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atherine Elliott and frances Quinn , op . cit . p734 . () Marchett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ean Rivero , ls libertes publiques thmis droit , presses universitaires de france , Paris , 1987 , p479 . () 'F81 'DE'/*JF 47 H 48 EF 'D/3*H1 'DE51J D3F) 1971 . () 'DE'/) 8 EF B'FHF *F8JE 'D5-'A) 'DE51J 1BE 96 D3F) 1996 'F81 /.-3JF B'&/  'DF5H5 'DE3*-/+) AJ B'FHF *F8JE 'D5-'A) 1BE 96 D3F) 1996 HE4CD'*G' 'D9EDJ)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1999  568  *B'(DG 'DE'/) 31 EF B'FHF 'DE7(H9'* 'D(-1JFJ 1BE 47 D3F) 2002  H'DE'/) 62 EF B'FHF 'D5-'A) H'DE7(H9'* 'DJEFJ 1BE 25 D3F) 1990 . () 'DE'/)10 EF B'FHF *F8JE 'D5-'A) 'DE51J 1BE 96 D3F) 1996 . () 41JA C'ED 'DB'6J  'D,1'&E 'D5-AJ)  ,2  41C) /'1 'D'49'9 DD7('9)  'DB'G1)  1986  5211 . () /.E-E/ 'EJF 'DEJ/'FJ  E5/1 3'(B  578 . () /.A'1HB 9(/ 'D(1  E5/1 3'(B  519 . () 9(D) /1HJ4  'D5-'A) 'D'DC*1HFJ)  'D-H'1 'DE*E/F  'D9// 2022  2007 FBD'K 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F*  HYPERLINK "http://www.afreewriter.blogspot.com" http://www.afreewriter.blogspot.com . () -'*E 'D9('/J HJ-JI 4BJ1 HE-E/ 9E1  'D'F*1F*  'D1B'() H'D9ED 'D5-AJ  'DE41B 'D'9D'EJ  'D'1/F  2005  52 . () 9(/ 'D1-EF '-E/ -3JF 'DE.*'1  -1J) 'D5-'A) H*F8JEG' 'D/3*H1J H'DB'FHFJ AJ 'DJEF  /1'3) EB'1F)  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) ('(D  2002  5175 . () /.9(/ 'DDG '3E'9JD 'D(3*'FJ  'D1CF 'DE'/J D,1'&E 'D5-'A)  /1'3) EB'1F)  E,D) 'DB6'!  'D9//'F 1-2  'D3F) 8 'JDHD  1950  53 . () 'F81 'DE'/) 171 / 3 EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DE51J 1BE 58 D3F) 1938  H'DE'/) 19 / 3 EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D91'BJ 1BE 111 D3F) 1969 H'DE'/) 73 EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D'1/FJ 1BE 16 D3F) 1960 . () /.E-3F A$'/ A1,  ,1'&E 'DAC1 H'D1'J H'DF41  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD,1'&E 'D*9(J1J)  71 . /'1 'D:/ 'D91(J 'DB'G1)  1987.H('DE9FI FA3G JF81 /.E-E/ 9(/ 'DDG E-E/ (C  AJ ,1'&E 'DF41  -1J) 'DAC1  'D'5HD 'D9'E) AJ ,1'&E 'DF41 H,1'&E 'D*-1J6  E7(9) ,1JF(1,  'DB'G1)  1951  5189. () EF 'D'E+D) 'DB6'&J) 'DE*9DB) (,1'&E 'D3( H'DB0A 'D9DFJ (71JB 'DF41 AJ EH'B9 'D'F*1F* ('9*('1G' H3JD) D'1*C'( 'D,1JE) E' 0G(* 'DJG E-CE) 'D'3*&F'A (/(J EF *7(JB 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) 16EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D'*-'/J 1BE 3 D3F) 1987 9DI H'B9) 'DB0A (H'37) 4(C) 'D'F*1F* (EHB9 D'-/I 'D5-A 'D'DC*1HFJ)  HEB1G' DF/F  HC'F* 'DE,FJ 9DJG' -'D B1'!*G' 'D'DA'8 'D*J *4CD 3('K E*H',/) AJ /(J  HB'D* 'DE-CE) 'FG 7'DE' 'F F*J,) 'DA9D *-BB* AJ /(J A'F 'D,1JE) B/ HB9* AJ 'BDJE 'D/HD) H*.69 D'-C'E B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D'E'1'*J . 'F81 E-E/ 'D9(J/J 'DC9(J  'D,1'&E 'DF'4&) 9F 'D'3*./'E :J1 'DE41H9 D4(C) 'D'F*1F*  /1'3) EB'1F)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2009  571 . () 'DE'/) 9 EF B'FHF *F8JE 'D5-'A) 'DE51J 1BE 96 D3F) 1996  H'F81 'DE'/) 32 EF B'FHF 'DE7(H9'* 'D(-1JFJ BE 47 D3F) 2002 . () E-E/ -'A8 9(/ 'D-AJ8 3DJE'F  -1J) 'D1'J H'D1B'() 9DI 'DE5FA'*  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  1992  580  H('DE9FI FA3G JF81 /.,'(1 ,'/ F5'1  E5/1 3'(B  5149 . () /.A'1HB 9(/ 'D(1  E5/1 3'(B  513 . () /.,'(1 ,'/ F5'1  E5/1 3'(B  5153 . () /.,E'D 'D/JF 'D97JAJ  E5/1 3'(B  5573 . () /.A'1HB 9(/ 'D(1  /H1 E,D3 'D/HD) 'DE51J AJ -E'J) -1J'* 'DEH8A 'D9'E  'DF31 'D0G(J DD7('9)  (-E  1998  5209 . () /.,'(1 ,'/ F5'1  E5/1 3'(B  5155 . () /.A'1HB 9(/ 'D(1  /1'3'* AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1 H'3*BD'D 'DB6'! H6E'F'* 'D*B'6J  E5/1 3'(B  517 . () 'DE'/) 5/A1-2 EF 'D/3*H1 'D'1/FJ D3F) 1952 'DE9/D . () 'DE'/) 8 EF B'FHF 'DE7(H9'* 'D'1/FJ 'DF'A0 1BE 8 D3F) 1998 . () 'DE'/) 6/, EF B'FHF 'DE7(H9'* 'D'1/FJ 'DF'A0 1BE 8 D3F) 1998 . () 'DE'/) 4/, EF B'FHF 'DE7(H9'* 'D'1/FJ 'D3'(B 1BE 10 D3F) 1993 . () J0G( '-/ 'D5-AJJF EF 5-JA) 'D1'J 'D'1/FJ) %DI 'DBHD "'FG D'(/ EF *9'ED E('41 AJE' (JF 'D5-AJ H'D'F*1F* DE' JB/EG DF' C5-AJJF EF AH'&/ C+J1) '(12G' 3GHD) 'D-5HD 9DI 'DE9DHE) EF E5'/1G' .'5) 'F (96 'DE3$HDJF B/ JCHF D/JGE *-A8'* -HD 9/ EF 'DB6'J' AJCHF EF 'D'A6D 'D-5HD 9DJG' EF 'D'F*1F* & HJ1I 'F EH'B9 'D'F*1F* A15) ,J/) DD'7D'9 9DI 'D5-A 'D9'DEJ) H.(1'* 'D5-AJJF H'D'3*A'/) EFG' & HJ3*CED 'DBHD "'F 'D5-AJ (4CD 9'E JD'2EG 'D1B'() 'D0'*J) #H 'D1BJ( 'D0'*J 'JFE' C'F HDJ3 EF 'D3GD 'D*.D5 EF G0G 'D1B'() 'D*J ,'!* F*J,) *1'CE'* 9/J/) '3'3G' *:HD 'D3D7) 'D*FAJ0J) H'D'-C'E 'D91AJ) & "  'F81 -'*E 'D9('/J HJ-JI 4BJ1 HE-E/ 9E1  E5/1 3'(B  52-3 . () 'DE'/) 4/# EF B'FHF 6E'F -B 'D-5HD 9DI 'DE9DHE'* 'D'1/FJ 1BE 47 D3F) 2007 DD%7D'9 9DI F5H5 G0' 'DB'FHF 'F81 E8A1 9(/ 'DDG  -B 'D-5HD 9DI 'DE9DHE'* E9J'1 DD-CE 'D14J/  FBD'K 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F* http://www.aljarida.com/aljarida/Article.aspx. () #F81 'DE'/) 17 /# EF B'FHF 6E'F -B 'D-5HD 9DI 'DE9DHE'* 'D'1/FJ 1BE 47 D3F) 2007 . () 'F81 'DE'/) 13 EF B'FHF 6E'F -B 'D-5HD 9DI 'DE9DHE'* 'D'1/FJ 1BE 47 D3F) 2007 . () J-JI 4BJ1  'D*41J9'* 'D'1/FJ) H-1J) 'D'9D'E  E1C2 -E'J) -1J) 'D5-AJJF  (-E  2003  58 . () ,H1, -H'*EG  /H1 'D'9D'E AJ 'D/JEB1'7J)  E1C2 'D/1'3'* 'D'3*1'*J,J)  'D,'E9) 'D'1/FJ)  9E'  1995  5177 . () J-JI 4BJ1  E5/1 3'(B  59 . () J0G( E/J1 *-1J1 ,1J/) ",H1/'F *'JE2" 'D'1/FJ) H'DF'7B) ('DD:) 'D'FCDJ2J) %DI 'DBHD ('FG "D' JH,/ AJ 'D'1/F '-/ (1*() *BD 9F H2J1 J3E- DG ('97'! E9DHE'* -HD 'D'9E'D :J1 'D9'/J) DD-CHE)  HJ5/1 CD H2J1 *9DJE'* E4//) DCD B3E AJ H2'1*G (9/E '97'! E9DHE'* DD5-AJJF & HJ3*CED 'DBHD ('F GF'C *B'DJ/ AJ 'D*C*E 'D4/J/ DJ3 AB7 AJ 'DEH6H9'* 'D3J'3J)  (D AJE' J.5 F4'7 #J) H2'1) #H E$33)" . DDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 'F81 ,H1, -H'*EG  E5/1 3'(B  5176-177 . () 'DE'/) 26 EF 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ D3F) 1970 . () 'DE'/) 13 EF B'FHF '/'1) 'D/HD) 'D91'BJ) 'DE$B* D3F) 2004 . () 'DE'/) 38 EF 'D/3*H1 'D91'BJ 'D/'&E D3F) 2005 . () 'DE'/) 11/# EF B'FHF 'DE7(H9'* 'D91'BJ 1BE 206 D3F) 1968 . () 'DE'/) 11/, EF B'FHF 'DE7(H9'* 'D91'BJ 1BE 206 D3F) 1968 . () *916 9// EF 'D5-AJJF 'D91'BJJF 'DI -H'/+ '9*/'! ('D61( H'D4*E AJ EF'7B E.*DA) EF 'D(D'/ '+F'! *:7J*GE DD#-/'+  C'F '(12G' -'/+ '9*/'! 9F'51 EF 'D417) 9DI 1&J3 A19 FB'() 'D5-AJJF AJ 'D(51) -J/1 'DEF5H1J H96H GJ&*G' 'D'/'1J) '-E/ 9(/ 'D5E/ HE5H1 '-/I 'DBFH'* 'DA6'&J)  EE' J$C/ 9DI 9/E '-*1'E 1,'D 'D'EF DDB'FHF HDD5-AJJF  '9D'EJH 'D91'B H'ED 'D-E'J) 'DB'FHFJ)  4(C) 'DF(# 'DE9DHE'*J)  2009  FBD'K 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F* http//www.annabaa.org/nbanews/70/342.htm. () DD%7D'9 9DI E3H/) E41H9 B'FHF -E'J) 'D5-AJJF 'D91'BJJF D3F) 2009  'F81 'DEHB9 'D'DC*1HFJ http//www.iraqijs.org/248.htm () 'F81 'DE'/) 9 EF E41H9 B'FHF -E'J) 'D5-AJJF 'D91'BJJF D3F) 2009 . () 'DE'/) 12 EF E41H9 B'FHF -E'J) 'D5-AJJF 'D91'BJJF D3F) 2009 . () 'DE'/) 18 EF E41H9 B'FHF -E'J) 'D5-AJJF 'D91'BJJF D3F) 2009 . () 'DE'/) 'D'HDI EF E41H9 B'FHF -E'J) 'D5-AJJF 'D91'BJJF D3F) 2009 . () 'DE'/) 8 EF E41H9 B'FHF -E'J) 'D5-AJJF 'D91'BJJF D3F) 2009 . 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() /.,E'D 'D/JF 'D97JAJ  E5/1 3'(B  5303 . (2) Cohen v.cowles media co.,v dbaminneapolis star & tribune co., 501 us . 663 1991 u.s . supreme court p1-14 . FBD' 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F*  HYPERLINK "http://www.laws.findlaw.com/us/501/633.htm/" http://www.laws.findlaw.com/us/501/633.htm/. (1) Contributions to the ten principles of the declaration of chapultepec, inter American press association , 2004 , p10 . FBD' 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F* http://www.interAmerican press.Asociation.htm . () '4'1* 'DE-CE) 'D9DJ' 'DF1HJ,J) 9'E 1992 'DI 'F -B 'D5-AJ AJ -E'J) E5/1G J*2'J/ E9 2J'/) 'D'G*E'E 'D9'E ('DE9DHE) 'DE(*:I C4AG'  HGC0' 1A6* 'DE-CE) '1:'E 5-AJ 9DI C4A 'DE5/1 'D0J '97'G E9DHE'* 9F 'D9D'B) (JF -2( 'D9ED H,G'2 'D'3*.('1'* -*I ('D1:E '9*B'/ 'D3D7'* 'F 'DE5/1 C'F EH8A' EF 9ED'! 'DE.'(1'* *51A *51A' :J1 E41H9 H31( 'DE9DHE'* . Dr. Philip Doty , Freedom of information in the united states , University of Taxes at Austin in USA , 2000, P.10 . (3) Briefing Paper on protection of Journalist's sources freedom of Expression Litigation project , 2004, P.4 . FBD' 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F*  HYPERLINK "http://www.law.oup.journals.org" www.law.oup.journals.org. () ,HF G'H1/  B1'!) AJ /1'3) *-DJDJ) EB'1F) DBH'FJF 'D5-'A) AJ 'D/JEB1'7J) 'D'H1(J) H:J1 'D'H1(J)  4(C) 'D-1J'* 'D'9D'EJ)  (-E  524 . () 'DE'/) 7 EF B'FHF *F8JE 'D5-'A) 'DE51J 1BE 96 D3F) 1996  *B'(DG 'DE'/) 12 EF B'FHF 'DE7(H9'* 'DJEFJ 1BE 25 D3F) 1995  H'DE'/) 30 EF B'FHF 'DE7(H9'* 'D(-1JFJ 1BE 47 D3F) 2002 . () F,'/ 'D(19J  'D/DJD 'DB'FHFJ DD5-AJJF '+F'! 'D*-BJB AJ B6'J' 'DF41  2005  FBD' 9F 4(C) 'D'F*1F* http://www.internewsarabic.org/site/d4.htm. . () 'DE'/) 42 EF B'FHF *F8JE 'D5-'A) 'DE51J 1BE 96 D3F) 1996 . () E-E/ G4'E '(H 'DA*H-  'DE3$HDJ) 'D,F'&J) DD5-AJ AJ 'D79F 9DI '9E'D 'DEH8A 'D9'E  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1991  5126 . () /.(3JHFJ '(1'GJE -E'/)  /H1 H3'&D 'D'*5'D AJ 5F9 'DB1'1'* AJ 'DH7F 'D91(J  71  E1C2 /1'3'* 'DH-/) 'D91(J)  (J1H*  1993  5137 . 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