C1 '9D'G H1/ AJ 'DB'FHF 9DI 3(JD 'D-51 HGH J9/ '3*+F'! EF 'DB'9/) 'D9'E) HGJ 9/E '9*('1 'DE$33) 41C) D':1'6 61J() 'D/.D H'D'3*+F'! D' J,H2 'D*H39 AJG H'6'A) E$33'* ,/J/) H'9*('1G' 41C'* . 'DA19 'D+'FJ :- *B/J1 'D61J() 9DI 'D41C) :- 'H,( 'DE419 'D91'BJ  H-3F' A9D  'F *B/1 'D61J() 9DI /.D 'D41C'* B(D *H2J9 'H /A9 #J 4J! 'H ,2! EFG' 'DI 'DE3'GEJF #J *A16 9DI ,EJ9 '1('- 'D41C) /HF *,2&*G' ('9*('1 'FG' 4.5 E9FHJ H'-/ DG 0E) E'DJ) E3*BD) 9F 0E) CD E3'GE AJG' HJ*1*( 9DI 0DC 'F D' *EF- 'D3E'-'* 'DB'FHFJ) DD41C'* E7DB' H0DC D'F 'DE419 'D91'BJ D' J9*/ ('D9F'51 'D4.5J) C'D'9('! 'D9'&DJ) HFAB'* 'D-/ 'D'/FI DDE9J4) 'D' ('*,'G 'D'4.'5 'D7(J9J) /HF 'D'4.'5 'DE9FHJ) H'D*J **EJ2 ('D5A) 'D9JFJ) . ADH A16F' 'F ECDA' DJ3 DG /.D 3HI 'D1(- 'D0J J3*BJG EF 'D41C) 9F E3'GE*G AJG' A'FG DF J*E*9 (#J 3E'- D'F 'DB'FHF J9/ G0' 'D1(- J9H/ 'HD' 'DI 4.5 E9FHJ B(D CD 4J! H'DF*J,) 'D*'DJ) GJ 'F G0' 'D1(- 'D0J J3DE DDE3'GE EF '1('- 'D41C) (9/ A16 'D61J() 9DJG ('3E 'D41C) B(D 'D*H2J9 D' J6'A 'DI /.DG EF 'DE5'/1 'D'.1I 9F/ *B/J1 /.DG HA16 'D61J() 9DJG (D JF(:J '.6'9 /.DG EF ,EJ9 'DE5'/1 9/' '1('-G 9F E3'GE*G AJ 'D41C) D'F G0' 'D1(- 3(B #F .69 DD61J() B(D 'D*H2J9 H(:J) 9/E *-BB 'D'2/H', 'D61J(J 'D'B*5'/J .() 'DA19 'D+'FJ:- E3$HDJ) 'D41C) HE/J1G' 9F /A9 'D61J() :- H'9*(1 'DE419 'D41C) HE/J1G' ('D0'* E3$HDJJF E'DJ' 9F 'B*7'9 'D61J() 'DE3*-B) 9DI '1('- 'D41C) H/A9G' 'DI 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) B(D *H2J9 #J EFG' 9DI 'DE3'GEJF HEF +E *CHF 'EH'D 'D41C) H'EH'D E/J1G' 6'EF) D/JF 'D61J() H9DJGE *B/JE 'D-3'('* H'D4G'/'* 'DEB*6J) HCD 'D'EH1 'DE7DH( 'DBJ'E (G' HAB' D'-C'E B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D .() HDD41C'* 'DE3,D) AJ 'D91'B 'F *F2D 'D61J() 'DE/AH9) 'H 'DH',( /A9G' EF 'D'1('- 'DEH29) 9DI 'DE3'GEJF -3( -5) CD EFGE H'F *2H/ CD E3'GE 9F/ 0DC (4G'/) *(JF AJG' EB/'1 'D61J() 'D0J F2D*G 'H J-B DG' *F2JDG EF -5) CD EFGE H9DI 'D41C) '0' C'F* 41C) 0'* E3$HDJ) E-/H/) /HF 'DE3'GE) 'F *2H/ 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) (5H1) EF G@0G 'D4G'/)() . HDG0G 'D41C'* '0' C'F* *H29 -55 '1('- J.69 B3E EFG' (EB*6I 'DAB@@@1) ((1 (,  /  G@)) EF 'DE'/) (13) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D #J DD'39'1 'D.'5) (/.D 'D41C) 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) H'D41C) 'DE3'GE) 'D.'5) H'D41C) 'DE3'GE) 'DE.*D7) 'F *F2D 'D61J() EF CD B3E (EB/'1 'DF3() 'D*J /A9*G' 'H 'D*J EF 'DH',( 9DJG' /A9G' 9F 0DC 'DB3E EF 'D/.D 'D0J /A9*G EF 'D'1('- 'DE0CH1).() 'DA19 'D+'D+:- '-*3'( -5) 'DE3'GE EF '1('- 'D41C) 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) D':1'6 'D*5'9/ 'D61J(J :- *F5 'DAB1) (3) EF 'DE'/) (13) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 9DI 'FG(( J$.0 (F81 'D'9*('1 9F/ A16 'D61J() (EH,( 'DAB1) (1-# () EF G0G 'DE'/) E' H1/ AJ 'DAB1) (6) EF 'DE'/) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DB'FHF -J+ *.69 ',2'! 'D/.D 'DE6'A) 9DI -55 'D'1('- -3( 'DF3( 'D*J *B'(DG' AJ 'D*5'9/)) HJ8G1 EF 0DC 'F G0G 'DAB1) '-'D* E' J*9DB ('-*3'( -5) 'DE3'GE EF '1('- 'D41C) D':1'6 'D*5'9/ 'DI 'DAB1) (6) EF 'DE'/) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DB'FHF H'0' E' 9/F' 'DI *DC 'DAB1) D1#JF' 'FG' '.69* CD E5/1 /.D '.1 :J1 E9AJ (B'FHF H:J1 .'69 D61J() '.1I AJ 'D91'B 9/' -5) 'D1(- 'DF'*,) DDE3'GE 9F '1('- 'D41C) D61J() 'D/.D '0' C'F* #J 41C) B/ F2D* 'H -B DG' *F2JD 'D61J() EF G0G 'D-5) (EH,( 'DE'/) (15) EF 'DB'FHF 9DI 'F *#.0 'D-5) 'DEH29) 'D41C) 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) :J1 'DE4EHD) ('D'9A'! 'DEB11 AJ B'FHF *FEJ) H*F8JE 'D'3*+E'1 'D5F'9J #3'3'K D'-*3'( *5'9/ F3( 'D61J() 9DI 'DE/.HD'* 'D'.1I DDECDA . HEF .D'D G0' 'D916 'D(3J7 J*(JF DF' 'F 41H7 '-*3'( -5) 'DE3'GE EF '1('- 'D41C) D':1'6 'D*5'9/ AJ 391 'D61J() GJ :-() 'F *CHF -5) 'DE3'GE "*J) DG EF '1('- 9F E3'GE*G AJ 41C) 0'* E3$HDJ) E-/H/). HD0' D' *CHF 'D-5) 'DE3*DE) DDE3'GE 9F '1('-G EF E3'GE*G AJ 'D41C) 'DE3'GE) E9*(1) D':1'6 'D*5'9/ . 'F *CHF 'D41C) 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) :J1 E4EHD) ('D'9A'! 'DEB11 (B'FHF *FEJ) H*F8JE 'D'3*+E'1 'D5F'9J 'DE1BE (115) D3F) 1982 A#0' C'F* 'D41C) E4EHD) ('D'9A'! 'DEB11 (G0' 'DB'FHF AD' *CHF 'D-5) 'DE3DE) EFG' DDE3'GE AJG' E-*3() D':1'6 'D*5'9/ -*I 'F E1* 'D3FH'* 'D941 'DEF5H5 9DJG' AJ 0DC 'DB'FHF . 'F JCHF DDECDA 'DE3'GE E/.HD'* '.1I :J1 -5*G EF 'D41C) *.69 D61J() 'D/.D. HJ,( 'F F0C1 GF' 'F -5) 'D1(- G0G J,( 'F *CHF B/ .5E* EFG' 'D61J() 'DEB11) 9DI '1('- 'D41C) -*I JECF '*.'0G' '3'3' D'-*3'( /1,'* 'D*5'9/ 'D61J(J CE' J,( 'D*4/J/ 9DI 'F G0G 'D-5) *6'A 'DI 'J1'/'* 'DECDA EF 'DE5'/1 'D'.1I D' D:16 '.6'9G' E1) '.1I DD61J() (D D:16 '*.'0G' '3'3' D'-*3'( /1,'* 'D*5'9/ 'D61J(J 9DI (BJ) E/.HD'*G .() HJ(/H DF' 'F -CE 'DE419 'D91'BJ G0' J,/ *(1J1G AJ 'DEF7B H'D9/'D) '0 DJ3 EF 'DEF7B HD' EF 'D9/'D) AJ 4I! 'D'*/.D '1('- 'DECDA EF 'D41C) 'D*J 3(B '.6'9G' DD61J() 6EF E/.HD'*G 'D'.1I D'-*3'(G' D':1'6 'D*5'9/ . HFH1/ '/F'G E+'D' JH6- CJAJ) 'D'-*3'(:- DH '5'( '-/ 'DE3'GEJF AJ 41C) 0'* E3$HDJ) E-/H/) :J1 E9A') (B'FHF *FEJ) H*F8JE 'D'3*+E'1 'D5F'9J (9/ A16 'D61J() 9DJG' 1(-' B/1G (70) 'DA /JF'1 DD3F) 'DE'DJ) (2001) HC'F DG0' 'DE3'GE '1('- EF E5'/1 /.D '.1I *.69 DD61J() EB/'1G' (56) 'DA /JF'1 AJ 'D3F) FA3G' HC'F G0' 'DECDA EBJE'K H'92( HEF +E J3*-B 'D3E'- 'DB'FHFJ HB/1G (6) 'D'A /JF'1 . AJ*E '-*3'( 'D61J() 9DJG C'D'*J:- 70000 /JF'1 -5) 'DE3'GE EF '1('- 'D41C)  25000 /JF'1 F3() 10% 45000 /JF'1 (F3() 15% 50000 /JF'1 1(- 'DECDA EF 'DE5'/1 'D'.1I (9/ .5E 'D3E'- 'DB'FHFJ 50000 /JF'1 (F3() 20%=10000 /JF'1 'D61J() 'DEA1H6) 9DI E/.HD'*G 'E' '0' DE JCF JF7(B 9DJG 'D-CE 'D.'5 (#-*3'( -5*G D':1'6 'D*5'9/ D9/E *H'A1 '-/ 'D41H7 'DE0CH1) C#F JCHF *DBI G0' 'D1(- EF 41C) E3'GE) A#F 'D61J() 'DE3*-B) 9DJG 3*B/1 CE' J#*J:- 50000/JF'1 '1('- 'DECDA EF ,EJ9 'DE5'/1 9/' '1('-G EF E3'GE*G AJ 'D41C) (9/ .5E 'D3E'- 'DB'FHFJ 25000/JF'1 (F3() 10%= 2500/JF'1 25000/JF'1 (F3() 15%=3750/JF'1 'DE,EH9 = 6250/JF'1 'D61J() 'DE3*-B) 9DI 'DECDA 'DA19 'D1'(9 :- *B/J1 'D'1('- 9F/ -D 'D41C) 'H *5AJ*G' :- B/ *FB6J 'D41C) D'J 3(( EF '3('( 'D'FB6'! 'DEF5H5 9DJG' AJ B'FHF 'D41C'* E+D /E, 'D41C'* 'H *-HDG' 'H 9/E E('41*G' DF4D7G' 1:E E1H1 9'E 9DI *'3J3G' /HF 901 E41H9 'H *HBAG' 9F EE'13) F4'7G' E/) E*5D) *2J/ 9DI 'D3F) /HF 901 E41H9 'H D'F,'2G' 'DE41H9 'D0J '33* EF ',DG 'H D'J 3(( '.1  AJ9JF (0DC E5AM DD41C) DCJ JBHE ('D',1'!'* 'DD'2E) D'FG'! 'D*2'E'* 'D41C) H'3*JA'! -BHBG' . HJ0C1 'F *B/J1 'D'1('- 'DF',E) 9F *5AJ) 'D41C) 'DE3'GE) 'H 'D41C) 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) J(/H 'E1' 59(' ,/' '0' C'F* 'D41C) **CHF EF 9// C(J1 EF 'DE3'GEJF HJ2J/ 'D7JF (D) CHF G$D'! 'DE3'GEJF B/ '4*1H' '3GEGE ('39'1 E.*DA) H.'5) 'F 'DE419 'D61J(J 'D91'BJ B/ '.69 D61J() 'D/.D CD E(D: J5J( 'DE3'GE 2J'/) 9F BJE) '3GEG 'D'5DJ) 'DE/AH9) HEF +E J*9JF 9DI E5AJ 'D41C'* HE$33JG' 'F J*A-5H' CD 3GE 9DI -/) HE' '0' *-BB D5'-(G 1(- 'E D' 9F/ *5AJ) 'D41C) 'H -DG' HG0G 'D59H('* *1,9 'DI 'F 'DE419 'D61J(J 'D91'BJ '9*(1 -D 'D41C) 'H *5AJ*G' (-CE *H2J9 'D'1('- DCD E(D: J5J( 'DE3'GE 2J'/) 9F BJE) '3GEG 'D'5DJ) 'DE/AH9) H'.6'9G' DD61J() 9/' 'D'-*J'7'* 'D*J 3(B '.6'9G' DD61J() H(0DC ,9D EF 'DBJE) 'D*J J4*1J (G' 'DE3'GE '3GEG ('D'5DJ) 'DE/AH9)) 'D'3'3 AJ E91A) 'D1(- 'D0J 9'/ 9DI 'DE3'GE EF -D 'D41C) 'H *5AJ*G' (:6 'DF81 9F BJE) '3GEG 'D'3EJ) HB/ H69 'DE419 E3$HDJ) 9DI 9'*B 'DE5AJ H'D'96'! 'DE$33JF (/A9 'D61J() 'DE3*-B) 9DI 'D*A5JD '9D'G H9/ 'D*5AJ) :J1 *'E) E'DE *3*-5D EH'AB) 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) DDE-'A8) 9DI -BHB 'D.2'F) .() HD' F91A 'D3(( 'D0J /A9 'DE419 'DI *B1J1 E+D G0' 'D-CE 'DEF*B/ H'D'51'1 9DI 9/E *9/JDG ('D1:E EF E1H1 941JF 3F) 9DI '5/'1 'DB'FHF H('D1:E EF 'D*F(JG 'DE(C1 9DJG (-B EF B(D (96 'DABG() 'D0J J1I 'FG C'F J,ED ('DE419 'F J*.D5 EF 'D59H('* 'DEFHG 9FG' '9D'G (#F J*.0 EF 'DBJE) 'D'3EJ) DD'3GE (/D' EF 'DBJE) 'D'5DJ) 'DE/AH9) '3'3' D'-*3'( 1(- 'DE3'GE 9F/ *5AJ) 'D41C) '3H) (*41J9'* (96 'D/HD 9DI 'D1:E EE' B/ J$/J 'DJG 0DC EF 9/E 'D9/'D) (JF 'DECDAJF . 'DE7D( 'D+'D+ *B/J1 'D61J() 9DI /.D 'DE4'1C'* 'DE4'1C) :- GJ CD 41C) EF 'D41C'* 'D*6'EF H'D*H5J) H'J H,G EF H,HG 'DE6'1() H'D'9E'D H'DE4'1J9 'DA1/J) 'D*J DE JEF-G' B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'D4.5J) 'DEFHJ) CE' A9D AJ 41C'* 'DE3'GE) H'D41C'* 0'* 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE-/H/) HA1H9 'D41C'* 'D',F(J) 'DEA5D) "FA'K -J+ 'F 'DE419 ,9D 'DE4'1C) GJ 'DB'9/) 'D9'E) ACD H,G EF H,HG 'DE6'1() H'D'9E'D '0' DE J/.D 6EF *91JA 'D41C) AGH E4'1C) H3F'.0 (96 'D'E+D) 9DI E' J9/ E4'1C) HAB' DDE419 'D91'BJ() HCE' J#*J :- 41C) 'D*6'EF :- HGJ 'D41C) 'D*J **#DA EF 9// EF 'D'4.'5 'D7(J9JJF D' 'DE9FHJJF 'D0JF D'JBD 9//GE 9F '+FJF HD' J2J/ 9DI 941) HDCD EFGE -5) AJG' HJCHFHF E3$HDJF E3$HDJ) *6'EFJ) 4.5J) :J1 E-//) 9F 'D*2'E'* 'D41C) (). 'DE41H9 'DA1/J :- 41C) 'D4.5 'D7(J9J 'DH'-/ 'D0J JCHF E'DC' DD-5) 'DH'-/) AJG' HE3$HD' E3$HDJ) 4.5J) :J1 E-/H/) 9F ,EJ9 'D*2'E'*G' (). 'E' 9F 41C'* 'D*H5J) A'F B'FHF 'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) 'DE1BE 36 D3F) 1983 B/ 'D:'G' (FH9JG' 'D(3J7) H('D'3GE (). HDCF CJA J+(* H,H/ 'DE4'1C)  HEF GH 'D41JC 'DE*B/E AJG'  HE' GJ E3$HDJ*G HCJA J*E *B/J1 /.D 'DE4'1C)  G0' E' 3F-'HD 'D','() 9FG AJ 'DFB'7 'D+D'+ 'D"*J) :- 'DA19 'D'HD :- '+('* H,H/ 'DE4'1C) :- B/ J/9J 'D(96 EF 'DECDAJF 'F EF4#*GE 'DA1/J) GJ AJ 'D'5D E4'1C'* HJ#*J G$D'! (41C'! 5H1JJF DJ3*AJ/H' EF 'D3E'-'* 'DEB11) DCD 41JC AJ 'DE4'1C) HEF +E FB5'F -5JD) 'D61J() H'D*G1( EFG' D0' AB/ EF- 'DE419 AJ 'DE'/) (26) EF 'DB'FHF 'D-B DD3D7) 'DE'DJ) AJ FAJ H,H/ 'DE4'1C) '0' DE *B*F9 (G' -J+ F5* 'DAB1) 'D'HDI EFG' 9DI 'FG((& & . 9DI 'F *+(* 'DE4'1C) ('DH+'&B 'H 'D3,D'* 'DB'FHFJ) 'H 'DE3*F/'* 'D*J *B*F9 (G' 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ))). EF 0DC J*6- 'F -B 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) AJ FAJ H,H/ 'DE4'1C) EBJ/ (-B 'D41C'! '+('* H,H/G' (CD 'DH+'&B 'H 'D3,D'* 'DB'FHFJ) 'H 'DE3*F/'* 'D*J *B*F9 (G' 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) . H'D*H+JB J9FJ 'DC*'() HB/ 9/ 'DE419 'D91'BJ AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 9F/ *91JAG D9B/ 'D41C) (4CD 9'E 'F G0' 'D9B/ J9/ ('7D' '0' DE J*E 'A1':G AJ 4CD C*'(J  CE' #D2E B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'F JCHF 9B/ 'D41C) EC*H('K(). 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(D EF-G DD41JC 'DE*B/E #H 'D'C+1 F5J(' AJ 'DE4'1C) (9/ *B/J1G 9F CD 'D1(- 'DF',E DDE4'1C) '0' C'F* E4EHD) (F8'E E3C 'D/A'*1 'D*,'1J) H'.D* (G HDG0' 'D41JC 'F J9H/ 'DI (BJ) 'D41C'! (E' /A9 9F 71JB 'DD,H! 'DI 'DB6'!.() HF$J/ E' J0G( 'DJG 'D(96() AJ 'FG C'F J,ED ('DE419 'F J,9D EF G0' 'D'3*+F'! B'9/) D*.AJA 9(! 'D9ED 9F C'GD 'D3D7) 'DE'DJ) HEF- 'DE4'1C'* 'D4.5J) 'DE9FHJ) A6D'K 9F 'D41C'* H#3H) (B'FHF 'D*,'1) HB'FHF 'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) H0DC 9DI 'ED 'D59H/ ('D-5JD) 'D61J(J) (/D' EF *H2J9G' (JF 'D3E'-'* H'D'9A'!'*. 'DE7D( 'D1'(9 *B/J1 'D61J() 9F/ FBD EDCJ) 'D9B'1 #H -B 'D*51A AJG 'D9B'1 GH CD 4J! DG E3*B1 +'(* EF 'D59H() FBDG 'H *-HJDG /HF *DA HJ4ED 'D(F'! H'D:13 H'D'16 H'D,3H1 H'D3/H/ H'DEF',E H:J1 0DC EF 'D'4J'! 'D9B'1J) .() HJ9*(1 9B'1' ('D*.5J5 CD EFBHD H69G E'DCG AJ 9B'1G 15/' 9DI ./E) G0' 'D9B'1 'H '3*:D'DG .() HJ91A -B 'DEDCJ) (#FG -B 9JFJ '5DJ EF 4'FG 'F J*51A AJG 'DE'DC (,EJ9 'D*51A'* 'D,'&2) 9JF' HEFA9) H'3*:D'D' .() 'E' -B 'D*51A AGH -B 9JFJ '5DJ JECF 5'-(G EF 'D'F*A'9 ('D'16 'D'EJ1J) H'3*:D'DG' (G/A '3*+E'1G' DDEFA9) 'D9'E) .() H(9/ 'F 91AF' E' GH 'D9B'1 HE' GH -B 'DEDCJ) H-B 'D*51A F0C1 'F 'DE419 'D61J(J 'D91'BJ '.69 BJE) 'D9B'1 'D0J FBD* EDCJ*G 'H -B 'D*51A AJG HDH DE1) H'-/) AB7 H(#J) H3JD) EF H3'&D FBD EDCJ) 'D9B'1 'H -B 'D*51A AJG D61J() EB7H9) (9/ 'F C'F* *.69 D'-C'E B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D  HB/ 0C1 'DE419 9DI 3(JD 'DE+'D D' 'D-51 (96 G0G 'DH3'&D C'D(J9 H'DE5'D-) H'DEB'J6) H'D*F'2D H'DG() H%2'D) 'D4JH9 H*5AJ) 'DHBA H'DE3'7-) CE' 9'ED 'DE419 'DE3*#,1 E9'ED) 'DE'DC 9F/ 'J,'1G 'D9B'1 'D0J /.D AJ *51AG (9B/ 'DE3'7-) .() HB/ A16 'DE419 G0G 'D61J() 'DEB7H9) (F3( *5'9/J) .'5) EF BJE) 'D9B'1 'H -B 'D*51A AJG 'DEB/1) 9DI HAB '-C'E B'FHF *B/J1 BJE) 'D9B'1 HEF'A9G 'DE1BE 85 D3F)1978 'DE9/D() 'H 'D(/D 'DE51- (G 'JGE' 'C+1 HJ*E 'D*B/J1 GF' 9F 71JB D,F) C4A 'H 'C+1 J4CDG' H2J1 'DE'DJ) 9DI 'DF-H 'D"*J :-() #) AJ 'D9'5E) H'DE-'A8'* **#DA EF 1- 1&J3 /'&1) 'D*3,JD 'D9B'1J 'H EF JE+DG. 2- EE+D 9F /'&1) 61J() 'D/.D EF EH8AJ 'D/1,) 'D3'/3) AE' AHB HDG ./E) A9DJ) AJ 'D*.EJF D'*BD 9F 3F*JF . 3- 7'D( 'DC4A 'H EF JE+DG . 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'DE-'EJ *BJ 'DH3H'3J  41- B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 1BE 113 D3F) 1982 'DE9/D  ,1  E0C1'* E3-H() 9DI "D) 'D1HFJH  1982. 'DE-'EJ *BJ 'DH3H'3J  41- B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 1BE 113 D3F) 1982 'DE9/D  ,2  E0C1'* E3-H() 9DI "D) 'D1HFJH  1982. -3F 9/'J 'D/,JDJ  41- B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 1BE 113 D3F) 1982 'DE9/D  71  E7(9) 95'E  (:/'/  1988 . /. 2C1J' E-E/ (JHEJ  61J() 'D/.D AJ 'D*41J9 'D3H/'FJ (/1'3) *-DJDJ) EB'1F))  E7(9) #7D3  1974. 5'/B E-E/ -3JF 'D-3FJ  61J() 'D/.D  71  E7(9) /'1 'D,'-8  (:/'/  (/HF 3F) F41. /. 5'D- JH3A 9,JF)  61J() 'D/.D AJ 'D91'B EF 'DH,G*JF 'D'B*5'/J) H'DAFJ)  'DE7(9) 'D9'DEJ)  'DB'G1)  1965 . /. 9(/ 'DEF9E AH2J  'DF8E 'D61J(J)  E7'(9 EFJF) 'D-/J+)  (J1H*  1973 . C'ED 9(/ 'D-3JF 'D(D/'HJ  'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ  E/J1J) /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H'DF41  'DEH5D  1990. /. E-E/ 7G (/HJ H E-E/ -E/J 'DF4'1  #5HD 'D*41J9 'D61J(J 'DE51J  71  /'1 'DE9'1A (E51  1959. E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1 H/. :FJ -3HF 7G  'D-BHB 'D9JFJ)  E7'(9 /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H'DF41  1982. E-E/ 2CJ 3'DE  'D'H6'9 'DB'FHFJ) DD61J() 'D9'E) 9DI 'D'J1'/  71  E7(9) 'D'9*E'/  E51  1954. G4'E E-E/ 5AH* 'D9E1J  'D61'&( 9DI 'D/.D  E7(9) 'D,'-8  (:/'/  1989. /. JHF3 'D(71JB  #5HD 'D'F8E) 'D61J(J)  'DEC*( 'D91(J 'D-/J+  'D'3CF/1J)  (/HF 3F) F41. /. JHF3 'D(71JB H/. -'E/ /1'2  'DF8E 'D61J(J)  'D/'1 'D,'E9J)  (J1H*  1983. * 'D13'&D 'D9DEJ) H'D(-H+: ,G'/ 39J/ F'51 'D.5'HF)  E71- 'D61J() 9DI 'D/.D AJ 'D*41J9 'D61J(J 'D'1/FJ (/1'3) *-DJDJ))  13'D) E',3*J1 EF4H1) AJ C*'( EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'D-BHB AJ 'D,'E9) 'D'1/FJ)  E7(9) 'D*HAJB  9E'F  1995. /. .'D/ 'D5H'A H/. E/-* 9('3 #EJF  *B/J1 'D61J() AJ B'FHF 'D/.D  E,D) 'DB6'!  'D9// 'D'HD H'D+'FJ  'D3F) 'D+'D+) H'D'1(9HF  E7(9) 'D49(  (:/'/  1988. /. 7'D( -3F EH3I  ED'-8'* AJ B'FHF 'D41C'* 1BE 36 D3F) 1983  E,D) 'DB6'! 'D5'/1) 9F FB'() 'DE-'EJF AJ 'D91'B  'D9// 'D'HD H'D+'FJ H'D+'D+ H'D1'(9 D3F) 1983  E7(9) 'D49(  (:/'/  1983. G4'E E-E/ 5AH* 'D9E1J  '*,'G'* 'DE419 'D91'BJ AJ 61J() 'D/.D  13'D) E',3*J1 EF4H1) AJ C*'(  71  E7(9) 'DE9'1A  (:/'/  1979 . GJA'! 39J/ A*H-J  'D*CJJA 'DE-'3(J DH9'! 61J() 'D/.D  13'D) E',3*J1 :J1 EF4H1) EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'D'/'1) H'D'B*5'/ (,'E9) 'DEH5D  1988. +'FJ'K: 'DE5'/1 ('DD:) 'D'FCDJ2J): Hicks/British Public Finance/London/Oxford Universit Press /1954. () 'F81: 5'/B E-E/ -3JF 'D-3FJ  61J() 'D/.D  71  E7(9) 'D,'-8  (/HF 3F) F41  5315. () 'F81: /. '-E/ 'DC(J3J  'DH,J2 AJ 41- B'FHF 'D'-H'D 'D4.5J) H*9/JD'*G  ,1  'D2H', H'D7D'B H'+'1GE'  E7'(9 'D*9DJE 'D9'DJ  (/HF 3F) F41  521 22 39. () 'F81 B1'1 E-CE) 'D*EJJ2 (D' 1BE AJ 17/7/1983 EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'DB6'! 'D5'/1) 9F FB'() 'DE-'EJF AJ 'D91'B  'D9// 'D'HD H'D+'FJ H'D+'D+ H'D1'(9 D3F) 1983  E7(9) 'D49(  (:/'/  1983  5267-270. () 'F81: G4'E E-E/ 5AH* 'D9E1J  '*,'G'* 'DE419 'D91'BJ AJ 61J() 'D/.D 71 E7(9) 'DE9'1A  (:/'/  1979  5258-259. == == HJ0C1 'F 'D*41J9'* 'D:1(J) (4CD 9'E HEFG' 'D'FCDJ2J H'DA1F3J *#.0 (E(/# H-/) /.D 'D'31) H*A16 'D61J() 9DI E,EH9 /.D 'D2H,JF H'D'HD'/ ('3E 'D2H, AJE' -0' 'DE419 'D'1/FJ HC0DC 'DE51J -0H 'DE419 'D91'BJ H9/ CD EF 'D2H,JF ECDA' E3*BD' (0'*G E9 'EC'FJ) 7D( 'D/E,. DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 E-EH/ 2CJ 3'DE  'D'H6'9 'DB'FHFJ) DD61J() 'D9'E) 9DI 'D'J1'/  71  E7(9) 'D'9*E'/  E51  1954  564. H'F81 #J6'K A (# /) EF E (4) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'D'1/FJ 1BE 57 D3F) 1981. - Hicks/British Public Finance/London/Oxford Universit Press /1954/P.90. () 'F81: A (1 2) EF E (6)  EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0. () 'F81: 'D9E1J  E5/1 'D3'(B  5260. == == - 'D*9DJE'* -HD CJAJ) %3*B7'9 61J() 'D/.D (71JB) 'D'3*B7'9 'DE('41 1BE */27/11707 AJ ED-B ('D*9DJE'* 'DE*9DB) (61J() /.D 'D41C'* EF4H1) AJ C*'(  59. () 'F81: 'D9E1J  E5/1 'D3'(B  5260. () 'F81: G4'E 'D9E1J  'D61'&( 9DI 'D/.D  E7(9) 'D,'-8  (:/'/  1989  593. () 'F81: 5'/B 'D-3FJ  E5/1 3'(B  5316. () 'F81: A (4) EF E (6) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. () 'F81: 'D9E1J  'D61'&( 9DI 'D/.D  E5/13'(B  593-94. () 'F81: AJ *A5JD 0DC : GJA'! 39J/ A*H-J  'D*CJJA 'DE-'3(J DH9'! 61J() 'D/.D  13'D) E',3*J1 EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'D'/'1) H'D'B*5'/  1988  5101. - A (5) EF E (6) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. () 'D9E1J  'D61'&( 9DI 'D/.D  E5/1 3'(B  594. () *4ED 'D41C) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ (('D41C) 'DE3'GE) 'H 'D.5H5J) H'D41C) 'D9'/J) :J1 'DEBJE) HD' *4ED 'D41C) 'D9'/J) 'DEBJE) H*9*(1 'D,E9J) 'D*9'HFJ) AJ 9EDG' 'D0J J3*G/A 'D1(- 41C) E3'GE) 9'E))) 'F81: E (2) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'D'1/FJ 'DF'A0. () 'D9E1J  'D61'&( 9DI 'D*/.D  E5/1 'D3'(B  5112. () 'F81: A (1) EF E (6) EF B'FHF 'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) 1BE 36 D3F) 1983 'DEF4H1 AJ 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ) ('D9// 2935 3F) 1983. () C'ED 9(/ 'D-3JF 'D(D/'HJ  'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ  E/J1J) /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H'DF41  'DEH5D  1990  5201. () 'F81: E (7) EF 'DB'FHF 'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) 1BE 36 D3F) 1983. () 1',9 /. 5'D- JH3A 9,JF)  61J() 'D/.D AJ 'D91'B EF 'DH,G*JF 'D'B*5'/J) H'DAFJ)  'DE7(9) 'D9'DEJ)  'DB'G1)  5495-496. == == - HJ0C1 'F G0' GH E3DC 'DE419 'D'1/FJ H'DE419 'DA1F3J H'DE419 'D'FCDJ2J 'E' 'DE419 'DE51J AB/ A16 'D61J() 9DI '1('- 41C'* 'D'EH'D B(D *H2J9G' HA16 'D61J() E1) '.1I 9F/ *H2J9 G0G 'D'1('- 9DI 'D41C'! EE' J-BB 'D'2/H', 'D61J(J 'D'B*5'/J. 'F81 AJ *A5JD 0DC: - ,G'/ 39J/ F'51 'D.5'HF)  E71- 'D61J() 9DI 'D/.D AJ 'D*41J9 'D61J(J 'D'1/FJ (/1'3) *-DJDJ))  13'D) E',3*J1 EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'D-BHB ('D,'E9) 'D'1/FJ) EF4H1) AJ C*'(  E7(9) 'D*HAJB 9E'F  1995  5129-130. - /.9(/ 'DEF9E AH2J  'DF8E 'D61J(J)  E7'(9 EFJF) 'D-/J+)  (J@@1H*  1972  5180-181. - /. 2C1J' E-E/ (JHEJ  61J() 'D/.D AJ 'D*41J9 'D61J(J 'D3H/'FJ(/1'3) *-DJDJ) EB'1F))  E7(9) '7D3  'DB'G1)  1974  5255-257. () 'F81: E (14) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. () 'F81:- A (3,1) EF E (15) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. - 'D9E1J  'D61'&( 9DI 'D/.D  E5/1 3'(B  5113. () 'F81: A (2) EF E (15)EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. () 1',9 *9DJE'* B3E 'DEGF) HFBD 'DEDCJ) 1BE 7/51106 AJ 2/12/1987 'DEF4H1) AJ C*'( 3FHJ 'D5'/1 9F 'DGJ&) 'D9'E) DD61'&( D9'E 1987 577. () 1',9 /. 9,JF)  E5/1 3'(B  5497-498. () 'F81: E (16) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. - 'DE-'EJ *BJ 'DH3H'3J  41- B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D  ,2 E0C1'* E3-H() 9DI "D) 'D1JFH  1982  5362. - /. .'D/ 'D5H'A H /. E/-* 9('3 'EJF  *B/J1 'D61J() AJ B'FHF 'D/.D  E,D) 'DB6'!  'D9// 'D'HD H'D+'FJ  'D3F) 'D+'D+) H'D'1(9JF  E7(9) 'D49(  (:/'/  1988  5156. () /.9,JF)  E5/1 3'(B  5156. () 'F81: A (7) EF E (1) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. - HEF 'D,/J1 ('D0C1 'F GF'DC 4(G '*A'B (JF 'D*41J9'* 9DI 9/E EF- 41C'* 'D'4.'5 ('DE4'1C'*) 'D4.5J) 'DE9FHJ) AG0' GH E3DC 'D*41J9 'D'FCDJ2J H'DE51J ('DF3() D41C'* 'D*6'EF H'D*H5J) H'D*41J9 'D'1/FJ ('DF3() DD41C'* 'D9'/J) 'DEBJE) AB7 H'D*J *4ED 41C) 'D*6'EF 'DEBJE) H41C) 'D*H5J) 'D(3J7) 'DEBJE) 'D' 'F 'DE419 'DA1F3J B/ 3DC E3DC'K H37'K (JF EF-G' 'D4.5J) 'DE9FHJ) H9/E EF-G' G0G 'D4.5J). DDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD 'F81: - /. 9(/ 'DEF9E AH2J  E5/1 3'(B  5212 H180-181. - /. .'D/ 'D5H'A H/. E/-* 9('3 'EJF  E5/1 3'(B  5148. - ,G'/ 'D-5'HF)  E5/1 3'(B  5109-110. () 'F81: A (3) EF E (6) EF B'FHF 'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) 'DF'A0. - A (3) EF E (11) EF B'FHF 'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) 'DF'A0. () 'F81: A (4) EF E (6) EF B'FHF 'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) 'DF'A0. - (96 'D*41J9'* *'.0 ('DE41H9 'DA1/J 'J6' H*7DB 9DJG *3EJ) ('D41C) 0'* 'D4.5 'DH'-/) AJE' D' *'.0 *41J9'* '.1I ('DE41H9 'DA1/J D*91JAG' 'D41C) ('FG' (9B/ (JF 4.5JF A'C+1& ) E+D 'D*41J9 'DA1F3J HB'FHF 'D41C'* 'D91'BJ 'DB/JE  'F81 AJ *A5JD 0DC /.7'D( -3F EH3I ED'-8'* AJ B'FHF 'D41C'* 1BE 36 D3F) 1983  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'DB6'!  E5/1 3'(B 572. () /. 7'D( -3F EH3I  E5/1 3'(B  552. () 'F81:*BJ 'DH3H'3J  ,2  E5/1 3'(B  5418. () 'F81: C'ED 'D(D/'HJ  E5/1 3'(B 531-32. - B1'1 D,F) 'D*/BJB 'D+'D+) /HF 1BE AJ 31/3/1991  EF4H1 AJ C*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E 1991  5146. () *BJ 'DH3H'3J  ,2  E5/1 3'(B  5426. () 'F81 B1'1 D,F) 'D*/BJB 'D+'D+) 'DE1BE 61 AJ 13/3/1983  EF4H1 AJ C*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E 1985  ,2  517. () 'F81 B1'1 D,F) 'D*/BJB 'D'HDI 'DE1BE 144 AJ 16/4/1980 EF4H1 AJ 'DC*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E 1985  ,2  517. () 'F81 B1'1 D,F) 'D*/BJB 'D'HDI /HF 1BE AJ 22/5/1991 EF4H1 AJ 'DC*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E 1991  5131. () 'F81: B1'1 D,F) 'D*/BJB 'D+'D+) 'DE1BE 145 AJ 3/7/1983 EF4H1 AJ 'DC*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E 1985  ,2  E5/1 3'(B  519. () 'F81 B1'1 D,F) 'D*/BJB 'D'HDI 1BE 221 AJ 30/5/1984 EF4H1 AJ 'DC*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E 1985  E5/1 3'(B  520. - HJ0C1 'F 'DE419 'D'1/FJ B/ '97I (96 'DB1'&F 'D*J *9*(1 (G' E+D G0G 'DE4'1C'* HGEJ) E' DE J+(* 'D9C3 E+D CHF 'D41JC 2H,'K DDECDA 'H '-/ 'HD'/G :J1 'D('D:JF 3F 'D+'EF) 941) EF 'D9E1 'H 9/E E3'GE) 'D41JC A9D'K AJ 1'3E'D 'D41C) FB/'K 'H 9ED' 'H 9/E '4*1'C 'D41JC AJ '/'1) E+D G0' 'DFH9 EF 'D41C'*. DDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD 'F81 : ,G'/ 'D.5'HF)  E5/1 3'(B  5109-110. - E (16) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'D'1/FJ 'DF'A0. () 'F81: B1'1 D,F) 'D*/BJB 'D+'D+) /HF 1BE AJ 8/5/1983 EF4H1 AJ 'DC*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E 1985  E5/1 3'(B  518. - B1'1 D,F) 'D*/BJB 'D'HDI /HF 1BE AJ 11/3/1987EF4H1 AJ 'DC*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E 1987  E5/1 3'(B  5111. () -3F 9/'J 'D/,JDJ  41- B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DE1BE 113 D3F) 1982 'DE9/D  72  E7(9) 95'E  (:/'/  1988  5215. - A (4) EF E (26) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. () 'F81: A (3) EF E (26) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. () 'F81: A (6) EF E (26) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. () 'F81: A (4) EF E (26) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. () 'F81 AJ *A5JD 0DC: GJA'! 39J/ A*H-J  E5/1 3'(B  5101. - *9DJE'* B3E 'DEGF) HFBD 'DEDCJ) 'D9B'1 'DE1BE 7/1106 AJ 2/12/1987  'DC*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E 1985,2 E5/1 3'(B 568. () A (2) EF E (26) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. - 5'/B 'D-3FJ  E5/1 3'(B  5321-322. () HG0' E3DC 'DE419 'D61J(J 'D'1/FJ H'DE419 'DE51J AJ 61J() 'D9'E) 9DI 'D/.D 'E' 'DE419 'D'FCDJ2J AB/ B11 1(7 'D61J() ('3E 'DE4'1C) 9DI E,EH9 '1('-G' E9 'D3E'- (.5E 'D'9A'!'* 'DE*9DB) (CD 41JC 9DI -/) +E *B3JE 'D1(- (JF 'D41C'! AJE' 3DC 'DE419 'DA1F3J E3DC' A1J/' -JF '97I DD41C'! 'DE*6'EFJF AB7 /HF 'DEH5JF AJ 41C'* 'D*H5J) 'D(3J7) 'D.J'1 AJE' J*9DB (F5J( CD EFGE EF '1('- G0G 'D41C) (JF 'D.6H9 DD61J() 9DI 'D/.D 'D4.5 'D7(J9J 'H DD61J() 9DI 'D41C'*. 'F81AJ *A5JD 0DC:- ,G'/ 'D.5'HF)  E5/1 3'(B 5109-110. - /. .'D/ 'D5H'A H/.E/-* 9('3  E5/1 3'(B  5148. - /. 9(/ 'DEF9E AH2J  E5/1 3'(B  5212 H 180-181. () /. .'D/ 'D5H'A H/. E/-* 9('3  E5/1 3'(B  5152. () 'F81: A (1) EF E (26) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. () 'F81: E (63) EF B'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ. () 'F81 AJ *A5JD 0DC: E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1 H/. :FJ -3HF 7G  'D-BHB 'D9JFJ)  E7'(9 /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H'DF41  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  1982  542. - E (1048) EF B'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ. () 'F81: E-E/ 7G 'D(4J1 H/. :FJ -3HF 7G  'DE5/1 'D3'(B 0C1G  5469. () 'F81 'D(F/JF #HD'K H+'FJ'K EF B1'1 E,D3 BJ'/) 'D+H1) 'DE1BE 120 AJ 27/6/2002. () F41 B'FHF *B/J1 BJE) 'D9B'1 HEF'A9G AJ 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ) 'D9// (2655) AJ 29/5/1987 HF41 *9/JD'*G AJ 'DC*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E 1993  51-5. () 'F81: E (4) EF B'FHF *B/J1 BJE) 'D9B'1 HEF'A9G 'DE9/D. () 'F81: E (5 6) EF B'FHF *B/J1 BJE) 'D9B'1 HEF'A9G 'DE9/D. == == - *H5J'* 'DGJ&) 'D9'E) DD61'&( 9// 2/15179 AJ 4/7/1995  'DC*'( 'D3FHJ D9'E1995 553-54 H(0C1 'F *B/J1 61J() 'D9B'1'* 'DE(FJ) AJ 'D*41J9 'DE51J J,1J 9F 71JB D,'F *B/J1 .'5) *BHE (*-/J/ 'DBJE) 'D'J,'1J) 'D3FHJ) DD9B'1 H*9DF 'D*B/J1 AJ 'D,1J/) 'D13EJ) HJ(BI 'D*B/J1 E9EHD'K (G DE/) +E'F 3FH'*.DDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD 1',@9: /. E-E/ 7G (/HJ HE-E/ -E/J 'DF4'1  '5HD 'D*41J9 'D61J(J 'DE51J  /'1 'DE9'1A (E51  1959  5245-246. () 'F81: E (8 9) EF B'FHF *B/J1 BJE) 'D9B'1 HEF'A9G 'DE9/D. () *BJ 'DH3H'3J  ,1  E5/1 3'(B  5100. () 'F81: E (10) EF B'FHF *B/J1 BJE) 'D9B'1 HEF'A9G 'DE9/D. () 'F81: *9DJE'* E1BE) (4) D3F) 1983 'DE5'/1 (1BE 7/12644 AJ 12/3/1983 DD3FH'* EF 77-1983 HF3( 'D61J() DD41C'*. - 'D(F/ +'FJ'K EF B1'1 E,D3 BJ'/) 'D+H1) 'DE1BE 120 D3F) 2002. == == - HJ0C1 AJ G0' 'DE,'D ('F *,/J/ '1('- 'D/.HD 'D9B'1J) AJ 'D*41J9 'DA1F3J JCHF 9DI '3'3 *F2JD 'DFAB'* 'D*J *C(/G' 'DE'DC EF E(D: 'D/.D 'D',E'DJ. 'F81 AJ *A5JD 0DC: /.JHF3 'D(71JB H/. -'E/ /1'2  'DF8E 'D61J(J)  'D/'1 'D,'E9J)  (J1H*  1983  5443-446. - /. JHF3 'D(71JB '5HD 'D'*8E) 'D61J(J)  'DEC*( 'D91(J 'D-/J+  'D'3CF/1J)  (/HF 3F) F41  5241-247. () 'F81: (1) EF 'D(F/ +'FJ'K EF B1'1 E,D3 BJ'/) 'D+H1) 'DE1BE 120 D3F) 2002. () 'F81: (2) EF 'D(F/ +'FJ'K EF B1'1 E,D3 BJ'/) 'D+H1) 'DE1BE 120 D3F) 2002. () 'F81: 'D(F/ +'D+'K EF B1'1 E,D3 BJ'/) 'D+H1) 'DE1BE 120 D3F) 2002. () 'F81: 'D(F/ .'E3'K EF B1'1 E,D3 BJ'/) 'D+H1) 'DE1BE 120 D3F) 2002. () 'F81: (2) EF 'D(F/ 3'(9'K EF B1'1 E,D3 BJ'/) 'D+H1) 'DE1BE 120 D3F) 2002. () E (50) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. () 'F81: A (1) EF E (50) EF B'FHF 61J() 'D/.D 'DF'A0. 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