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() 'F81 : ,D'D 9(/ 'DHG'( E-E/  B'EH3 E57D-'* 'DCE(JH*1 H'DE'C1H CE(JH*1  'FCDJ2J  91(J  71  'DB'G1)  1987  5223 . () 'F81 : '-E/ E-E/ 'D4'EJ H3J/ -3( 'DDG  'DE9,E 'DEH3H9J DE57D-'* 'DEC*('* H'DE9DHE'*  'FCDJ2J  91(J  'DF'41 : /'1 'DE1J.  'D1J'6  1988  5590 . () 'F81 : 'DEH3H9) 'D91(J) DDCE(JH*1 H'D'F*1FJ*  54  EF4H1 9DI EHB9 'D'F*1F*  'D'*J : www.c4arab.com () 'F81 : F5 'DB'FHF EF4H1 AJ ,1J/) 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ) ('D9// (3983) AJ -2J1'F 2004  5148 . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (1) EF B'FHF (1'!'* 'D'.*1'9 'D91'BJ  H'D*91JA FA3G H1/ AJ F5 'DE'/) (2) EF B'FHF -E'J) 'D*5'EJE DD/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) 'D'1/FJ 1BE (10) D3F) 2000  HFA3 'D*91JA H1/ AJ F5 'DE'/) (45) EF B'FHF -E'J) -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J 1BE (82) D3F) 2002 . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (2) EF B'FHF -E'J) *5'EJE 'D/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) 'D*HF3J 1BE (20) D3F) 2001. () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (1) EF B'FHF -E'J) *5'EJE 'D/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) 'D9E'FJ 1BE (41) D3F) 2000 . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (2) EF '*A'BJ) H'4F7F D-E'J) 'D/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) D3F) 1989 . () 'F81 : /. GD'DJ 9(/ 'D'DG '-E/  *A*J4 F8E 'D-'3( 'D'DJ H6E'F'* 'DE*G@E 'DE9DHE'*J  /1'3) EB'1F)  'DB'G1)  2000E  G'E4 1BE 2  3  4  5200 . () 'F81 : /. E-E/ AGEJ 7D() H'.1HF  'DEH3H9) 'D4'ED) DE57D-'* 'D-'3() 'D'DC*1HFJ)  EH3H9) /D*'  CE(JH*1  'DB'G1)  1991  5131 . () 'F81 : /. '(1'GJE '-E/ '(1'GJE  'D,'* H'D-E'J) 'D/HDJ) D(1'E, 'DCE(JH*1 H-B 'DE$DA AJ 'D/HD 'D91(J)  (-+ EB/E 'DI E$*E1 'D-'3() H'DB'FHF  1994  542. () 'F81 : /. FH'A CF9'F  -B 'DE$DA  'DFE'0, 'DE9'51) D-B 'DE$DA HH3'&D -E'J*G  73  'DF'41 /'1 'D+B'A) DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  2004  5247 . () FBD'K 9F : A'1HB 9DJ 'D-FA'HJ  E5/1 3'(B  5267-269 . () 'F81 : A'1HB 9DJ 'D-FA'HJ  E5/1 3'(B  5269 . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (3) EF B'FHF -E'J) -B 'DE$DA 'D'1/FJ 1BE (22) D3F) 1992  H'DE'/) (140/3) EF B'FHF -E'J) -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J 1BE (82) D3F) 2002 . () 'F81 : /. E,/J '(H 'D97'  'DE1,9 'D'3'3J DB'9/) 'D(J'F'*  'D(1E,) ('3*./'E B'9/) 'D(J'F'*  ,2  'D-3JFJ DDCE(JH*1 HF8E 'DE9DHE'*  'DB'G1)  (/HF 3F) 7(9  5211 . () 'F81 : 'DEGF/3 9DJ E-EH/ (GDHD  'D(1E,)  ('3*./'E B'9/) 'D(J'F'*  ,3  /'1 'DC*( 'D9DEJ) DDF41 H'D*H2J9  'DB'G1)  (D' 3F) F41  5192 HE' (9/G' . () 'F81 : E,/J '(H 'D97'  E5/1 3'(B  ,3  53 . () 'F81 : E,/J '(H 'D97'  E5/1 3'(B  ,3  529-265 . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (17) EF B'FHF -E'J) -B 'DE$DA 'D'1/FJ  HF5 'DE'/) (10) EF B'FHF -E'J) 'D*5'EJE 'D/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) 'D'1/FJ  HF5H5 'DEH'/ (171) H 172) EF B'FHF -E'J) 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (13-14) EF B'FHF (1'!'* 'D'.*1'9 'D91'BJ  HF5 'DE'/) (38) EF B'FHF -E'J) -B 'DE$DA 'D91'BJ  H'DE'/) (13  14) EF B'FHF -E'J) -B 'DE$DA 'D'1/FJ HF5H5 'DEH'/ (9  14) EF B'FHF -E'J) 'D/H'&1 'DE*C'ED@) 'D'1/FJ. () 'F81 : F5H5 'DEH'/ (15-16) EF B'FHF (1'!'* 'D'.*1'9 H'DFE'0, 'D5F'9J) 'D91'BJ  H'DEH'/ (17-18) EF B'FHF -E'J) *5'EJE 'D/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) 'D'1/FJ  HF5 'DE'/) (11) EF B'FHF -E'J) -B 'DE$DA 'D'1/FJ HF5 'DE'/*JF (51/2 H 170) EF B'FHF -E'J) -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (1) EF B'FHF (1'!'* 'D'.*1'9 H'DFE'0, 'D5F'9J) 'D91'BJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/*JF (2 H 6) EF B'FHF -E'J) *5'EJE 'D/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (49) EF B'FHF -E'J) -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (2) EF F8'E 'J/'9 'DE5FA'* D/I 'DEC*() 'DH7FJ) 'D'1/FJ 1BE (4) D3F) 1994. () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (16/(/3) EF B'FHF (1'!'* 'D'.*1'9 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (22) EF B'FHF -E'J) 'D*5'EJE DD/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/) (33) EF B'FHF -E'J) 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (46) EF B'FHF -E'J) -B 'DE$DA 'D'1/FJ  HF5 'DE'/) (179/5) EF B'FHF -E'J) -B 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (22) EF B'FHF -E'J) 'D*5'EJE DD/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (11/1) EF B'FHF (1'!'* 'D'.*1'9 H'DFE'0, 'D5F'9J) 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (12/1) '1/FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (11/( ) 91'BJ H'DE'/) (12/() '1/FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (30) EF B'FHF -E'J) -B 'DE$DA 'D'1/FJ  H'DE'/) (160) EDCJ) AC1J) E51J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (31) EF B'FHF -E'J) -B 'DE$DA 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/*JF (162-163) EF B'FHF -E'J) -B 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (1/7) EF B'FHF 'D*9/JD 'D'HD DB'FHF (1'!'* 'D'.*1'9 H'DFE'0, 'D5F'9J) 1BE (65) D3F) 1970 'DE9/D ('DB'FHF 'D5'/1 ('E1 3D7) 'D'&*D'A 'DE$B*) 1BE (81) H'DEF4H1) AJ E,D) 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ) 'D9// (3983) -2J1'F 2004 HEE' *,/1 'D'4'1) 'DJG 'FG DE J1/ #J *91JA DD13HE H'DFE'0, 'D5F'9J) AJ 'D*9/JD 'DE0CH1. () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (119) EF B'FHF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J 1BE (82) D3F) 2002 . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (2) EF B'FHF 'D13HE H'DFE'0, 'D5F'9J 'D'1/FJ 1BE (14) D3F) 2000 . () /. E-E/ -3F 9('3  'DEDCJ) 'D5F'9J) H'DE-D 'D*,'1J  E7'(9 'D'G1'E ('DB'G1) 1969  5226 H/. EFJ1 E-EH/ 'DH*1J  'DH,J2 AJ 'DE57D-'* 'DB'FHFJ) H'D*,'1J)  ,2  72  E7(9) 'D,'-8  (:/'/  1991  5195 . () /. 5D'- 2JF 'D/JF '3E1  'DEDCJ) 'D5F'9J) H'D*,'1J)  71  EC*() /'1 'D+B'A) DDF41 H'D*H2J9  'D'1/F  2000  5208  /. E57AI CE'D 7G  'DB'FHF 'D*,'1J 'DD(F'FJ  /'1 'D,'E9) DD7('9) H'DF41  (J1H*  1982  5714 . () /. 95E* 9(/ 'DE,J/ (C1 H/. 5(1J -E/ .'71  'D-E'J) 'DB'FHFJ) DDEDCJ) 'DAC1J)  71  (J* 'D-CE)  (:/'/  2001  5225-228 . () /. 3EJ-) 'DBDJH(J  'DEH,2 AJ 'DB'FHF 'D*,'1J  71  EC*() 'DB'G1) 'D-/J+)  'DB'G1)  1972  55. () /. 5D'- 'D/JF 9(/ 'DD7JA 'DF'GJ  'DH,J2 AJ 'D*41J9'* 'D5F'9J) H'D*,'1J)  71  /'1 'DA1B'F DD*H2J9 H'DF41  9E'F  'D'1/F  1982  559 . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (41) 'DE9/D) (EH,( B'FHF (1'!'* 'D'.*1'9 H'DFE'0, 'D5F'9J) H'DE9DHE'* :J1 'DEA5- 9FG' H'D/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) H'D'5F'A 'DF('*J) 'D91'BJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (11) EF 'DB'FHF FA3G . () '2'/ 4CH1 5'D-  'D*F8JE 'DB'FHFJ D*5'EJE 'D/H'&1 'DE*C'ED)  71  CH1/3*'F  2006  525 . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (3) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (4) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DA5D (3) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J H'DE'/) (46) EF B'FHF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (3) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (4) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/) (5) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ H'DA5D (11) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J H'DE'/) (49) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE51J . () 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (1) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'D*J *F5 9DI 'F ('D*5EJE *1*J( +D'+J 'D'(9'/ DD9F'51 'DECHF) DD/'&1) 'DE*C'ED) 'DE9/) .5J5'K D'F*', /'&1) E*C'ED) D:16 'D*5FJ9) . JB'(DG' F5 'DE'/) (2) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/) (45) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE51J H'DE'/) (1) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ H'DA5D (2) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () #F81 F5 'DE'/) (1/A7) EF B'FHF 'D*9/JD 'D#HD DB'FHF (1'!) 'D#.*1'9 H'DFE'0, 'D5F'9J) 1BE 65 D3F) 1970 H'DE9/D ('DB'FHF 'D5'/1 (#E1 3D7) 'D#&*D'A HE4'1 'DJG D/I 5/'E 39/'DDG 'D(J'*J  'DF8'E 'DB'FHFJ DD13HE H'DFE'0, 'D5F'9J)  /1'3) B'FHFJ) EB'1F)  71  /'1 HEC*() 'D-'E/ DDF41 H'D*H2J9  2000  560 . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (1) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DA5D (5) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J HE'/) (2) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ H'DE'/) (2) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 'DA5D (8) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (160) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 1BE (40) D3F) 1951 . (2) 'F81 F5 'DE'/) (5/-) EF 'DB'FHF 'D#1/FJ . (1) 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (2) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ . (2) 'F81 : 'DA5D (8) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . (3) 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (49) EF B'FHF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . (4) 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (1) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (3) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (6) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (7) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DA5D (10) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (5) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (6) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : 'DE'/) (7) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (8) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ. () 'F81 : 'DA5D (9) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J '0 F5* 9DI 'FG "..HJ1A6 'D'J/'9 AJ 5H1) 9/E 'D*3HJ) 'H 9/E *B/JE ED'-8'* *ECF EF 1A9 'D'9*1'6'* HJ,( 'F JCHF B1'1 'D1A6 E9DD'K" H'DE'/) (3) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ '0 F5* 9DI 'FG (DCD 0J E5D-) -B 'D*8DE EF B1'1 1A6 'D*3,JD .D'D +D'+JF JHE' EF '.7'1G 'E'E D,F) *4CD (B1'1 EF 'DH2J1  H*-// 'DD'&-) 'D*FAJ0J) F8'E 9ED 'DD,F)& ) . () 'F81 : 'DA5D (9) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (6/() EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (7/() EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/) (3) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (2/,) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (3/,) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : 'DA5D (16) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (12) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (13) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/) (10) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ . () JCHF 'D79F 'E'E E-CE) 'D9/D 'D9DJ' ('DF3() DDB'FHF 'D'1/FJ 'F81 'DE'/) (3/() EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (8/() EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ EF (9/() EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ  H'DE'/) (50) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE51J  H'DE'/) (11) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ  H'DE'/) (34) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : 'DA5D (34) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : 'DE'/) (11) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (53) EF B'FHF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 : 'DA5D (34) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : 'DA5D (35) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81: F5 'DE'/) (16/,) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/)(22/G@) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ. () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (11) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (12) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/) (7) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ H'DA5D (8) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J H'DE'/) (48) EF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (11/() EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (12/() EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/) (48) EF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (8/ # ) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (9/ # ) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DA5D (17) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J H'DE'/) (50) EF B'FHF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81: F5 'DE'/) (8/() EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (9/() EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ. () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (9) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (10) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/) (8) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ H'DA5D (17) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J H'DE'/) (51) EF B'FHF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (204) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 1BE (40) D3F) 1951. () 'DE-CE) 'D*,'1J) HAB' DDB'FHF 'D9E'FJ #E' ('BJ 'DBH'FJF 'DEB'1F) ADE *(JF EF GJ 'DE-CE) 'DE.*5) H9DJG J*E *-/J/G' HAB' DDBH'9/ 'D9'E) . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (16) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (22) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/) (9) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ  'DA5D (42) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (16/(  +) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (22/(  ,) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (13/#/1) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (13/#/1) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DA5D (20) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (13) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (14) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : 'DA5D (5) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J H'DE'/) (2) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (13/#/1) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (14/#/1) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ. () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (13/#/2) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (14/#/2) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ. () FBD'K 9F 5/'E 39/ 'DDG E-E/ 'D(J'*J  E5/1 3'(B  5124 . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (15) EF 'DA5D 'D+'D+ EF 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ H'DE'/) (16) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DE'/) (4) EF 'DB'FHF 'D9E'FJ H'DA5D (21  22) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : 'DA5D (23) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (17) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ H'DA5D (23) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (52) EF B'FHF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 'DE51J) . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (17) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (18) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : F5 'DE'/) (19) EF 'DB'FHF 'D'1/FJ . () 'F81 : 'DA5D (26) EF 'DB'FHF 'D*HF3J .     'D1'A/JF DD-BHB E,D/ (9/'D3F) 'D+'FJ) 941)) 9// (34) C'FHF #HD (2007) ======= =========================== 'DF8'E 'DB'FHFJ D*5'EJE 'D/'&1) 'DE*C'ED) PAGE 84  PAGE 85  'D1'A/JF DD-BHB E,D/ (9/'D3F) 'D+'FJ) 941)) 9// (34___) 3F) (2007) [537-584__5__] 'DF8'E 'DB'FHFJ D*5'EJE 'D/'&1) 'DE*C'ED) /1'3) EB'1F) *'1J. B(HD 'DF41 : 11/9/2007 *'1J. 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