ࡱ> $& !"#q`0bjbjqPqPEH::_/   &v&v&v8^v,y *zz(z:{{|||=??????$(hcm}||m}m}czz{{hm}z&{vR{=m}=A" {z @C8&v[,T0*, \i|"||||||ccv|||*m}m}m}m}_uuzzzzzz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However, procedural liability rules have not kept pace with such progress which has been given such a little research that it does not harmonize with its importance in protecting the procedural rules against the frivolity of the litigants and all those which violate it, which constitutes a cornerstone in securing right and freedom. If securing due respect for it is not possible, how would it be the case if it calls for securing other legal rules?. In addition to that, the provisions of the restricted organization of liability in the procedural field on the part of the Iraqi legislator are void of the a general text dealing with the abuse of procedural rights and the right of the injured person to compensation on the basis of the civil liability of his/her litigant if no liability punishments for some dispersed cases which do not amount to prevention form abuse of procedural right, although the Iraqi legislator endorses the theory of right abuse in Article "seven" of the civil law. The study aims at formulating a general theory for procedural abuse of right which goes with the nature of procedural rights, for the Iraqi civil procedural law is void of any text to that effect, compared with the legislations of the other states. 'DEB/E) 'D-E/ DDG 1( 'D9'DEJF H'D5D') H'D3D'E 9DI 3J/F' E-E/ 3J/ 'DE13DJF  H9DI "DG H#5-'(G  HEF 3DC 71JBGE H'*(9 3F*GE %DI JHE 'D/JF .. #E' (9/: J1'/ ('D-B 'D',1'&J 'DH3JD) 'D*J JEF-G' 'DE419 AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* DCD EF **H'A1 AJG 41H7 E('41) *DC 'DH3JD) H'DE-//) AJ 'DB'FHF DD-5HD 9DI 'D-E'J) 'DB6'&J) #H D*HAJ1G' /'.D 'D.5HE) 'DE/FJ) #H (3(G'  HJB5/ ('D*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B 'D%,1'&J J1'/ 'D'F-1'A 9F 'D:'J) 'DE41H9) 'DE*E+D) ('DE5D-) 'D*J J(*:JG' 'DB'FHF EF *F8JEG H-E'J*G DD-B (-J+ **,'H2 *,'H2'K H'6-'K HC(J1'K E' J5J( 'D:J1 EF 611  'E' 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ) 'DF',E) 9F 'D*93A AJ1'/ (G' 'D*2'E 'DE*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B 'D',1'&J E-/+ 'D611 (*9HJ6 'D'61'1 'DF',E) 9F *93AG A6D' 9F *-EDG DD,2'!'* 'DEB11) AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* . 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'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DA1F3J D9'E 1804  7 2005 . B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) 'DA1F3J 'D5'/1 9'E 1975 . B'FHF #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ) 'D#1/FJ 1BE (24) D3F) 1988 'DE9/D . B'FHF #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ) 'DD(F'FJ 1BE (90) D3F) 1983 'DE9/D . B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) H'D*,'1J) 'DCHJ*J 'DE1BE (38) D3F) 1980 . B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* H'D*FAJ0 'DJEFJ 1BE (28) D3F) 1992 . 3'(9' : 'DE5'/1 'D',F(J) Jaques Mesnard , L,abus du dorit en matiere de dorit judiciaire prive ,These Paris , 1952 . Jean Vincent et gunchard , procedure civile , 25 edition, Dalloz, Paris, 1999. Jean Viatte , L,amende Civile pour abus du droit de plaider , gaz.1978. Monique bandrac , les veirfications a operer , dalloz action .1998. Pierre Julien et Natalie Fricero , droit judiciaire prive , L.g.d.j.1999. Yvon Desdevises , L abus du dorit d,agit en justice avce success, Dalloz Sirey, 1979. (*) #3*DE 'D(-+ AJ 18/10/2009 *** B(D DDF41 AJ 19/10/2009 . () JF81 : /. 92EJ 9(/ 'DA*'- 97J)  F-H F81J) 9'E) DAC1) 'D/9HI  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1990  5244-245  /. F(JD %3E'9JD 9E1  'D79F ('D'3*&F'A H%,1'!'*G  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1980  5222-223  /. %(1'GJE F,J( 39/  'DB'FHF 'DB6'&J 'D.'5  'D,2! 'D'HD  EF4') 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1974  5138-139 . () JF81 : /. 92EJ 9(/ 'DA*'-  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5256 () JF81 : /. 1E2J 3JA  'DH3J7 AJ 41- B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) H'D*,'1J)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1961  5124-125 . () JF81 : B1'1 E-CE) 'D*EJJ2 'D91'BJ) 'DE1BE 3564 / 'DGJ&) 'D*EJJ2J) 'D'3*&F'AJ) / 1998 AJ 26/11/1998  EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'D9/'D)  'D9// 'D'HD  'D3F) 'D+'FJ)  (:/'/  2000  5143 HE' (9/G' . () JF81 : /. '-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'DH3J7 AJ 41- B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) H'D*,'1J)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2004  5190-191  'DE3*4'1 . E57AI E,/J G1,G  #-C'E 'D*B'6J 'DCJ/J  %3'!) '3*9E'D -B 'D*B'6J  /'1 E-EH/ DD7('9) H'DF41  'DB'G1)  2006  529 HE' (9/G' . Yvon Desdevises , L abus du dorit d,agit en justice avce success, Dalloz Sirey, 1979, p.21. () JF81 : B1'1 E-CE) 'D*EJJ2 'D91'BJ) 'DE1BE 263 / E/FJ) #HDI / 2005 AJ 14/3/2005  FBD' 9F : 'DB'6J 14J/ 92H 14J/  'D,H'2 'D419J JF'AJ 'D6E'F  (-+ EB/E %DI E,D3 'DB6'! 'D#9DI  2007  (:J1 EF4H1)  519-21 . () JF81 : B1'1 E-CE) 'D*EJ2 'D91'BJ) 'DE1BE 116 / E/FJ) +'D+) / 2001 AJ 20/1/2001  EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'D9/'D)  'D9// 'D1'(9  (:/'/  2001  555 HE' (9/G' . () JF81 : /. '-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5179  /. %(1'GJE F,J( 39/  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5138H143  /. 'D3J/ 9(/ 'D9'D *E'E  CA'D) -B 'D*B'6J  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2000  529 . Yvon Desdevises , op,cit.p.21. HEF 'D,/J1 ('D0C1 #F 'DEB5H/ ('D%.A'B AJ '3*9E'D -B 'D'D*,'! DDB6'! GH 9/E B(HD 'D'/9'! #E'E 'DB6'!  HDJ3 1A6 'D-CE DE5D-) 4.5 E9JF CE' GH 'D-'D AJ -'D) 'D%.A'B 'H 'DA4D AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B AJ 'D/9HI  %0 D' J*1*( 9DI 'D-CE (9/E B(HD 'D'/9'! E3$HDJ) 5'-( 'D-B AJ 'D'D*,'! %DI 'DB6'!  %D' %0' *(JF DDE-CE) 'FG #3'! '3*9E'D -B 'D'D*,'! %DI 'DB6'! #H -B 'D*B'6J  H0DC (9C3 'D%.A'B 'H 'DA4D AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B AJ 'D/9HI 'D0J J*E+D (9/E -5HD 'D4.5 9DI -CE AJ EH6H9 'DF2'9 'DE71H- 9DI 'DB'6J  H'D*EJJ2 'D3'(B (JF FH9J 'D%.A'B AJ -B 'D'D*,'! %DI 'DB6'! H'D-B AJ 'D/9HI  J$C/ 'D*EJJ2 'DH'6- F81' H9ED' (JF -B 'D'D*,'! DDB6'! H'D-B AJ 'D/9HI  JF81 : /. '-E/ %(1'GJE 9(/ 'D*H'(  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B 'D%,1'&J  71  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2005-2006  5294. () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  E3$HDJ) 'D.5E 9F 'D%,1'!'*  /1'3) EB'1FG AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'*  'D7(9) 'D#HDI  E51  1991  5175-176 H 353  HC0DC *F81 : 'DE'/) (166) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5151 HE' (9/G' . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5178 HE' (9/G' . () JF81 : /. '-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5128 HE@' (9/G' . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5161  H'D-BHB 'DE-//) *-/J/' 6JB' GJ 'D-BHB 'D*J J*9JF '3*9E'DG' HAB 'D#3('( 'D*J -//G' 'DE419 H(BJH/ 5'1E) HAJ '6JB 'D-/H/  H%D' *1*( 9DI 9/E E1'9') *DC 'D#3('( '3*-B'B 5'-(G' DD,2'! 'DEB11 AJ 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ)  'DE5/1 FA3G . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJ@E #EJF 'DFAJ@'HJ  'D*93A A@J 'D*B'6@J  'D7(9) 'D'HD@I  /'1 'DFG6@) 'D9@1(J)  'DB'G@1)  2006  5 351-352 . () FB6 E/FJ 'D79F 1BE 11865 D3F) 65 B ,D3) 29 JHFJH 1997  FBD' 9F : /. '-E/ %(1'GJE 9(/ 'D*H'(  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5800 . () 0G( ,'F( EF 'DABG  %DI 'F 'D*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B .7' JH,( 'DE3$HDJ) 7(B' DDBH'9/ 'D9'E) AJ 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ)  H9DI 'D.5E #F J*-ED F*J,) .7&G H19HF*G %0' '61 ('D.5E 'D#.1  H'J/* G0' 'D'*,'G (96 '-C'E E-CE) 'DFB6 'DE51J) H'DA1F3J)  'D' 'FG H9DI 'D1:E EF (3'7) E' J/9H %DJG G0' 'D'*,'G HE' JG/A %DJG EF *H-J/ DBH'9/ 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ) AJ E,'D '3*9E'D 'D-BHB #H %*J'F :J1G' EF 'D#A9'D  A%FG '*,'G EF*B/  %0 D' J3*F/ %DI #3'3 B'FHFJ 3DJE  H0DC D'F E-D CD EF 'D*93A H'D.7# E.*DA'F  AE-D 'D.7# GH 'D%.D'D ('D*2'E B'FHFJ  #E' E-D 'D*93A AGH 'D'F-1'A 9F 'D:'J) 'D*J JB11 9DI #3'3G' 'DB'FHF 'D-B #H 'DE1C2 'DB'FHFJ /HF *,'H2 -/H/G  D0' A'D'*,'G 'D0J F$J/G GH 'F 'D*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B 0' 7(J9) E3*BD) 9F AC1) 'D.7# 'D*B51J H'FG F81J) B'&E) (0'*G' '3'3G' F5 'DB'FHF H'FG' E1*(7) (0'* 'D-B H:'J*G  HD0DC A'F 'D*93A J*-BB %0' E' 'F-1A 5'-( 'D-B AJ '3*9E'DG 9F :'J*G  -*I DH DE JCF B/ '.D (H',( 'D-J7) H'DJB8) 'D9'/J)  0DC 'D%.D'D 'D0J JCHF AC1) 'D.7# (E9F'G 'D/BJB  HGH E' J69 A'5D' B'FHFJ' HEF7BJ'K (JF AC1) 'D*93A HAC1) 'D.7#  HE' J*1*( 9DJG EF %.1', F81J) 'D*93A EF /'&1) 'DE3$HDJ) 'D*B5J1J)  HJ,9D EFG' AC1) *E+D E@(/#K 9'E' AJ 9DE 'DB'FHF  HF81J) #3'3J) ED2E) H/'.D) AJ 'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD-B (5A) 9'E)  JF81 AJ *A5JD 0DC : 9DJ 9(J/ 9HJ/ 'D-/J/J  'D*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B 'D',1'&J AJ 'D/9HI 'DE/FJ)  /1'3) EB'1F)  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  2007  579 HE' (9/G' . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (5) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J 1BE 131 D3F) 1948. () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'D-CE AH/G  'D.7# AJ F7'B 'DE3$HDJ) 'D*B5J1J)  /'1 'D#DAJ D*H2J9 'DC*( 'DB'FHFJ)  'DEJF'  1995  5120-121 . () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'D-CE AH/G  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5124 . () JF81 : 'DE5/1 FA3G  5122-123 . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  E3$HDJ) 'D.5E 9F 'D%,1'!'*  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  582 . () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'D('37 ,EJ9J  'D%3'!) AJ 'DE,'D 'D%,1'&J  %3'!) '3*9E'D 'D-B AJ 'D*B'6J H'D*FAJ0  E,D) 'DB'FHF H'D'B*5'/  9// .'5  1983  5 99. () FB6 E/FJ 'D79F 1BE 8569 D3F) 66 B ,D3) 8 JHDJG 1997  FBD' 9F : /. '-E/ %(1'GJE 9(/ 'D*H'(  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5802 . () FB6 E/FJ 'D79F 1BE 2803 D3F) 71 B ,D3) 10/3/2003  EF4H1 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* 9DI 'DEHB9 'D'DC*1HFJ :  HYPERLINK "http://www.arablegalportal.org" www.arablegalportal.org () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  ,2  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1963  51195  /. -3JF H9(/ 'D1-JE 9'E1  'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ)  72  E7(9) E51  'DB'G1)  1979  5332  /. '-E/ 3D'E)  E@5'/1 'D'D*2'E  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  (D' 3F) F41  5278 . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (5/() EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J . () FB6 E/FJ 'D79F 1BE 2845 D3F) 59 ,D3) 23 FHAE(1 1995  EF4H1 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* 9DI 'DEHB9 'D'DC*1HFJ :  HYPERLINK "http://www.arablegalportal.org" www.arablegalportal.org () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5371-372 . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5372-373 . () JF81 : /. E-E/ 9(/ 'D8'G1 -3JF  'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ) DDE-'EJ '*,'G 'D9EJD  'DB'G1)  1990  5 412 HE' (9/G' . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (163) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J . () FB6 E/FJ 'D79F 1BE 392 D3F) 35 B ,D3) 27 FHAE(1 1969  FBD' 9F : /. '-E/ %(1'GJE 9(/ 'D*H'(  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5805 . () JF81 : 'DE3*4'1 . E57AI E,/J G1,G  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  529 . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (1) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 'DE51J . () JF81 : /. ,D'D 9DJ 'D9/HJ  /. 95'E #FH1 3DJE  AJ 'DE1'C2 'DB'FHFJ)  F81J) 'D-B  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1994  5309 . () JF81 : /. 9/DJ #EJ1 .'D/  *EDC 'D9B'1'* (H69 'DJ/ AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1992  5336 . () JF81 : /. E-E/ -3JF 9DJ 'D4'EJ  1CF 'D.7# AJ 'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ)  /1'3) EB'1F) (JF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J H'DJEFJ H'DABG 'D%3D'EJ  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1990  5268 . () JF81 : /. F(JD %3E'9JD 9E1  3D7) 'DB'6J 'D*B/J1J) AJ 'DEH'/ 'DE/FJ) H'D*,'1J)  71  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1984  5199 . () JF81 : #EJF /H'3 1,' 14J/  E9'JJ1 'D*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B AJ 'DB'FHF 'D#1/FJ  /1'3) EB'1F) AJ 'DABG 'D%3D'EJ H'DB'FHF 'DH69J  'D,'E9) 'D#1/FJ)  9E'F  1991  5119-120 . () B1'1 E-CE) 'DFB6 'DE51J) AJ 'D79F 'DE1BE 1331 D3F) 48 B ,D3) 6/6/1983  FBD' 9F : 'DE3*4'1  E57AI E,/J G1,G  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  537-38 . () JF81 : #EJF /H'3 1,' 14J/  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5119-120 . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5268 . () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'DH/H/ J-JI  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD'D*2'E'*  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1994  5246 . () JF81 : /. A*-J 'D/1JFJ  'D-B HE/I 3D7'F 'D/HD) AJ *BJJ/G HF81J) 'D*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B (JF 'D41J9) H'DB'FHF  E7(9) ,'E9) /E4B  71  1967  5448 . () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D,/J/  ,1  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5844  %3E'9JD 'D9E1J  'D-B HF81J) 'D*93A AJ '3*9E'DG  71  E7(9) 'D2G1'! 'D-/J+)  'DEH5D  1984  5207 . () JF81 : /. -3F CJ1G  #5HD 'DB'FHF  72  /'1 'DE9'1A  E51  1959-1960  51102-1104 H 51161  /. A*-J 'D/1JFJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  531 HE' (9/G'  /. 9(/ 'D('37 ,EJ9J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5243  /. ,D'D 9DJ 'D9/HJ H/. 1E6'F #(H 39H/ HE-E/ -3F B'3E  'D-BHB H:J1G' EF 'DE1'C2 'DB'FHFJ)  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1996  5478  /. #JEF 39/ 3DJE   F81J) 'D-B  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2000  5238 . () JF81 : /. '-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5190 . () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'D('37 ,EJ9J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 212 HE' (9/G' . () -CE E-CE) '3*&F'A E51  ,D3) 17/1/1921  FBD'K 9F : /. '-E/ B7@( 9('3  %3'!) '3*9E'D 'D-B AJ 'D*B'6J (JF 'DF8'E 'D%3D'EJ H'D#F8E) 'DB'FHFJ)  /'1 'D,'E9) 'D,/J/) DDF41  'D%3CF/1J)  2006  5341 . () JF81: /. H,/J 1':(  /1'3'* AJ 'DE1C2 'DB'FHFJ DD.5E #E'E 'DB6'! 'DE/FJ  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) 'DB'FHF H'D'B*5'/  'D9//'F JF'J1 HA(1'J1  1976  5 169 H 171 . () JF81 : /. -3F CJ1G  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  51104 . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE 'DFAJ'HJ  'F9C'3'* 'DBH'9/ 'D%,1'&J) 9DI #/D) 'D9/'D)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2000  G'E4 5 6 HE' (9/G' . () JF81 : /. '-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5210 HE' (9/G'  /. H,/J 1':(  E('/& 'DB6'! 'DE/FJ  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  2001  5 105 . () Monique bandrac , les veirfications a operer , dalloz action .1998, p.11-14. () JF81 : /. '-E/ %(1'GJE 9(/ 'D*H'(  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5818 . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (3) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE51J  H'DEH'/ (125-2  32-1  559  581  628) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DA1F3J  () *F81 : 'DE'/) (3) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE51J  H'DEH'/ (123  125-2) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DA1F3J . ()Yvon Desdevises , op, cit .p. 21. () *F81 : 'DE'/*'F ( 105  106) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 'D91'BJ  H'DE'/) (101) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 'DE51J  H'DE'/) (555) EF B'FHF #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ) 'DD(F'FJ  H'DE'/) (41) EF B'FHF #5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ) 'D#1/FJ 1BE (24) D3F) 1988 'DE9/D . () JF81 : /. 9('3 2(HF 9(J/ 'D9(H/J  41- #-C'E B'FHF 'D%+('* 'D91'BJ  72  /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H'DF41  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  1997  5247 . () JF81 : /. '-E/ #(H 'DHA'  'D%+('* AJ 'DEH'/ 'DE/FJ) H'D*,'1J)  (D' /'1 F41  (J1H*  1987  276  /. #FH1 3D7'F  BH'9/ 'D%+('* AJ 'DEH'/ 'DE/FJ) H'D*,'1J) AJ 'DB'FHFJF 'DE51J H'DD(F'FJ  (@D' /'1 F41  (J1H*  1986  5156 . () JF81 : /. 3J/ '-E/ E-EH/  'D:4 'D%,1'&J AJ 'D*B'6J H'D*FAJ0  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1995  5257 . () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'DEF9E 'D41B'HJ  F81J) 'DE5D-) AJ 'D/9HI  EC*() 9(/ 'DDG HG()  'DB'G1)  1949  551 . () JF81 : /. F(JD %3E'9JD 9E1  'D/A9 (9/E 'DB(HD  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1980  5149  /. '-E/ #(H 'DHA'  F81J) 'D/AH9  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1989  5852  /. F,J( '-E/ 9(/ 'DDG +'(* 'D,(DJ  'D*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B 'D%,1'&J  'DEC*@( 'D,'E9J 'D-/J+  'D%3CF/1J)  2006  581 . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5356 . () DDE2J/ -HD 41- G0G 'DE'/)  JF81 : /. 9('3 2(HF 9(J/ 'D9(H/J  41- #-C'E B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ)  /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H'DF41  'DEH5D  2000  5308 . ()Yvon Desdevises , op, cit .p. 21 ets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ean Viatte , op, cit , p.305. () *F81 : 'DE'/) (96/4  5) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D.'5) (1/ 7D( 1/ 'DB'6J  H'DE'/) (291) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* H'D.'5) (9/E B(HD 'D4CHI EF 'DB'6J #H 9,2 'DE4*CJ 9F %+('* E' F3(G %DI 'DE4CH EFG  H'DE'/) (288) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* H'DE*9DB) (A16 'D:1'E) 9F/ *6EF 91J6) 'DE4*CJ 9('1'* :J1 D'&B) AJ -B 'DE4CH EFG AJ /9HI 'D4CHI EF 'DB6')  H'DE'/) (37) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* H'D.'5) (A16 'D:1'E) 9F/ +(H* 5-) 'D3F/ 'D0J 79F AJG ('D*2HJ1  H'DE'/) (51) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* H'D.'5) (A16 'D:1'E) 9F/ +(H* 5-) 'D3F/ 'D0J 79F (G ('D%FC'1  H'DE'/) (93/1) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* H'DE*9DB) ('D-CE ('D:1'E) 9DI 'D4'G/ %0' *.DA 9F 'D-6H1 ('D1:E EF *(DJ:G /HF 901 E41H9 . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (246) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 9F/ 'D-CE (1A6 'D*E'3 %9'/) 'DF81  H'DE'/) (449) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 9F/ 'D-CE (9/E ,H'2 'DE.'5E) #H (1A6G'  H'DE'/) (270) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 9F/ 'D-CE (9/E B(HD 'D79F #H (1A6G #H (9/E ,H'2 F81G  H'DE'/) (43) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 9F/E' *-CE 'DE-CE) (5-) E-11 AJ EH',G) EF #FC1G  H'DE'/) (56) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 9F/ 'D-CE (3BH7 -B E/9J 'D*2HJ1 AJ '/9'&G #H (1A6G  HJ/H1 'D-CE ('D:1'E) AJ G0G 'D-'D'* -HD 'D-CE (1A6 'D/9HI #H 'D79F #H 'D-CE (9/E 'DB(HD #H 9/E ,H'2 F81G  H'F C'F* 'DE'/*'F (270  246) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE51J B@/ 1*(* 'D-CE (E5'/1) 'DCA'D) CDG' #H (96G'  HJ#.0 G@0' 'D,2'! -CE 'D:1'E)  JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5453-454 . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (305) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D.'5) (/9HI 'D*2HJ1  H'DE'/) (295) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D.'5) ('D%FC'1 AJ 'DE-11'*  H'D-CE ('D:1'E) AJ G0G 'D-'D'* JC@HF H,H(J' D' J.69 D3D7) 'DE-CE) 'D*B/J1J)  9/' *-/J/ BJE) 'D:1'E) (JF 'D-/ 'D#/FI H'D-/ 'D#9DI  HGH E' '.0 (G 'DE419 'DD(F'FJ AJ 'DE'/) (11) EF B'FHF '5HD 'DE-'CE'* 'DE/FJ) . () JF81 : /. '-E/ #(H 'DHA'  F81J) 'D#-C'E AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'*  75  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1985  5151  /. '-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'DH3J7 AJ 41- B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) H'D*,'1J)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  527 HE' (9/G' . () %0 F5* 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (188) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE51J (9/ *B1J1 'DE419 DD-B AJ 'D*9HJ6 9F #J) /9HI #H /A'9 B5/ (G 'DCJ/  9DI 'FG : (( ... HE9 9/E 'D%.D'D (-CE 'DAB1) 'D3'(B) J,H2 DDE-CE) 9F/ %5/'1 'D-CE 'DA'5D AJ 'DEH6H9 #F *-CE (:1'E) D' *BD 9F #1(9JF ,FJG'K HD' *,'H2 #1(9E'&) ,FJG 9DI 'D.5E 'D0J J*.0 %,1'! #H J(/J 7D('K #H /A9'K #H /A'9'K (3@H! FJ) ))  H'DEB5H/ (3H! FJ) AJ G0G 'D-'D) #F JCHF 'D.5E HGH J*.0 'D%,1'! #H 'D7D( #H 'D/A9 #H 'D/A'9 9'DE'K ('D' -B DG AJG H%FE' B5/ EF %(/'&G E,1/ *97JD 'DA5D AJ 'D/9HI #H 'D#61'1 ('D.5E 'D#.1  JF81 : /. '-E/ #(H 'DHA'  F81J) 'D#-C'E AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'*  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5151  'DE3*4'1 : 92 'D/JF 'D/F'5H1J H'DE3*4'1 -'E/ 9C'2  'D*9DJB 9DI B'FHF 'DE1'A9'*  ,1  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1994  5963 . () JF81 : /. '-E/ 'D3J/ 5'HJ  'DH3J7 AJ 41- B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) H'D*,'1J)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5190 HE@' (9/G'. () *F81 : 'DE'/) (315) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 9F/ .3'1) 'DE3*4CD D/9H'G  H'DE'/) (324) EF 'DB'FHF FA3G  9F/ 'D-CE ((7D'F 'D-,2 'D*-A8J #H %D:'&G D'F9/'E #3'3G  H'DE'/) (397) EF 'DB'FHF FA3G  9F/ .3'1) 'DE3*1/ D/9H'G AJ /9HI '3*1/'/ 'DEFBHD'* 'DE-,H2) . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5453 . () Jean Viatte , L,amende Civile pour abus du droit de plaider , gaz.1978 .p.305. () Jean Vincent et Serge Guinchard , op. cit , p.995. () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5454 . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 FA3G  5455 . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (200) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'D91'BJ  H'DE'/) (246) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE51J . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (51) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 'D91'BJ  H'DE'/) (43) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 'DE51J . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (37) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 'D91'BJ  H'DE'/) (56) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 'DE51J . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (38) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 'D91'BJ . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (52) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 'D91'BJ . () JF81: /. E57AI 'D21B'  'DE/.D 'DABGJ 'D9'E  /'1 'DBDE  /E4B  ,2  (D' 3F) F41  5690 . () FBD' 9F : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5374 . () JF81: /. '-E/ #(H 'DHA'  F81J) 'D#-C'E AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'*  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5150  /. 9(/ 'DEF9E 'D41B'HJ  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5200 . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (246) 'D*J *,J2 'D-CE ('D*9HJ6'* 9F/ 1A6 'D*E'3 %9'/) 'DF81  H'DE'/) (122) 9F/ 1A6 7D( 'D6E'F  H'DE'/) (324) 9F/ %D:'! 'D-,2 'D*-A8J D'F9/'E #3'3G  H'DE'/) (397) AJ -'D) .3'1) /9HI 'D'3*1/'/  H'DE'/) (499) AJ -'D) 'D-CE (9/E ,H'2 /9HI 'DE.'5E) . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (353) AJ -'D) 1A6 7D( 'D1/  H'DE'/) (608/2) AJ -'D) .3'1) /9HI 'D'3*1/'/  H'DE'/) (295) AJ -'D) 'D%FC'1 AJ 'DE-11'*  H'DE'/) (305) AJ -'D) 'D79F ('D*2HJ1 . Jean Vincent et Serge Guinchard , op. cit, p.1046,1047 , Pierre Julien et Natalie Fricero , droit judiciaire prive , L.g.d.j.1999.p.21. () *F81 C0DC : 'DEH'/ ( 37  51 ) EF B'FHF 'D%+('* 'D91'BJ . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5377 . () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'D-EJ/ #(H GJA  'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) H'D*,'1J) H'DF8'E 'DB6'&J AJ E51  ,1  E7(9) 'D'9*E'/  E51  1921  5321  /. '-E/ #(H 'DHA'  F81J) 'D#-C'E AJ B'FHF 'DE1'A9'*  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5165  5D'- 'D/JF 9(/ 'DHG'(  'D/9'HI 'DCJ/J)  E,D) 'DE-'E')  'D3F)34  'D9//6  A(1'J1  1954  5918  EF4H1 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* 9DI 'DEHB9 'D'DC*1HFJ :  HYPERLINK "http://www.smsma4law.com" www.smsma4law.com () *F81 : 'DE'/) (184) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE51J . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (185) EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE51J . () JF81 : /. %(1'GJE #EJF 'DFAJ'HJ  'D*93A AJ 'D*B'6J  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 381 . () *F81 : 'DE'/) (208) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ  H'DE'/) (170) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J . () JF81 : 'DE'/) (222) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J . () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  ,2  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  51270 . () JF81 : -3JF H9(/ 'D1-JE 9'E1  'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5420 . () JF81 : 'DE'/) (171) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DE51J . () JF81 : /. 9(/ 'D12'B 'D3FGH1J  'DH3J7 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  ,2  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  51352  -3JF H9(/ 'D1-JE 9'E1  'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ)  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5527  /. 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