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JH',GF 'D-1(  /1'3) 5'/1) 9F 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) 9F 'D5DJ( 'D#-E1  49() 'D3J'3'* H'D*9'HF  *41JF 'D#HD  2002  3'/3' : 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ*: #F3JD /1J'F  ('HD 3'F'E *'1',J  'D3J'3'* 'D/HDJ) 'D1&J3J) H'D"DJ'* 'DB'FHFJ)  -BHB 'DE1#) AJ 3J'B 'D3D'E H'D#EF  (-+ EF4H1 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1F* :  HYPERLINK "http://www.indianembassy/" www.indianembassy. org #FDJF C*'(  1JG'E #D(1:H+J  /1'3) H'B9 'DE1#) 'DAD37JFJ)  /1'3) EF4H1) 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1F* 9DI 'DEHB9 :.org  HYPERLINK "http://www.escwa/" www.escwa ,H2JA C'FHF  ':*5'( HB*D H*"E1  EB'D) EF4H1) 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1F* 9DI 'DEHB9 :  HYPERLINK "http://www.mnarebta/" www.mnarebta 3'F'E F'1',J 'F/1DJFJ  -HDJF 4HEJC1  -BHB 'D%F3'F  'DEHB9 :  HYPERLINK "http://www.hrworg/" www.hrworg AGEJ GHJ/J 'D%3D'E H-BHB 'DE1#)  (-+ EF4H1 9DI 'DEHB9 : line.com HYPERLINK "http://www.islam/" www.islam /.E-E/ 'DE,0H(  'DEB'HE) 'D49(J) 'DE3D-) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  (-+ EF4H1 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* : www.almoqawma.com 'DE3*4'1 E-E/ C'ED 9(/ 'D3*'1  7(J9) 'D9ED 'D417J AJ 8D -BHB 'D%F3'F 'D/3*H1J) H'DB'FHFJ)  (-+ EF4H1 9DI 'D'F*1F* 9DI 'DEHB9 :  HYPERLINK "http://www.arabrenewal.com/" www.arabrenewal.com EB'(D) #,1*G' 'D5-AJ) 'D#E1JCJ) (*'1E'CJADJ) 9'E 2005 E9 'D9/J/ EF 'D3,JF'* 'D91'BJ'* 'DDH'*J #7DB 31'-GF EF 3,HF 'D'-*D'D 'D#E1JCJ / F5 'DEB'(D) EF4H1 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1F* 9DI 'DEHB9 :.com  HYPERLINK "http://www.sumoud/" www.sumoud G'/J E-EH/  -HD EAGHE -BHB 'DE1#) H9D'B*G (EAGHE -BHB 'D%F3'F  (-+ EF4H1 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1F* 9DI 'DEHB9 :  HYPERLINK "http://www.iraqcp.org/democrat" www.iraqcp.org/democrat 3'(9': 'DE5'/1 'D#,F(J): Blu Greenberg contemporary jewish religious though, Charles scribner'ssons, New York, 1987.,p.1043 Lautherpacht:  oppenheims international law 7 th ed, 1952 . Openheim, international law, vol, II, 1957, P167. (*) #3*DE 'D(-+ AJ 14/6/2009 *** B(D DDF41 AJ 16/9/2009 . () 'DE9,E 'DH3J7 ,#.1,G /.%(1'GJE #F3 H".1HF , 'D,2! 'D#HD ,'D7(9) 'D+'FJ) ,/'1 'D#EH', ,(J1H*,1990,5194 () 'DEF,/ 'D%9/'/J  /'1 'DE41B  'DE7(9) 'DC'+HDJCJ)  (J1H*  1969  515. () 'F81 F5 'D'*A'BJ'* 'DE0CH1) 9DI EHB9 EF8E) 'D5DJ( 'D#-E1 AJ 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* (www.icr-org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oppenheim, international law, vol, II, 1957, P167. () /. %-3'F 'DGF/J, BH'FJF 'D'-*D'D 'D-1(J  'D%,1'!'* 'D3J'3J)  /E4B  1971  525. () /. ,J1G'1/ A'F :D'F  'DB'FHF (JF 'D#EE  ,2!3  (J1H*  1970  5171. () /. 9DJ 5'/B #(H GJA  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E,5209 () /. 92'D/JF AH/G  'DE1C2 'DB'FHFJ DD'-*D'D 'D-1(J  'DE,D) 'DE51J) DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ  'DE,D/ 'D.'E3 H'D941HF  E7(9) F51 E51  'D%3CF/1J)  1969  535. () 'D9EJ/ (4J1 E1'/  'D-1( AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  (D' F'41  (D' 3F) 7(9  559. () /. E-EH/ %-3'F GF/J  -BHB 'D3C'F 'DE/FJJF AJ 'DEF'7B 'DE-*D) H-E'J*G'  E5/1 3'(B  510. (3) Lautherpacht:  oppenheims international law 7 th ed, 1952, p,434. (4) Marjorie Whiteman  Digest of international law Volue 10, Washington, 1968. P.541. (1) Marjorie Whiteman  Digest of international law op.cit., p.541 () /. E-E/ 'DE,0H(  'DEB'HE) 'D49(J) 'DE3D-) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  (-+ EF4H1 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ*  HYPERLINK "http://www.almoqawma.com/" www.almoqawma.com 5 5 . () DHJ3 D'AH1  EH,2 AJ 'D-BHB 'D/HDJ) 'D9'E)  FBDG DD91(J) /. 3'EJ 'DEJ/'FJ  E7(9) ('(JD %.H'F  /E4B  1932  5891-892. () /. E-EH/ %-3'F GF/J  -BHB 'D3C'F 'DE/FJF AJ 'DEF'7B 'DE-*D)  E5/1 3'(B  58. () 9DJ 5'/B #(H GJA 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E ,E5/1 'D3'(B  5770. () 'F81 F5 B1'1 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) DD#EE 'DE*-/) 'DE1BE 3314 AJ 14 C'FHF 'D#HD 1974 H'DEF4H1 9DI EHB9 EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* (www.un.org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www.hrworg .women.html (1) 'DE'/) (1) EF 'D%9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F 'D5'/1 9F 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) DD#EE 'DE*-/) AJ 10 C'FHF 'D#HD 1948  F5 'D%9D'F EF4H1 9DI EHB9 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 9DI 'DEHB9 : www.un.org/arabic (2) /. 9H6 '-E/ #D2:(J  'DE/.D %DI 9DE 'DB'FHF  /'1 H'&D DDF41  9E'F  2003  530 . (3) /. .'D/ 14J/ 'DBJ'E  EB/E) AJ 'D#5HD 'D9'E) D9DE 'DB'FHF ('DE('/& 'D9'E) DF81J*J 'DB'FHF H'D-B )  72  'DEC*() 'DH7FJ) DD7('9) H'DF41  9E'F F 2004  5196. (1) /. -'A8 9DH'F -E'/J  -BHB 'D%F3'F  E7(9) G'H'1  (:/'/  2006  586. 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www. hrw.org/ women.html (2) /. #EJF ECJ E/FJ  B'FHF -BHB 'D%F3'F H'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ  (-+ EF4H1 AJ 'DE,D) 'D3H/'FJ) D+B'A) -BHB 'D%F3'F HB6'J' 'D*9// 'D+B'AJ ('-*1'E ) 'D9// 'D3'/3  2007  53. (1) 'F81 'DEH'/ (1 3) EF '*A'BJ) 'D-BHB 'D3J'3J) DDE1#) 9'E 1952 H'DEF4H1) 9DI EHB9 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1F* :  HYPERLINK "http://www.un/" www.un. Org / Arabic (2) 'F81 'DEH'/ (1 3) EF '*A'BJ) 'D-BHB 'D3J'3J) DDE1#) 9'E 1952 H'DEF4H1) 9DI EHB9 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1F* : www. un.org / Arabic (1) 'F81 'DEH'/ (1 2 3) EF '*A'BJ) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) (4'F ,F3J) 'DE1#) 'DE*2H,) H'DEF4H1) 9DI EHB9 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 9DI 'D'F*1F*: www. un.org / Arabic (2) 'F81 'DE'/) (2) EF 'D%9D'F 'D9'DEJ DDB6'! 9DI 'D*EJ2 6/ 'DE1#) 9'E 1976. (3) 'DE'/) (2) EF 'D(1H*HCHD 'D.'5 (EF9 HE9'B() 'D'*,'1 ('D#4.'5 H.'5) 'DF3'! H'D#7A'D D9'E 2000 . (1) /. 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