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'D6(7 'DB6'&J D'3*9E'D 3D7'*GE)%DE'E' H'6-'K  H'3*8G1* E' #*H.'G H'*H3EG EF A'&/) AJ 2J'/) 'D6E'F'* 'D*J *-81 'F*G'C 'D-BHB H'D-1J'* 'DA1/J) H*A16 '-*1'E 'DC1'E) 'D%F3'FJ) H'DE-'A8) 9DJG'. E1',9 'D(-+ : #HD'K : 'DE1',9 'D91(J) : /. '-E/ #(H 'DHA' #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ) 73 EC*() EC'HJ (J1H* 1979. /. '-E/ A*-J 31H1 F81J) 'D(7D'F AJ B'FHF 'D',1'!'* 'D,F'&J) EC*() 'DFG6) 'DE51J) 'DB'G1) 1959. *J3J1 E-E/ 'D'(1'GJE 'D9(/ 'DDG ,1JE) 'F*G'C -1E) 'DE3CF(/1'3) EB'1F))13'D) E',3*J1 CDJ) 'DB'FHF ,'E9) (:/'/ 1999. -'E/ 'D41JA F81J) 'D/AH9 #E'E 'DB6'! 'D,F'&J /'1 'DE7(H9'* 'D,'E9J) 'D%3CF/1J) 1996. /. -3F 5'/B 'DE15A'HJ #5HD 'D%,1'!'* 'D,F'&J) EF4#) 'DE9'1A 'D%3CF/1J) 1972. /. -3F 5'/B 'DE15A'HJ 'DE15A'HJ AJ '5HD 'D',1'!'* 'D,F'&J) EF4') 'DE9'1A 'D'3CF/1J) 1982. /. 1$HA 9(J/ AJ 'D*3JJ1 H'D*.JJ1 (JF 'DAD3A) 'D9'E) HAD3A) 'DB'FHF (D' EC'F 7(9 1971. /. 1E3J3 (GF'E  'D%,1'!'* 'D,F'&J) *#5JD'K H*-DJD'K EH3H9) 'DB6'! H'DABG DD/HD 'D91(J) ,(303) 'D/'1 'D91(J) DDEH3H9'* 'DB'G1) 1987. 39J/ -3( 'DDG 9(/ 'DDG 41- B'FHF #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) E7(9) ,'E9) 'DEH5D 1998. /. 3D7'F 'D4'HJ '5HD 'D*-BJB 'D',1'EJ 41C) 'J'/ DD7('9) 'DAFJ) (:/'/ 1980. 5'D- 9(/ 'D2G1) 'D-3HF  #-C'E 'D*A*J4 H"+'1G AJ 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ(/1'3) EB'1F)) 71 E7(9) 'D#/J( 'D(:/'/J) (:/'/ 1979. 5'D- 9(/ 'D2G1) 'D-3HF  'DE3$HDJ) 'D%/'1J) DBHI 'D#EF 'D/'.DJ AJ 'D91'B(/1'3) EB'1F)) 71 E7(9) 'D#/J( 'D(:/'/J) 1978. 9(/ 'D#EJ1 'D9CJDJ #5HD 'D%,1'!'* 'D,F'&J) AJ B'FHF #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) ,1 E7(9) ,'E9) (:/'/ 1977. 9(/ 'D3*'1 'DC(J3J 6E'F'* 'DE*GE B(D H'+F'! 'DE-'CE)(/1'3) EB'1F)) 13'D) /C*H1'G CDJ) 'D-BHB ,'E9) 'DB'G1) 1981. /. 9(/ 'D98JE E13J H2J1 'D,H'F( 'D',1'&J) D,1'&E 'DEH8AJF H'DB'&EJF ('9('! 'D3D7) 'D9'E) /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J) (D' EC'F 7(9 1987. /. 9(/ 'DC'8E A'13 H3'E 5(N'1 H/."/E HGJ( 'DF/'HJ 'DE1'A9'* #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) E7(9) H2'1) 'D*9DJE 'D9'DJ (:/'/ 1999. /. 9(/ 'DHG'( 'D-HE/ 'DH3J7 AJ 'D%,1'!'* 'D,2'&J) 'DCHJ*J 74 (D' EC'F 7(9 1989. /. E-E/ 9DJ 'D3'DE "D 9JN'/ 'D-D(J '.*5'5 1,'D 'D6(7 'DB6'&J AJ 'D*-1J H'D'3*/D'D H'D*-BJB E7(9) 0'* 'D3D'3D 'DCHJ* 1982. /. E-E/ 9DJ 'D3'DE 9JN'/ 'D-D(J 6E'F'* 'D-1J) 'D4.5J) '+F'! 'D*-1J H'D'3*/D'D AJ 'DB'FHF 'DEB'1F E7(9) 0'* 'D3D'3D 'DCHJ* 1981. /. E-E/ 9H/) 'D,(H1 '.*5'5 1,'D 'D6(7 'DB6'&J AJ 'D*-1J (/1'3) EB'1F))  71  'D/'1 'D91(J) DDEH3H9'*  (J1H*  1986. /. E-EH/ E-EH/ E57AI 'D,1'&E 'D'B*5'/J) AJ 'DB'FHF 'DEB'1F ,1 (D' EC'F 7(9 1963. /. E-EH/ E-EH/ E57AI *7H1 'D%,1'!'* 'D,F'&J) AJ E51 H'D/HD 'D91(J) 'DB'G1) 1969. /. E-EH/ E-EH/ E57AI E3$HDJ) 'D/HD) 9F 9ED 'D3D7) 'DB6'&J) (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'DE-'EHF 'D3H1J) (D' E9DHE'* #.1I. E9*5E E4949 (7D'F 'D',1'!'* 'D,2'&J)(/1'3) AJ 'D*41J9 'D'1/FJ) (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 9DHE 'D41J9) 'D'1/FJ) 'DE,D/ 'D3'/3 'D9// 'D+'FJ 1999. /. F(JD %3E'9JD 9E1 9/E A9'DJ) 'D,2'!'* 'D%,1'&J) (-+ EF4H1 AJ EH3H9) 'DB6'! H'DABG DD/HD 'D91(J) ,(293) 'D/'1 'D91(J) DDEH3H9'* 'DB'G1) 1987. +'FJ'K : 'DE1',9 'D',F(J) : Gaston Stefani et Georges Levasseure,Procedure Penal 2nd edition, Paris1962. () 'F81:9(/ 'DC'8E A'13 H3'E 5(N'1 H/."/E HGJ( 'DF/'HJ 'DE1'A9'* #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) E7(9) H2'1) 'D*9DJE 'D9'DJ (:/'/ 1999 5164. () 'F81: Gaston Stefani et Georges Levasseure,Procedure Penal 2nd edition, Paris1962, p83. () 9(/ 'DC'8E A'13 H".1HF 'DE1,9 'D3'(B 5134. () H(FA3 'D'*,'G 'F81 F5H5 'DEH'/(5 16 20 22)EF B'FHF 'D%,1'!'* 'D,F'&J) 'DA1F3J D3F) 1958. () /.E-EH/ E-EH/ E57AI *7H1 'D%,1'!'* 'D,F'&J) AJ E51 H'D/HD 'D91(J) 'DB'G1) 1969 578/.-3F 5'/B 'DE15A'HJ #5HD 'D%,1'!'* 'D,F'&J) EF4#) 'DE9'1A 'D%3CF/1J) 1972 5355. () 'F81 C0DC F5 'DE'/) 'D#HDI EF B'FHF #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'D,2'&J) 'DF'A0. () 'F81: Gaston Stefani et Georges Levasseure,op.cit,p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aston Stefani et Georges Levasseure,op,cit,p640. () 'F81 F5H5 'DEH'/(202-204/E/FJ 91'BJ) H'F81 'J6'K B1'1 E-CE) ,F'J'* FJFHI 'DE1BE 205/,/2000 H'D0J 3(B* 'D'4'1) 'DJG -J+ '97* G0G 'DE-CE) 'D-B DDE4*CJF (E1',9) 'DE-'CE 'DE/FJ) DDE7'D() ('D*9HJ6 9F 'D'61'1 'DE'/J) H'DE9FHJ) 'D*J D-B* (GE ,1'! 'D*90J( 'D0J *916H' DG EF B(D E-BB 'D417). () 'F81:/.9(/ 'D98JE E13J H2J1 'D,H'F( 'D',1'&J) D,1'&E 'DEH8AJF H'DB'&EJF ('9('! 'D3D7) 'D9'E) /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J) (D' EC'F 7(9 1987 5453. () 'F81:/.9(/ 'D98JE E13J H2J1 FA3 'DE1,9 '9D'G 5450. () 'F81:/.E-EH/ E-EH/ E57AI E3$HDJ) 'D/HD) 9F 9ED 'D3D7) 'DB6'&J) (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'DE-'EHF 'D3H1J) (D' E9DHE'* #.1I 524. () 'F81: /.E-E/ 9DJ 'D3'DE 9JN'/ 'D-D(J 6E'F'* 'D-1J) 'D4.5J) #+F'! 'D*-1J H'D'3*/D'D AJ 'DB'FHF 'DEB'1F 'DE1,9 'D3'(B 5284. () 9DE'K 'F 'DE3$HDJ) GF' 3*$33 9DI AC1) E3$HDJ) 'DE*(H9 9F #9E'D *'(9G H'D*J F8EG' 'DE419 'D91'BJ AJ 'DE'/)(219/E/FJ). () 'D.7# 'DE1ABJ GH 'D.7# 'D0J JF3( %DI 'DE1AB HDH C'F 'D0J B'E (G E'/J'K GH 'DEH8A CE' 'F 'DE5D-) AJ G0' 'D.7# *9H/ %DI 'D/'&1) 'D*J J9ED AJG' G0' 'DEH8A.'F81:5'D- 9(/ 'D2G1) 'D-3HF  'DE3$HDJ) 'D%/'1J) DBHI 'D#EF 'D/'.DJ AJ 'D91'B(/1'3) EB'1F)) 71 E7(9) 'D#/J( 'D(:/'/J) 1978 5127. () (G0' 'DE9FI 'F81:/.1$HA 9(J/ AJ 'D*3JJ1 H'D*.JJ1 (JF 'DAD3A) 'D9'E) HAD3A) 'DB'FHF (D' EC'F 7(9 1971 5466. () 'D,2'! 'D%,1'&J J*E+D AJ(*,'GD 'D%,1'! H9/E 'D'C*1'+ (G H*AHJ* 'D:16 'DEB5H/ EFG 9DI EF B'E (G H0DC D'-/ #3('( #1(9):%E' D'F 'D%,1'! DE JF*G, AJG 'D#3DH( 'D0J -//G 'DB'FHF H'E' D'FG '*.0 AJ :J1 'DHB* 'D0J J*7D( 'DB'FHF '*.'0G AJG H'E' D'FG A'B/L DDEB/E'* 'D*J -//G' 'DB'FHF C417 DF4#) 'D-B AJ '*.'0G H'E' D'FG E3(HB (EB/E'* EF 4#FG' B'FHF'K 'F *EF9 '*.'0G)FBD' 9F:/.1E3J3 (GF'E  'D%,1'!'* 'D,F'&J) *#5JD'K H*-DJD'K EH3H9) 'DB6'! H'DABG DD/HD 'D91(J) ,(303) 'D/'1 'D91(J) DDEH3H9'* 'DB'G1) 1987 571. () *,/1 'D%4'1) %DI 'F 'D(7D'F DJ3 ('D,2'! 'D%,1'&J 'DH-J/ (D GF'C #J6' 'D'F9/'E H'D3BH7 H9/E 'DB(HD HDCFF' 9FJF' (G GF' D*9DBG (EH6H9 'D(-+ 'C+1 EF :J1G.DDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD -HD G0G 'D,2'!'* 'F81:/.F(JD %3E'9JD 9E1 9/E A9'DJ) 'D,2'!'* 'D%,1'&J) (-+ EF4H1 AJ EH3H9) 'DB6'! H'DABG DD/HD 'D91(J) ,(293) 'D/'1 'D91(J) DDEH3H9'* 'DB'G1) 1987 539HE'(9/G'. () FBD'K 9F:-'E/ 'D41JA F81J) 'D/AH9 #E'E 'DB6'! 'D,F'&J /'1 'DE7(H9'* 'D,'E9J) 'D%3CF/1J) 1996 5261. () DDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD -HD 0DC 'F81:/.'-E/ #(H 'DHA' #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ) 73 EC*() EC'HJ (J1H* 1979 5447 HE' (9/G' /.'-E/ A*-J 31H1 'DE1,9 'D3'(B 5364 HE' (9/G'. () AJ *A5JD 0DC 'F81:-'E/ 'D41JA 'DE1,9 'D3'(B 563 HE' (9/G'. () 'F81:/.5'D- 9(/ 'D2G1) 'D-3HF  #-C'E 'D*A*J4 H"+'1G AJ 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ(/1'3) EB'1F)) 71 E7(9) 'D#/J( 'D(:/'/J) (:/'/ 1979 5351.     'D1'A/JF DD-BHB E,D/ (1/'D3F) 'D+'EF)) 9// (19) C'FHF #HD (2003) =========== ====================================== *,'H2 #96'! 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