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'D/JF ('4'*  'DE9'ED) ('DE+D AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D,F'&J  /HF 1BE 7(9)  EF4H1'* 'DGJ&) 'D9'E) D4$HF 'DE7'(9 'D#EJ1J)  'DB'G1)  1974 . /. E-E/ 7D9* 'D:FJEJ  'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  1974 . /. E-E/ E-EH/ .DA  -B 'D/A'9 'D419J AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D,F'&J  71  /'1 'DFG6) 'DE51J)  1973 . /.EE/H- 4HBJ E57AI C'ED  'D#EF 'DBHEJ H'D#EF 'D,E'9J 'D/HDJ  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1985 . ,- 'D13'&D 'D,'E9J) : /. E-E/ 9(/ 'DEF9E 9(/ 'D.'DB  'D,1'&E 'D/HDJ)  /1'3) *#5JDJ) DD,1'&E 6/ 'D%F3'FJ) H'D3D'E H,1'&E 'D-1(  ,'E9) 'D2B'2JB  71  1989 . EE/H- 9DJ E-E/ EFJ9  E41H9J) B1'1'* E,D3 'DEF AJ 8D 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'DE9'51  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  1996 . HJ5' 5'D-  'D9/H'F 'DE3D- AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ  13'D) /C*H1'G  CDJ) 'D-BHB ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  1975 . /. 9E1 16' (JHEJ  F29 #3D-) 'D/E'1 'D4'ED 'D91'BJ)  '71H-) /C*H1'G EB/E) 'DI CDJ) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 9JF 4E3  2000 . /- 'D/H1J'* : /. 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'(1'GJE 'D9F'FJ H /.9DJ '(1'GJE  'DEF8E'* 'D/HDJ)  'DF81J) 'D9'E)  'D#EE 'DE*-/)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J@) 1999- 2000  593  95 . - / -'2E 9*DE  B'FHF 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 'D/HDJ)  E1,9 3'(B  5 93-95 . - /.'(1'GJE 'D9'FJ  'DF8'E 'D/HDJ 'D#EFJ  E1,9 3'(B 5 96 . - /.'(1'GJE 'D9'FJ  / 9DJ '(1'GJE  'DEF8E'* 'D/HDJ)  E1,9 3'(B 5 104 105 . (2) -J+ *F5 'DE'/) 'D+'FJ) EF G0G 'D'*A'BJ) 9DI 'FG ( *9*(1 'D/HD 'DE*9'B/) CD '9*/'! E3D- JB9 9DI 'JG /HD) 'H 'C+1 EFG' 'H 9DI BH'*G' '9*/'! 9DJG' ,EJ9' HD0DC A'FG' 9ED' (-B 'D/A'9 'D419J  'DA1/J H'D,E'9J  9F CJ'FG' *D*2E (#F *(@@@'/1 == == 'DI E9'HF) 'D/HD) 'H 'D/HD 'DE9*/I 9DJG' ('F *FA0 9DI 'DAH1 EFA1/) HE,*E9) ,EJ9 'D*/'(J1 H*3*./E ,EJ9 E' D/JG' EF H3'&D (E' AJ 0DC '3*./'E 'DBH) 'DE3D-) D1/ 'D'9*/'! H'9'/) 'D'EF H'D3D'E 'DI F5'(GE' ) . (3) -J+ F5* 'DE'/) 'D.'E3) EF G0G 'D'*A'BJ) 9DI ( EH'AB) 'D#71'A 9DI ' F 'J '9*/'! E3D- 6/ H'-/ #H 'C+1 EFGE H'D0J JB9 AJ 'H1(' 'H 'E1JC' 'D4E'DJ) 3HA J9*(1 '9*/'! EH,G' 6/ 'D#71'A H'FGE JH'ABHF  F*J,) 0DC _ 9DI *B/JE 'DE3'9/) DDE9*/I 9DJG #9E'D'K D-B 'D/A'9 'D419J 'DA1/J 'H 'D,E'9J 'DEF5H5 9DJG AJ 'DE'/) 51 EF EJ+'B 'D'EE 'DE*-/) ) . (1) Kelsen (H) international Law studies , collecurity under international Law washington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iggins Rosalyn ,the development of international Law through the poliical organs of the U.N , London , 1963 , p31. (1) /. '41A *HAJB 4E3 'D/JF  E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D,F'&J 'D/HDJ  E5/1 3'(@B  569-70 . (1) Jessup Philip : Amodren Law of nations . 1968 PP165 -166 HG0' E'*019* (G '31'&JD AJ 9/H'FG' 9DI EA'9D *EH2 'DFHHJ 'D3DEJ 'D91'BJ 9'E 1981 . (2) /. E-E/ 9(/ 'DEF9E 9(/ 'D.'DB  'D,1'&E 'D/HDJ)  E5/1 3'(B  5 186 . (1) /.'41A *HAJB 4E3 'D/JF  E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D,F'&J 'D/HDJ  E5/1 3'(B  571 . (2) /. -3FJF '(1'GJE 5'D- 9(J/  'D,1JE) 'D/HDJ)  /HF 1BE 7(9)  /'1 'DFG6)  'DB'G1) 1999  5 63 . (1) HG0' E' '9*E/* 9DJG U.S.A AJ 9/H'FG' 'D3'A1 9DI 'D91'B AJ "0'1 2003 H'D0J 'F*GI (*/EJ1 G0' 'D(D/ H'-*D'DG . (2) Kelson (Hans ) ,principles of international Law ,new York , 1952 ,p70. (3) /. CE'D -E'/ _ 'DF2'9 'DE3D- H'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE$33) 'D,'E9J) DD/1'3'* H'DF41 H'D*H2J9  (J1H* D(F'F  'D7(9) 'D#HDI 1997 5 31 . (4) /. E-E/ E-J 'D/JF 9H6  /1'3'* 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D,F'&J  E,D) 'DB'FHF H'D#B*5'/  ,'E9) 'DB'G1)  'D'9/'/ ( 1  2 3 4 ) 3F) 1965 5 507-511 . (1) HG0' E' B'E* (G U.S.A H/HD '.1I 0DC .D'D 'DA*1) 'DH'B9) E' (JF 1991 H-*I 'D9/H'F 9DI 'D91'B 9'E 2003 . (2) /.-3FJF '(1'GJE 5'D- 9(/  'D,1JE) 'D/HDJ)  E5/1 3'(B  5 64 . (1) /. E-E/ E-EH/ .DA  -B 'D/A'9 'D419J AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D,F'&J  71  /'1 'DFG6) 'DE51J)  1973  5 391 . (1) /. 9'E1 9(/ 'DA*'- 'D,HE1/  E,EH9) E-'61'* #DBJ* 9DI 7D() 'DE',3*J1 / CDJ) 'DB'FHF _ ,'E9) 'DEH5D DD3F) 'D/1'3J) 2000- 2001 *-* 9FH'F 'D*/.D H'D/A'9 H'D419J  E,EH9) E-'61'* :J1 EF4H1) . (2) /.'41A *HAJB 4E3 'D/JF  E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D,F'&J 'D/HDJ  E5/1 3'(B  561 . () /. -3FJF '(1'GJE 5'D- 9(/  'D,1JE) 'D/HDJ)  E5/1 3'(B  561 . () /. '41A *HAJB 4E3 'D/JF  E5/1 3'(B  569 . () /. E-E/ 9DJ E-J 'D/JF 9H6  E5/1 3'(B  5319 . (1) Bowett D.W " self  defence in international Law , university of manches ters at the un press , 1985 .P234 . (1) 9DI G0' A'F 7D( 'D1&J3 'D#E1JCJ (H4 EF 'D1&J3 'D91'BJ 'D1'-D HF,DJ) 'D1'-DJF 'D.1H, EF 'D91'B .D'D 48 3'9) D*A'/J G,HE E3D- JB9 9DI 'D91'B D'J9/ 'DB(HD (G H3JD) EECF) HE41H9) *3D( -B 'D91'B AJ 'D/A'9 'D419J H0DC AJ 17/3/2003 . (1) /. 1J'6 'D5E/  *7H1 'D#-/'+ 'D/HDJ) AJ 'DB1F 'D941JF  'DE$33) 'D,'E9J) DD/1'3'* H'DF41 H'D*H2J9  (J1H* 1999  'D7(9) 'D'HDI 529 -30 . (1) /. .DJD '(1'GJE -3HFG  'D#1G'( 'D#E1JCJ  'D/'1 'D#E1JCJ) DDF41 H'D*H2J9 H'D'9D'F  DJ(J'  71  1985  5202 (2) EF 'D+'(* #F /HD) 'DCHJ* C'F* 'D,31 'D#16J 'D0J 9(1* EF .D'DG 'DBH'* 'D#'FCDH'E1JCJ) 'D:'2J) D*/EJ1 'D91'B H'-*D'DG  CE' ,9D* CD EF 'DEEDC) 'D91(J) 'D39H/J) H'DEEDC) 'D#1/FJ) ',H'&G' EA*H-) 'E'E B'5A'* /HD 'D9/H'F C0DC 3E-* ,EGH1J) E51 'D91(J) (9(H1 -'ED'* 'D7'&1'* H'D3AF 9(1 BF') 'D3HJ3  H9DI G0' A%F G0' 'D/HD) E4*1C) '4*1'C'K E('41'K AJ 'D9/H'F 9DI 'D91'B HE3$HD) 9F 'DF*'&, 'DC'1J+J) 'D*J -D* ('D91'B ,1'! G0' 'D9/H'F . (1) Brownlie , the use of force in self  defence , B-Y-B-I.L VOL , 37 , 1961 P. 183 . (2) HGF' FD'-8 'D'.*D'A (JF 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ H'DB'FHF 'D/'.DJ HGH 'D%.*D'A 'D0J JEDJG 7(J9) 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ  AGH E,*E9 (1:E CD E' #5'(G EF *F8JE B'FHFJ *FB5) 'D3D7' 'D9DJ' 'DEGJEF) 9DI 4$HF #96'&G 9DI 9C3 'DE,*E9 'D/'.DJ 0J 'D*F8JE 'DE-CE 'D/BJB H'D0J J*,DI #+1G AJ E+D G0G 'D-'D) -J+ *3'19 'D3D7) 'D9'E) 'DE-DJ) 'DI 'D*/.D HH69 'D#EH1 AJ F5'(G' *-BJB'K DD#EF 'D9'E 'D/'.DJ  'F81 G0' AJ : /. -3FJF '(1'GJE 5'D- 9(/  'D,1JE) 'D/HDJ)  E5/1 3'(B  572 G'E4 (1) . (1) /. 39J/ 3'DE 'D,HJDJ  '3*./'E 'DBH) 'DE3D-) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ AJ 2EF 'D3DE  E5/1 3'(B  5 109-110 . (1) Rostow (Eugene ): the Gulf Crisis in international and Foregn Relations Low , continued  until What ? En for Cement action or collective Self  defense ? A.J.I.L.VOL 85.July .1991.pp.510-511 (2) /.9E1 E-E/ 'DE-EH/J  B6'J' E9'51) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'D/'1 'D,E'GJ1J) DDF41 H'D*H2J9 H'D'9D'F  DJ(J'  1989  71 5157 . (3) /.9E1 E-E/ 'DE-EH/J  B6'J' E9'51) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 157 (1) /. 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