ࡱ> ikfgh_0B&bjbj DZbb`A.  v2|ttt8d8(0FF%%%i7k7k7k7k7k7k7;=k7it%%"&%|%%k7$$FF7>/>/>/%F$8FtFi7>/%i7>/>/5X\57FD[%6(U7708 7(J>.dJ>P57J>t57 %%>/%%%%%k7k7>/%%%8%%%%J>%%%%%%%%% <:  #. ,H*J'1 E-E/ 14J/ E/13 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'DE3'9/ CDJ) 'DB'FHF H'D3J'3) / ,'E9) /GHC 'DEB/E) : DB/ H,/* GJ&@'* 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  HEF0 E$*E1 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 'DE9FJ (-1J) 'D%9D'E AJ ,FJA AJ 'DA*1) EF 23 "0'1 %DI 21 FJ3'F 1948  59H() AJ *H6J- EAGHE -1J) 'D1#J H'D*9(J1  HAJ 'D'*A'B 9DI 'DBJH/ 'DE41H9) D*DC 'D-1J)(). HC'F* 'DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ 'D.'5 ('D-BHB 'DE/FJ) H'D3J@'3J) D9'E 1966 ('DE4'1 %DJG AJE' (9/ (9('1) "'D9G/ 'D/HDJ") EF 'C+1 'DEH'/ 'D*J #+'1* ,/D'K H'39'K D/I D,F) -BHB 'D%F3@@'F H'DD,F) 'D+'D+) ('D,E9J) 'D9'E) DD#EE 'DE*-/)  H'F E98@@E 'D'.*D'A'* AJ H,G'* 'DF81 B/ *1C2* *B1J('K 9DI E3H/) 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) EF *DC 'DE'/) 'D*J *,J2 A16 BJH/ 9DI EE'13@@) -1J) 'D*9(J1(). DB/ 0C1 #-/ EF/H(J 'D/HD AJ 'DD,F) 'D+'D+) ('D,E9J) 'D9'E): "(1:E #F ,EJ9 'D/HD *$J/ 'D-B AJ '*.'0 'D"1'! HAJ 'D*9(J1 9FG'  A%F EF 'D59( 'D*H5D %DI 5J':) EB(HD) EF 'D,EJ9 #HD'K  D'F EAGHE 'D-1J) D' J9FJ 'D4J! FA3G AJ CD (D/. H+'FJ'K  D'F EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1 **9'16 #-J'F' E9 -1J'* #.1I. H'D3(( 'D#.J1 JH6- DE'0' #/1,* (96 'DBJH/ AJ 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) EF 'DE'/) (19)" (). D' (D #F ".1JF 1#H' #F *HAJ1 *(1J1 B'FHFJ /HDJ DDBJH/ 9DI EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1 GH #GE (C+J1 EF *HAJ1 6E'F'* B'FHFJ) /HDJ) D*DC 'D-1J)(). 0DC #F -1J) 'D*9(J1 J,( #F JCHF DG' 6H'(7  H*DC -BJB) E3DE (G': A-1J) (@D' 6H'(7 **-HD %DI AH6I H%DI 'D*93A (E' JE3 E5'D- 'D/HD HJ$+1 9DI -BHB H-1J'* #A1'/ 'DE,*E9. D0'  DE *GED 'DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ 'DE5'D- 'DE41H9) DD/HD. HGC0'  5J:* 'DE'/) AJ +D'+ AB1'*: *B11 'D#HDI H'D+'FJ) EFG' -B'K DDA1/ AJ -1J) 'D1#J H'D*9(J1  (JFE' *,J2 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) A16 BJH/ 9DI -1J) 'D*9(J1  -J+ *B6J G0G 'DAB1) 'D#.J1) ('F EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1 "*1*(7& (H',('* HE3$HDJ'* .'5). H9DI 0DC A%FG' B/ *.69 DBJH/ E9JF) HDCF AB7 ('D'3*F'/ %DI F5H5 'DB'FHF H'D*J *CHF 61H1J): ( #) EF ',D '-*1'E -BHB #H 3E9) 'D".1JF. (() EF ',D -E'J) 'D#EF 'DH7FJ #H 'DF8'E 'D9'E #H 'D5-) 'D9'E) #H 'D#.D'B". HAJ 'D'*,'G FA3G  *F5 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (10) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D.'5) (-E'J) -BHB 'D%F3'F H-1J'*G 'D#3'3J)  'D*J '9*E/G' E,D3 #H1(' AJ 4 *41JF 'D+'FJ 1950 ( 'DE4'1 %DJG' AJE' (9/ (9('1) "'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J)")  9DI #F: "G0G 'D-1J'* **6EF H',('* HE3$HDJ'*. D0' J,H2 %.6'9G' D4CDJ'* %,1'&J)  H41H7  HBJH/  H9BH('* E-//) AJ 'DB'FHF -3(E' *B*6JG 'D61H1) AJ E,*E9 /JEB1'7J  D5'D- 'D#EF 'DBHEJ  H3D'E) 'D#1'6J  H#EF 'D,E'GJ1 H-A8 'DF8'E HEF9 'D,1JE)  H-E'J) 'D5-) H'D"/'(  H'-*1'E -BHB 'D".1JF  HEF9 %A4'! 'D#31'1  #H */9JE 'D3D7) H-J'/ 'DB6'!". H*B6J 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (13) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#E1JCJ) D-BHB 'D%F3'F 'DE$1.) AJ 22 *41JF 'D+'FJ 1969 ( 'DE4'1 %DJG' AJE' (9/ (9('1) "'D'*A'BJ) 'D#EJ1CJ)")  (#FG: "D' J,H2 #F *.69 EE'13) 'D-B 'DEF5H5 9DJG AJ 'DAB1) 'D3'(B) D1B'() E3(B)  (D JECF #F *CHF EH6H9' DA16 E3$HDJ) D'-B) J-//G' 'DB'FHF 51'-) H*CHF 61H1J) EF ',D 6E'F: ( #) '-*1'E -BHB #H 'D".1JF #H 3E9*GE (() -E'J) 'D#EF 'DBHEJ #H 'DF8'E 'D9'E #H 'D5-) 'D9'E) #H 'D#.D'B 'D9'E)"(). %F 'D,ED) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) ('DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ  *H6- AC1) #F EE'13) 'DA1/ D-1J*G AJ 'D*9(J1 "B/ *.69 DBJH/ E9JF)-It may be subject to certain restrictions". DB/ '3*./E* 9('1) "B/ *.69"  'D*J *1'/A AJ 'DE9FI CDE) "J,H2"  (G/A #F JCHF H'6-'K DD/HD 'D#71'A AJ 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ %FG' DJ3* ED2E) (#J -'D EF 'D#-H'D (A16 #J BJH/ 9DI EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1(). :J1 'FG D' J,H2 #F J3*4A EF 0DC #F DD/HD -1J) A16 BJH/ 9DI EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1 CJAE' *4'!  A%0' C'F* 'D/HD *EDC B/1) 9/E A16 #J BJH/  A%FG' ('DEB'(D EBJ/) ('D41H7 H'D*-/J/'* 'D*J *B*6JG' 'DE'/) (19) D*BJJ/ 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1. G0G 'D41H7  'D*J *-// *BJJ/ EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1  D' *7(B AB7 9DI EE'13) 'D#A1'/ DG0G 'D-1J)  (D 'FG' #3'3'K *-CE 3D7) 'D/HD) AJ *BJJ/ 'D-B *93AJ' 9DI GH'G'. H*1/ G0G 'D41H7 AJ 'D,ED) 'D#.J1) EF 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) EF 'DE'/) (19)  (F5G' 'D"*J: "H9DI 0DC A%FG' (#J EE'13) 'D-BHB 'DEF5H5 9DJG' AJ 'DAB1) (2) EF G0G 'DE'/)) B/ *.69 DBJH/ E9JF) HDCF AB7 ('D'3*F'/ %DI F5H5 'DB'FHF H'D*J *CHF 61H1J)& ". J*6- EF 0DC 'FG D' J,H2 A16 BJH/ 9DI 'D-1J) 'DE6EHF) %D' %0' *H'A1 'D417JF 'D"*JJF  H(/HFGE' D' JCHF 'DBJ/ E3EH-' (G: #F JCHF 'DBJ/ EF5H5' 9DJG B'FHF'. %F 9('1) provided by law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mbh & Co Kg v. Federal Republic of Germany  "%F *G/J/ 3D'E) 'D/HD) F*J,) F41 E7(H9 E' J,( H2FG AJ 6H! 'D-',) %DI 'D%9D'E ('D*7H1'* 'DG'E) -*I AJ EJ/'F 3J'3) 'D/A'9"  H('F "'D#-C'E 0'* 'D5D) ('D*/'(J1 'D,F'&J)  'D*J B/ *#E1 (G' E-CE) E' #H :J1G' EF 'D3D7'* 'DE.*5) AJ EE'13*G' D'.*5'5'*G'  J,( #F *7(B E9 %JD'! 'D'9*('1 DD-B 'D#3'3J AJ -1J) 'D5-'A)"(). HJ3*A'/ EF B6'! 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) D-BHB 'D%F3'F ('DE4'1 %DJG' AJE' (9/ (9('1) "'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J)")  #F 'D%,1'!'* 'D*41J9J) 'D/'.DJ) 'DEF8E) DEE'13) #J -B EF 'D-BHB 'DH'1/) AJ 'D'*A'BJ)  D' JF(:J #F *0G( %DI -/ 'DFJD EF ,HG1 'D-B 0'*G  (-J+ J5(- 'D*E*9 (G E,1/ '3*+F'!(). %F 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J)  9F/ F81G' 'DB6'J' 0'* 'D5D) (*7(JB 'DE'/) (10) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J)  *B/1 E' %0' C'F "'D*/.D" AJ -B 'DE4*CJ "E-//' AJ 'DB'FHF"  HE' %0' C'F J*AB E9 'D:16 'D419J. H#.J1'  E' %0' C'F "61H1J'" AJ E,*E9 /JEB1'7J. H'.*('1 "'D61H1)"  J4*ED  EF (JF #EH1 #.1I  *B1J1 E' %0' C'F 'D*/.D JD(J "-',) %F3'FJ) ED-)" HE' %0' C'F "E*F'3('" E9 'D:16 'D419J 'DEF4H/(). G0G 'D41H7 *F4& (0'*G' A16J) 9'E) D5'D- 'D*9(J1 'D-1: A'D#5D GH 'D*E*9 ('D-1J)  H'D'3*+F'! GH *BJJ/G' *-* 41H7 E-//). HJ,( #F *A31 *DC 'D'3*+F'!'* 9DI F-H 6JB. HG0' E' #C/ 9DJG -CE 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) AJ B6J) 'D5F/'J *'JE2(). AJ G0G 'DB6J)  H',G* 'DE-CE) "DJ3 'D'.*J'1 (JF E(/#JF E*F'29JF  H%FE' H',G* E(/# -1J) 'D*9(J1 'D0J J.69 D9// EF 'D%3*+F'!'* J,( #F *A31 9DI F-H 6JB". HJ/9E 'DA16J) 'D9'E) #9D'G F5 'DAB1) 'D#HDI EF 'DE'/) (5) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ  'D*J *F5 9DI 'FG: "DJ3 AJ 'D9G/ 'D-'DJ E' JECF *A3J1G (#FG J,J2 D#J) /HD)& 'DBJ'E (#J 9ED J3*G/A 'DB6'! 9DI #J EF 'D-BHB #H 'D-1J'* 'DEB11) AJ G0' 'D9G/ #H *BJJ/G D/1,) 'C(1 EE' GH EF5H5 9DJG AJ 'D9G/ 'D-'DJ". %F F7'B H#G/'A G0' 'DF5 %FE' GH 'D9ED 9DI #D' *-// 'D-BHB 'DE6EHF) AJ 'D9G/ %D' ('DB/1 'D0J JCHF AJG 'D*-/J/ 61H1J' -*I D' J*1*( 9DI 0DC %D:'! G0G 'D-BHB. HJ,( #F *A31 'D#-C'E 'D*BJJ/J) (CD /B) 9DI 6H! G0' 'DG/A  H(E' J6EF #D' *3*./E 'DBJH/ 'D*J *A16 9DI EE'13) 'D-B D#:1'6 :J1 EB(HD). H(7(J9) 'D-'D  A'F 'D(-+ 'D#C+1 #GEJ) D-CE 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) EF 'DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ  0C1 'D#:1'6 #H 'DE5'D- 'D*J *(11 A16 BJH/ 9DI -1J) 'D*9(J1. H(-3( G0G 'DAB1)  **E+D 'D#:1'6 'D419J) #H E(11'* A16 'DBJH/ (E' JDJ: '-*1'E -BHB #H"3E9) 'D".1JF" H-E'J) "'D#EF 'DH7FJ" H "'DF8'E 'D9'E" H "'D5-) 'D9'E)" H "'D#.D'B". H*-'HD G0G 'D/1'3) *-/J/ EAGHE G0G 'DE57D-'* AJ 6H! 'DBJ/ 'D0J H1/ 0C1G AJ 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ H('DEB'1F) E9 (96 'D'*A'BJ'* 'D%BDJEJ) D-BHB 'D%F3'F. HGJ *3*(9/ EF F7'BG' 'D(-+ AJ *9(J1J "'D#EF 'DH7FJ" H"'DF8'E 'D9'E"  DE' J+J1G G0'F 'DE57D-'F EF ,/D H'39 J3*#GD #F *.55 DG /1'3) E3*BD) H.'5). 'DE(-+ 'D#HD -E'J) 'D#.D'B H'D5-) 'D9'E) J,H2 DD/HD  7(B' DDAB1) 'D+'D+) (() EF 'DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ  A16 BJH/ 9DI EE'13) 'DA1/ D-BG AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1 H0DC (F'! 9DI '9*('1'* -E'J) 'D#.D'B #H 'D5-) 'D9'E). 'DE7D( 'D#HD -E'J) 'D#.D'B *9/ -E'J) 'D#.D'B (Morals) #-/ 'D#3('( 'D*J *(11 A16 BJH/ 9DI EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1. HCDE) "Morality"  HGJ *9FJ E' J*7'(B E9 'DBH'9/ 'DE3DE (G' DD3DHC 'D5-J-()  E4*B) EF 'DCDE) 'DD'*JFJ) Mores HE9F'G' 'D9'/'*. HDJ3 GF'C /DJD DE91A) %DI #J -/ C'F* *DC 'D9'/'* .'69) DD#.D'BJ'*. #E' 'DCDE) 'DA1F3J) Moeurs AGJ */D 9DI E3*HI 9'D EF 'D3DHC. H**6EF CDE) Sitten ('DD:) 'D#DE'FJ) E9FI 'DDJ'B) H'D#/((). HJ97J Black s Law Dictionary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he difference between law and morality is that morality is conceived as a system solely composed of duties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andyside v. UK () 'D7(J9) 'DF3(J) DEAGHE 'DBJE 'D#.D'BJ). HEE' ,'! AJ G0' 'D-CE"& EF :J1 'DEECF #F F,/ AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/'.DJ DE.*DA 'D/HD 'DE*9'B/) EAGHE' #H1(J' EH-/' DD#.D'B  CE' EF :J1 'DEECF #F F,/ AJ BH'FJF *DC 'D/HD '*A'B' 9DI G'E4 'D*B/J1 'D0J J,( #F J*1C D3D7'* 'D/HD) AJ *A3J1 EB*6J'* 'D#.D'B. HJ1,9 3(( 0DC %DI %F E*7D('* 'DBH'FJF 0'* 'D5D) DD#.D'B *.*DA EF 2EF %DI ".1 HEF EC'F %DI ".1  H(.'5) AJ 951F' G0' 'D0J J*5A (*7H1 E*D'-B DD"1'! AJ G0' 'D.5H5. H(3(( '*5'DG' 'DE('41 H'DE3*E1 ('D9H'ED 'DE$+1) AJ G0' 'D4'F  A'F 3D7'* 'D/HD) GJ AJ H69 'A6D EF 'DB'6J 'D/HDJ AJ %97'! 1#J -HD 'DE6EHF 'D/BJB DG0G 'DEB*6J'* HC0DC -HD 61H1) "'DBJ/" 'D0J JA16 DJ*AB E9G'"(). G0G 'D7(J9) 'DF3(J) DEAGHE 'D#.D'B /A9 ('DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) %DI 9/E '*('9 'DFG, FA3G AJE' J*5D ('DE3'&D 'D#.1I 0'* 'D5D) (EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1  A(JFE' "*CHF 'DE-CE) E*3'GD) AJ FG,G' AJE' J*9DB ('DCD'E 'D3J'3J H-BHB 'D5-'A)  A%FG' **4// AJE' J*9DB ('D#.D'B H'D9F51J) H'D/9H) DDC1'GJ) H'D#EF 'DH7FJ H3E9) 'DB6'!"(). DB/ C'F* 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) E*-A8) /'&E' AJ #-C'EG' 'D*J 5/1* AJ 'DB6'J' 0'* 'D5D) ('D#.D'B  EA3-) (0DC DD3D7'* 'D9'E) B/1' H'39' ,/' EF -1J) 'D*B/J1 HAB' DE' *B*6JG 'DE5D-) 'D9'E). H9DI E1Q 'D3FH'*  '3*F/* 'DE-CE) %DI *DC 'D'9*('1'* DD-CE (3D3D) EF 'DBJH/ 9DI *H2J9 'DC*( H'D#AD'E. AAJ B6J) Handyside v. UK  0G(* 'DE-CE) %DI %F "-1J) 'D*9(J1 D' *F7(B A-3( 9DI "'DE9DHE'*" H"'D#AC'1" 'DE*3DE) 9DI F-H E16J #H 'D*J *9*(1 :J1 6'1)  (D %FG' *F7(B #J6' 9DI 'DE9DHE'* H'D#AC'1 'D*J *29, #H J59B DG' 'DE1!". HD0'  -CE* 'DE-CE) (-81 The Little Red School Book  HGH C*'( JG/A %DI *4,J9 'DE1'GBJF 9DI '*.'0 EH'BA DJ(1'DJ) %2'! 'D,F3 H'DE./1'*().(). HAJ B6J) Wingrove v. UK  '3*0C1* 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) E' '71/* 9DJG EF #F G'E4'K H'39'K EF -1J) 'D*B/J1 E*1HC DD/HD AJ 'D#EH1 'DE*9DB) ('D%3'!) %DI 'D'B*F'9 'D4.5J 'D5EJEJ  H(.'5) AJ E,'D 'D#.D'B H'D/J'F). HAJ *(1J1 G0' 'DG'E4 'DH'39 EF -1J) 'D*B/J1  0C1* 'DE-CE) "'F E' J1,- #F J3(( %3'!) C(J1) DE9*B/'* #A1'/ /J'F) E' J.*DA 9DI F-H ED-H8 EF HB* D#.1 HEF 2EF D#.1  H(.'5) AJ 951 J*3E ((1H2 E,EH9) C(J1) EF 'DE9*B/'* H'DEDD. DB/ H,/* 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) #F B'FHF 'D*,/JA 'D%FCDJ2J (Law of Blasphemy) J-*HJ -E'J) C'AJ) *B*6J- AJ 1#J 'DE-CE)- /1,) 9'DJ) EF 'D*/FJ3 DDEB/3'*. H'F 'DB'FHF 'DE0CH1 JB9 ('D*'DJ 6EF -1J) 'D*B/J1 'D*J *9H/ DD/HD)"() HA6D' 9E' *B/E  J.*DA G'E4 -1J) 'D*B/J1 'DE*1HC DD/HD *(9' DE-*HI 'D13'D) #H 'D#AC'1 'D*J *E 'D*9(J1 9FG'. HG0' E' J3*F(7 EF B6J) Kjeldsen and others v. Denmark ()  (1:E #F 'D-B 'DE*F'29 9DJG DE JCF GH 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1  (D C'F -B 'DH'D/JF AJ '.*J'1 'D*9DJE 'D0J J,/'FG ED'&E' D#7A'DGE' ('DE'/) (2) EF 'D(1*HCHD 'D#HD 'DED-B ('D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J)). AJ G0G 'DB6J)  '-*, H'D/' 7AD ('F 'D*9DJE 'D,F3J 'D%D2'EJ J4CD .1B' DE+D G0' 'D-B. :J1 #F CD EF 'DD,F) H'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J*JF D-BHB 'D%F3'F B/ EJ2*' (JF *9DJE 'DE9DHE'* H(JF *H2J9G': G0' 'D*EJJ2 J3*#GD #F JE*/ %DI 'DE3'&D 'D#.1I. HCE' #4'1 B6') 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) "%F 'DE'/) 'DE91H6) #E'E 'DE-CE) *8G1 (,D'! #F 'D/'FE'1C  EF .D'D *2HJ/G' 'D#7A'D AJ 9E1 EF'3( (*H6J-'* *9*(1G' EAJ/)  %FE' *-'HD #F *F(GGE 6/ 8'G1) *,/ 'FG' E29,)  9DI 3(JD 'DE+'D  *2'J/ F3() 'DHD'/'* EF 'D9D'B'* 'D,F3J) :J1 'D419J)  (6EFG' -'D'* 'D%,G'6 H'D#E1'6 'D*F'3DJ). G0G 'D'9*('1'* GJ ('DA9D EF F8'E 'D#.D'B  DCFG' **3E ('D9EHEJ) EF -J+ 'D7'(9 HD' *3**(9 *,'H2 -/H/ E' B/ *9*(1G /HD) /JEB1'7J) E5D-) 9'E). %F /1'3) 'D*41J9'* E-D 'DF2'9 J+(* -BJB) #FG' D' *(D: (#J -'D -/ 'D41H9 AJ *9DJE J3*G/A 'D/A'9 9F FH9 E-// EF 'D3DHC 'D,F3J"(). -*I G0G 'DFB7) A'F EAGHE 'D#.D'B B/ *E *B/JEG CEAGHE J.69 D'.*D'A ,/J1 ('D'9*('1 H('D*'DJ D59H() EAGHE). HD9D 'DEHBA 'DE*-A8 DDE-CE) 'D#H1(J) 'D0J *(/JG 9F/E' *H',G E3'D) B'FHFJ) 0'* (O9/ #.D'BJ -3'3  CE3'D) 'D*-HD 'D,F3J  JCHF EAGHE' *E'E'. DB/ 1A6* *DC 'DE-CE) %/'F) (D,JC'  HEF +E 'DEEDC) 'DE*-/)  (1A6GE' 'D'9*1'A ('DH69 'DB'FHFJ DDE*-HDJF ,F3J' H(E' JF3,E E9 ED'E-GE 'D,3/J) 'D8'G1)(). 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ -E'J) 'D5-) 'D9'E) EF 'D#33 'D#.1I 'D*J #,'2* 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) (() EF 'DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ 'D'3*F'/ 9DJG' D*(1J1 A16 BJH/ 9DI EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1  -E'J) 'D5-) 'D9'E). J97J B'EH3 A Law Dictionary 'D*91JA 'D*'DJ DCDE) 'D5-) (Health): "'D*-11 EF 'D#DE #H 'DE16"() #E' B'EH3 Black s Law Dictionary  A'FG J97J 'D*91JA 'D"*J : 1) -'D) 'D3D'E) AJ 'D(/F  #H 'D9BD  #H 'D1H-. 2) -1J) 'D*-11 EF 'D#DE #H 'DE16(). #E' E57D- "'D5-) 'D9'E) (Public Health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azzarin H Gostin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eander v. Sweden ()  #4'1* 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) %DI 'F "'DE9DHE'* 'D(J&J) 9'/) E' *CHF 0J #GEJ) 9'E) #H E-D 'G*E'E C+J1 EF 'D#A1'/  HGJ B/ **9DB (#F47) J1,- #F *$+1 9DI 'D(J&)  E+D E.'71 .2F 'DFA'J'* H'3*:D'D 'DEH'1/ 'D7(J9J). H9DI #J) -'D  A'F 'DBJH/ 'D*J *1/ 9DI -B 'D-5HD 9DI E+D G0G 'DE9DHE'* JECF *(1J1G' (EH,( 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (10) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J)  EF .D'D 'D'-*,', (#3('( -E'J) 'D#EF 'DH7FJ #H '-*1'E -BHB 'D".1JF"(). J*6- EF 0DC  'F EAGHE "'D5-) 'D9'E)"  C#3'3 #H E(11 DA16 'DBJH/ 9DI EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1  B/ D' J4CD DH-/G #3'3' C'AJ' H'FG C+J1' E' J*/'.D E9 :J1G EF 'D#33 'D#.1I. J/D 9DI 0DC  'D'1*('7 'DEH,H/ (JF EAGHEJ 'D#.D'B H'D5-) AJ 'DEH'/ (8) H(9) H(10) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J)  HC0' AJ 'DE'/) (2) EF 'D(1H*HCHD 'D1'(9 'DED-B ('D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J)  -J+ JO8G1 G0' 'D'1*('7 #F -'D) "'D5-)" J,( #F *BJQE AJ 6H! E/DHD "'D#.D'B". :J1 %F 'D5D) (JF 'DAC1*JF- H'F DE *CF 61H1J)- A%FG' 9DI #J) -'D E57F9)  CE' +(* EF .D'D E3'&D E+D 'D%J/2 H'D*9BJE 'D%D2'EJ DD#4.'5 'D0JF J9'FHF EF #E1'6 FA3J)() . HAJ (96 'D-'D'*  JCHF */.D 'D/HD) AJ -1J'* 'D#A1'/ E(11' 9DI #3'3 -E'J) 'D5-) 'D9'E) DH-/G. ADB/ 0C1* 'DD,F) 'D#H1(J) D-BHB 'D%F3'F #F 'DE'/) (4) EF 'DB'FHF 'DGHDF/J D3F) 1952 'D.'5 ('DHB'J) EF 'D*/1F 'D(B1J 'D0J J,(1 E1(J 'DE'4J) 9DI 'D'F6E'E %DI E1AB 'D5-)  D' *F*GC 'DE'/) (9) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J)  (.D'A '/9'!'* #-/ 'D7'9FJF. %0 #C/ G0' 'D#.J1 #F 'DE'/) (4) EF 'DB'FHF #9D'G *69G AJ EHBA J,9D 6EJ1G 'D/JFJ  C96H AJ 'DCFJ3) 'D(1H*3*'F*J) 'DGHDF/J)  AJ F2'9 E9 'D'D*2'E'* 'D9'E) DE1(J 'DE'4J). HB/ D'-8* 'DD,F) 'D#H1(J) D-BHB 'D%F3'F AJ G0' 'D5// #F 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D/J'F) J,H2 #F JCHF EH69 *BJJ/ " JF5 9DJG 'DB'FHF HJ4CD %,1'!'* 61H1J) AJ E,*E9 /JEB1'7J & D-E'J) & 'D5-) #H 'D#.D'B 'D9'E)". H1#* 'DD,F) #F *9(J1 -E'J) 'D5-)" JECF (-B #F JF7(B 9DI 'D%,1'!'* 'D*J '*.0* D*A'/J #E1'6 'DE'4J). H(F'! 9DJG  EF 'D61H1J AJ E,*E9 -/J+  #F **.0 'D-CHE) AJ G0' 'D5// %,1'!'* EF'3()  (E' AJ 0DC 'D'F6E'E %DI E1AB 'D5-). H9DJG  DE J-/+ 'F*G'C DDE'/) (9) EF 'D'*A'BJ)(). HAJ -'D) #.1I  '-*, 4.5 J/JF ('DE9*B/ 'D3J.J ('F E' JB6J (G 'DB'FHF 'D(1J7'FJ EF %D2'E 1'C(J 'D/1','* 'DF'1J) (D(3 .H0) H'BJ) EF 'D'1*7'E  J4CD 'F*G'C' D-BG AJ -1J) 'D/J'F)  ('DB/1 'D0J JEF9 AJG EF '9*E'1 'D9E'E). H9DI 'D9C3 EF 0DC  AJ 81HA #.1I  **E3C 'D/HD) 'DE*/.D) (E7D( -E'J) 'D#.D'B 'D9'E) D*(1J1 'DBJH/ 'DEA1H6) 9DI EE'13) 'D#A1'/ (96 -BHBGE 'D#3'3J). H(0DC -D EB*6I -E'J) 'D#.D'B E-D EB*6I -E'J) 'D5-) 'D9'E) AJ B6'J' #H -'D'* 'DE9'B() 'D,2&J)  C-'D'* 'DDH'7 HBE9 3DHCJ'* 'D/9'1) H1A6 'DF81 AJ 7D('* 'D*-HD 'D,F3J() . HGC0'  *A31 'DE$33'* 'D#H1(J) EB*6I -E'J) 'D#.D'B (H5AG #3'3' EAGHE' E1F' HF3(J'. J.D5 EF CD E' *B/E  'FG DE' C'F 'D#A1'/ D' J9J4HF A1'/I  A9DJGE 'F J1'9H' 'D#.D'B 'D9'E). H'F 'D#.D'B JECF #F *.*DA  EH6H9'  EF 49( %DI ".1 HEF /HD) %DI #.1I  CE' JECF #F *.*DA EF %BDJE %DI #.1 /'.D 'D/HD) 0'*G'. %FG' *.69 A6D' 9F 0DC D9EDJ) 'D*7H1 'D*'1J.J. H%0' C'F EF 'DEECF A16 BJH/ 9DI EE'13) 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1  AD' (/ EF %(/'! 4& EF 'D'9*/'D AJ G0' 'D4'F  D'F 9/E /B) G0' 'DDA8 B/ *$/J %DI 'D*93A. HJECF *91JA 'D#.D'B D#:1'6 G0G 'D/1'3) 9DI %FG' *4J1 %DI 'D9D'B) 'DB'&E) (JF #A9'D 'DF'3 H'DE('/& 'D#.D'BJ) 'D*J *-CEG'. (JFE' J/D E57D-' "'D5-)" H"'D#.D'B" 9DI 1A'G 'DA1/ (/FJ' HFA3J'. HJF(:J #F *8D %EC'FJ) A16 BJH/ 9DI EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1 ('3E 'D#.D'B H'D5-) 'D9'E) AJ -/H/ E9BHD)  F81' DE' **6EFG %3'!) '3*9E'D G0G 'D#DA'8 'DE(GE) %DI -/ E' EF .71 B/ JG// '5D 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1. 'DE(-+ 'D+'FJ '-*1'E -BHB 'D".1JF #H 3E9*GE *,J2 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) (#) EF 'DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ *BJJ/ EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1 (G/A -E'J) "-BHB" #H "3E9) 'D".1JF". HJECF *(1J1 0DC ('F 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1  (1:E #GEJ*G  A'FG B/ J3*./E EF B(D 'D(96 DD%3'!) %DI -BHB 'D".1JF #H 3E9*GE  EE' J*7D( EF 'D/HD) *HAJ1 'D-E'J) 'DB'FHFJ) DD:J1 9F/ 'D*93A AJ EE'13) G0' 'D-B EF B(D (96 #A1'/ 'DE,*E9 #H EF 'DA&) 'D*J *E*DC H3'&D 'D*9(J1 9F 'D1#J() . 'DE7D( 'D#HD '-*1'E -BHB 'D".1JF %F '-*1'E -BHB H-1J'* 'D:J1 GH EF #GE 'DBJH/ 'D*J *A16 9DI EE'13) 'D-BHB 'D#3'3J) DCD A1/. H*F4# G0G 'DBJH/ EF H'B9 E91A) '3*-'D) 'D*A1B) (JF 'DA1/ H-BHBG. HCD A1/ J,( #F J91A %F -BHB 'D:J1 DJ3* 'BD ,/'1) ('D-E'J) EF -BHBG 'D.'5). A-B -1J) 'D*9(J1  E+D'  D' J(J- D4.5 E' ('F J3( :J1G #H J:*'(G. %F #J -B EF -BHB 'DA1/ 'DB'FHFJ) D*9*(1 HAB' D*91JAG' E5D-) **E*9 %DI -/ E' (-E'J) 'DB'FHF. HG0G 'D-E'J) AJ #HD 'D#E1 *.5 'F*G'C 'D".1JF DG0G 'D-BHB  #J #FG' -E'J) EF 'F*G'C 'D#A1'/ 'D".1JF D-BHB 'DE1!. A-B 'DE1! AJ 'D-J') H'D-1J) H3D'E) 4.5G () AJ #D' J*916 DD*90J( HD' DD9BH('* #H 'DE9'ED'* 'DB'3J) #H 'DH-4J) #H 'DEGJF)()  HAJ -1J) 'D*ACJ1 H'D6EJ1 H'D/J'F)()  HC0' -B CD A1/ AJ *CHJF 'DFB'('* #H 'D'F6E'E %DI 'DFB'() 'D*J J.*'1G' H-B 'DFB'('* AJ EE'13) F4'7G' AJ -1J)()  H-B -1J) 'D*FBD H'.*J'1 E-D 'D%B'E) H-B 9B/ 'D',*E'9'* 'D3DEJ) H*CHJF 'D,E9J'* E9 'D:J1() 9DI 3(JD 'DE+'D CDG' EF 'D-BHB 'D*J D' JECF 'D*E*9 (G' A9D' %D' %0' EF9 'DB'FHF 'D#A1'/ 'D".1JF (5H1) A9'D) EF 'F*G'CG'. H2J'/) 9DI 0DC  (E' 'F 3H! '3*./'E 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1 JG/E -BHB H-1J'* 'D".1JF HJF*B5 EFG'  AC'F 'DEB5H/ EF F5 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) (#) EF 'DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ #F *H,/N *H'2F' (JF 'D#A1'/ H'F *A1B (JF 'D*E*9 (G0' 'D-B H3H! '3*./'EG. "%F 'D%-/'+ 'D*J HB9* (9/ 'D-1( 'D9'DEJ) 'D+'FJ) #,(1* #96'! 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ #F JDE3H' #F -E'J) 'DA1/ EF *93A 'D/HD) D' JBD 61H1) 9F -E'J*G EF #B1'FG AJ EE'13*GE D-BHBGE H-1J'*GE"(). 9DI #J) -'D  B/ *.69 EE'13) 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1 DBJH/ E9JF) *CHF 61H1J) EF ',D "'-*1'E -BHB 'D".1JF". HD9D EF 'C+1 'D-BHB 'D*J B/ *F*GC (EE'13) -1J) 'D*9(J1  GH 'D-B AJ 'D.5H5J) (Privacy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estin"  GJ: "-',) 'D#A1'/ H'DGJ&'* %DI #F JB11H' (#FA3GE CJA  H%DI #J E/I J*E 'DC4A 9F 'DE9DHE'* 'D*J *.5GE %DI 'D".1JF (). #E' 'D-B AJ 'D.5H5J) (The Right to Privacy )  AJ91AG Black s Law Dictionary 9DI #FG: " 1) 'D-B AJ 'D'3*BD'D 'D4.5J 2) -B 'D4.5 AJ #F JCHF HEDCJ*G (EF#I 9F 'DC4A #H 'D*A-5 'D9EHEJ :J1 'DE1.5 (G"(). r t v x ^ ` b d >BDFRTVXLNPR`(!*!,!.!$ &L'l''''(((((ڶککککډککxکک hWZCJZhWZCJ^JaJ hWZ5CJZ\^JaJ "jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJ hWZCJH*Z^JaJ hWZ5CJZ\^JaJ hWZ5CJ\^JhWZCJZ^JaJhWZCJZ^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ(jhECJUZ^JaJ(/  4lg^$a$pkd$$IfTl 0 CC V0 4 la$U$If`Ua$ $T`Ta$$ h N"jZ$ &&:'()$]^`a$$]^`a$$ & F `a$ $ $A$` $`a$$a$(++++////;;;;b?f?h?j?FFFF`HbHdHfH4I6I8IXI`IIKKLL N"N$N&NQQQQRRRR:]]^_:_F___J`L`N`P```dapahWZ6CJ]^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ hWZ>*CJ^JaJ hWZCJ^JaJ "jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJ hWZCJH*Z^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ >)./5F6f8;<==CDEF$ ^`a$$ ]^a$ $^a$$ ^`a$ $`a$$]^`a$ $]^a$$]^`a$ F L.NQTTBV~XZ8]:]T]]^^_.bb`ccde$ ^`a$$ ]^`a$$ ^a$$ ^a$paraaaa$b&b(b*b:bhbjbeeeegg g"gziPjjjjjllllmmm"moooo>t@tBtFt08<>BDJRTVXčƍ̺毢̺̺̺̺̺̺̺̺毘̺̺̺hWZCJ^JaJ hWZ>*CJZ^JaJ hWZ>*CJ^JaJ "jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJ hWZCJH*Z^JaJ hWZ6CJ]^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ hWZ6CJZ]^JaJ <e&gjoLt`yz~j^ΒʗԠ&X$ ]^`a$$ ]^`a$$ ]^`a$$ ]^`a$ƍȍ"*.’ĒƒȒʒ̒—ėƗȗΘ ƠȠʠΠڣܣޣ&nȥԥ*V*,.0h(ݞhWZ>*CJZ^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ hWZCJH*^JaJ "jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJ hWZCJ^JaJ hWZ>*CJ^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ hWZCJH*Z^JaJ >4֧2PxX$ & F M^`a$$ ]^`a$$ 5`a$$ `a$$ ^`a$$ ]^`a$ (*,.TVXZ>@BFlnptvxz|&246868:<TVXZ<"&(ֶֶhWZCJZ^JaJ hWZ>*CJ^JaJ hWZCJ^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ "jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJ hWZCJH*Z^JaJ H>@` :<r$ 9d^`a$$ 9U^`Ua$$ 9^`a$$^`a$$ p^`a$$^`a$$ ^a$$ `a$ <X>|f4 $ 9^a$$ 9]^a$$ 9]^`a$$ 9]^`a$(*P^ fz^bdf       ( ,",$,&,,,,,--....~55555556x6UhWZ>*CJ^JaJ hWZCJ^JaJ "jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ hWZCJH*Z^JaJ K V **++,,6d778R999:z$ ]^`a$$ ^`a$$^`a$$ & F ^`a$ $ 9a$$ & F 9^`a$$ 9^`a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uritan New England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v. Central Iindependent Tv Dlc #F 'DE9DHE'* 'D4.5J) *B9 6EF E9FI "'D-J') 'D.'5)"(). H#.J1'  D'+('* H,H/ 'F*G'C DD-B AJ 'D.5H5J)  7(B'K D',*G'/ 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J)  J*H,( 9DI 'DE4*CJ #F J+(* E' JDJ: %F EAGHE "'D-J') 'D.'5)" J*6EF 'D3J71) 9DI 'DH5HD %DI 'DE9DHE'* 'D4.5J) H %F 'D/HD) B/ #.AB* AJ '-*1'E -B 'DE4*CJ AJ 'D-J') 'D.'5) EF .D'D 'D3E'- DA1/ #H EF8E) ('D-5HD 9DI #H F41 E9DHE'* 4.5J) H %F 'D*/.D 'DF',E AJ 'D-J') 'D.'5) DDE4*CJ %E' : #) DE JCF HAB'K DDB'FHF #H () DE JCF D:'J) 419J) #H ,@) DE JCF 61H1J'K AJ E,*E9 /JEB1'7J(). 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ '-*1'E 3E9) 'D".1JF D' *B*51 'DAB1) (#) EF 'DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ 9DI %EC'FJ) EE'13) *BJJ/ -1J) 'D*9(J1 EF ',D '-*1'E"-BHB 'D".1JF" AB7 (D %FG' *6JA %DI G0' 'DE(11 E(11'K ".1 GH '-*1'E "4.5J) 'D".1JF"(). HJ1'/ ('D3E9) (Reputation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ingens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er Spiegel . H**D.5 HB'&9 'DB6J) AJ #F 'DE4*CJ HGH 1&J3 E-CE@) '3*&F'A  G@H,E EF .D'D EB@'D F41 AJ 'DE,D) 'D#3(H9J) Der Spiegel  *E H5AG AJG' (#FG JEJD %DI 'D4JH9J) H*3'!D C'*( 'DEB'D E' %0' C'F EF 'DED'&E #F J9JF 'DE4*CJ AJ EF5( B6'&J 1AJ9. 1/Q 'DE4*CJ 9(1 EB'D) DG AJ 5-JA) #.1I  #H1/ AJG' *9DJB'* *F*B5 EF 'D@ Der Spiegel HEF FH9J) 'DEB'D'* 'D*J *F41G'. 9DI '+1 0DC 1A9 F'41H' 'D@Der Spiegel /9HI ,F'&J) 6/ 'DE4*CJ DF41G 9('1'* EGJF)  'D#E1 'D0J J4CD ,1JE) HAB'K DB'FHF 'D9BH('*. H('DF*J,)  #/JF 'DE4*CJ H-CE 9DJG (/A9 :1'E)  AB'E 'DE4*CJ (1A9 /9HI #E'E 'DE-CE) 'D/3*H1J) 'D'*-'/J) '/9I AJG' 'FG (%/'F*G B/ *E 'F*G'C -BG 'D/3*H1J AJ 'D*9(J1 9F 1#JG. HEE' ,'! AJ -J+J'* -CE 'DE-CE) 'D/3*H1J) 'D'*-'/J) "%F 'DE-CE) 'D*J #/'F* 'DE4*CJ '9*(1* #F EB'D*G *F/1, %DI -/ E' 6EF F7'B 'D/A'9 9F 'D41A 'D4.5J  %D' %FG' B/ *,'H2* - (-3( 1#J G0G 'DE-CE)- 'DF7'B 'D61H1J DD/A'9 9F 'D41A 'D4.5J  H(D:* -/ 'DG,HE :J1 'DED'&E 9DI F'41J 'D@ Der Spiegel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ingens 'D+'FJ)()  %F 'DFE3' B/ 'F*GC* 'DE'/) (10) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J). HC'F Lingens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lingens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ee UN Doc. A/ 292, chapter IV, paras. 119  138. () UN Doc. A/C.3/SR.1073, p.68, para.50. () UN Doc. A/C.3/SR.1074, p.37, para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oger Pinto, la liberte d information et d opinion en driot internationale, Economica (Paris, 1980), pp.224-245. () B'1F E9 'D,ED) 'D#HDI EF 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (10) ('D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) 'D*J **6EF 9('1)" D0' J,H2 %.6'9G' ..." (m may be subject to). () H*3*./E 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (10) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) 9('1) (prescribed by law)  (JFE' *1/ AJ 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (13) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#E1JCJ) 9(@@@'1) (established by law). () (4#F G0' 'DE(/#  'F81: - The Johannesburg principles on National Security: Freedom of Expression and Access to Information, UN Doc. (E/CN.4/1996/39). () 'F81 /.(/1J) 9(/ 'DDG 'D9H6J  'DF5H5 'DEBJ/) D-BHB 'D%F3'F 'D#3'3J) AJ 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ HAJ /3'*J1 E,D3 'D*9'HF 'D.DJ,J ('DCHJ* 1985)  510. () Article 19 and Liberty,  Secrets, Spies and Whistleblowers: Freedom of Expression and National Security in the United Kingdom  (London, November 2000), p.53. () C*( #-/ 'DE$DAJF  EA1B' (JF 'DB'FHFJ) H'DE41H9J)  %F 'DE9J'1 DE' GH "E41H9" JCEF AJE' H1'! 'DB'FHF EH69 'D(-+. H9DI G0' A'F 'DB'FHF 'D0J J*9'16 E9 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ #H E9 'DE('/& 'D9'E) DDB'FHF H'D/3*H1 'D0J J*9'16 E9 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ B/ JCHF CD EFGE' B'FHFJ' HDCFG :J1 E41H9: " The criterion for what is" legitimate " is to be found beyond the law examined. Thus a law that is contrary to international law or to general principles of law, and a constitution that is contrary to international law may legal but they are not legitimate . See: Rene Marcic, " Duties and Limitations upon Rights: A Study of Article 29 and 30 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ", in Journal of International Commission of Jurists, vol. IX, no.1 (Geneva, 1968), (note 6), p.65. () Article 19 and liberty, op. cit. p.2. () ,'! AJ 'D-CE 'D0J 5/1 9F 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) D-BHB 'D%F3'F (*'1J. 19*41JF 'D#HD 1994 AJ B6J) v. Austria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nterights Bulletin, vol. 10, no.1 (London, 1996), p.16. H*,/ ED.5' DDB6J) AJ : Interights and Article 19, Freedom of Expression Case Summaries: Selected Freedom of Expression Case Summaries from International Human Rights Tribunals and Common Wealth Courts, no. 1 (London, 1998), pp.18-21. () /. 9(/ 'D92J2 E-E/ 31-'F  'DE/.D D/1'3) -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ  71 ('DCHJ*  1980)  522. () 'D-CE EF4H1 AJ : Journal of International Commission of Jurists, vol. VIII, no.1 (Geneva, 1967), pp.131-133. () /.92* 39/ 'D3J/ 'D(19J  -E'J) -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 6H! 'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ 'D%BDJEJ ('DB'G1)  1985)  5109. () Lord Lester, QC and Natalia Schiffrin,  The European Human Rights and the Media Law  in The Year Book of Media and Entertainment Law, vol. III, (Clarendon Press, 1997),(note 2), p.265. () Judgment of 28 April 1979. refereed to in: Submission in Response to the UK Government Consultative Paper on Invasion of Privacy, Article 19 (London, October 1993), p.3. () Brayan A. Garner (ed). Black s Law Dictionary, 7th ed. (St. Paul, Minn., 1999). 4th reprint, 2001, p. 1025. () U.N. Doc. (A/C.3/261). () 5th ed. (St. Paul, Minn., West Publishing Co., 1979), p.909. () John Bouvier, A Law Dictionary: Adapted to the constitutions and laws of the United States of America and of the several states of the American Union, revised 6th ed. (1856). Available at:  HYPERLINK "http://www" http://www.constitution.org/bouv/bouvier.htm () Rene Marcic, op. cit., p.59. () 'J1JC'- 'J1JF #. /'J3  H',('* 'DA1/ %2'! 'DE,*E9 H'DBJH/ 'DEA1H6) 9DI -BHB 'D%F3'F H-1J'*G (EB*6I 'DE'/) 29 EF 'D%9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F  EF4H1'* 'D#EE 'DE*-/) (FJHJH1C  1982)  591  'DAB1) 228. () Malcolm N. Shaw, International Law, 3rd. ed., Grotius Publications (Cambridge University Press, 1994), p.188. () Ibid. , pp. 189 - 190. () 'F81 'J1JC'  'J1JF #./'J3  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  5211  'DAB1) 210  211. () Rene Koering- JOULIN," Public Morals ", In Mireille Delmas  Marty (ed.), The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights: International Protection Versus National Restrictions, International Studies in Human Rights, vol. 19, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers (Dordrecht, 1992), p.84. () 7december 1976, Series A, No.24. () Rene Koering- JOULIN, op.cit, pp.84-85. () Lord Lester, QC And Natalia Schiffrin, op. cit, p.265. () Ibid. , p.266. () 5 November 1996 (1997) 24, EHRR 1. () AJ G0G 'DB6J) -CE* 'DE-CE) 'D#H1(J) (EH'AB) 3(9) B6') 6/ '+FJF (5-) 1A6 'DGJ&) 'D(1J7'FJ) D*5FJA 'D#AD'E (RBFC) *5FJA ADE AJ/JH  HGH %,1'! D' (/ EFG D*H2J9 'DADE. H**D.5 HB'&9 'DB6J) AJ %F 'DADE 'D0J -81 *H2J9G HGH (9FH'FVisions of Ecstasy- #7J'A 'DF4H)  J5QH1 (71JB) E+J1) DD4GH)- EF /HF -H'1- 'D.J'D'* 'D,F3J) D1'G() C1REDJ) *9H/ %DI 'DB1F 'D*'39 941  */9ISt. Tereasa of Avila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ord Lester, QC and Natalia Schiffrin, op. cit, pp. 267-269. () Decision of the European Court of 7 December 1976, (Series A, No. 23). () Renee Koering  JOULIN, op. cit, p. 90. () Ibid. p. 92. () John Bouvier, op. cit. () 7th ed. (St. Paul. , Minn. , 1999), 4th reprint, 2001, p. 724. () Ibid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avid P. Fidler, International law and Infections Diseases, Clarendon Press (Oxford, 1999), p.180. () 'DE'/) 55  'DAB1) (. () 'F81 'DE(-+ 'D+'FJ EF G0G 'D/1'3)  511HE' (9/G'. () David P. Fidler, op. cit., p.183. () lbid., p. 184. () Lazzarini & Gostin,  Human Rights and Public Heath , in The AIDS Pandemic (Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 29. Refereed to in: David P. Fidler, op.cit., p 185. () 116 ECHR (Series A) 1987. () Richard Desgange,  Integration Environmental Values into the European Convention on Human Rights , in 89 American Journal of International law, vol.263 (1995), pp. 64, para. 289. () #,1J* E' JB1( EF 13.000 -'D) *9BJE %D2'EJ) AJ 'D3HJ/ EF 1945 %DI 1975. (DHEHF/  19 4('7 1986). #4'1 %DI 0D@@@C ,op. Cit . (note 3) , p.97 Rene Koering  JOULIN . () 'J1JC' 'J1JF #. /'J3  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  5175  'DAB1) 6. H*,/ ED.5'K DG0G 'DB6J) AJ: /. 9(/ 'D92J2 E-E/ 31-'F  'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) D-E'J) -BHB 'D%F3'F H'D-1J'* 'D#3'3J)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J) ('DB'G1)  1966 )  5349-350. () See Rene Koering- JOULIN, op. cit., p. 83. () *,/1 'D%4'1) %DI #F 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (10) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J)  AJ 3J'B *9/'/G' DD*-/J/'* H 'D*BJJ/'* 'D*J J,H2 #F *A16 9DI -1J) 'D*9(J1  *B*51 9DI 0C1 9('1) "'-*1'E -BHB 'D".1JF" /HF 'F *6JA %DI 0DC  CE' GH 4#F 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) (#) EF 'DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ  9('1) "'H 3E9*GE". AJ -JF *#*J 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (13) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#E1JCJ) 9DI F3B 'DE'/) (19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ (0C1G' 9('1) "'-*1'E -BHB 'D".1JF #H 3E9*GE". () 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ  'DE'/) (6) H 'DE'/) (9). () 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ  'DE'/) (7). () 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ  'DE'/) (18). () 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ 'D.'5 ('D-BHB 'D'B*5'/J) H 'D',*E'9J) H 'D+B'AJ)  'DE'/) (8)  'DAB1) 1 (# H ,). () 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ  'DE'/) (12)  'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) H 'DE'/*'F (21) H (22). () %J1JC' 'J1JF #. /'J3  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  5210  'DAB1) 201. () 'F81 /. C1JE JH3A C4'C4  'D-1J'* 'D9'E) AJ 'D#F8E) 'D3J'3J) 'DE9'51)  /'1 'DE9'1A ('D%3CF/1J)  1987)  5 98. () Steingrim Wolland,  Press Law in Norway  , in Press Law and Practice: A Comparative Study of Press Freedom in European and Other Democracies, Article 19 (London, March 1993), pp. 181-182. () Lord Shaw cross,  A Free Press , in Journal Of International Commission of Jurists, vol- VIII, no.2 (Geneva, December 1967), p. 57. () FBD'K 9F /.C1JE JH3A C4'C4  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  597. () 7th ed., op. cit, p.1325. () Ibid. , p. 829. () Joyce W. Luck  Identifying Terrorists: Privacy Rights in the United Sates and the United Kingdom , in Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, vol.2, no.2 (Spring 2002), p. 231. () Ibid., p. 233. () Ibid., pp. 234-236. () Ian Cram  Minors Privacy, the Courts and Limitations on Freedom of Expression" , in The Year Book of Media and Entertainment Law, vol . III (Clarendon Press, 1997), p.49. () Ibid., pp. 49-50. () ,/J1 ('DED'-8) 'F 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF 'DE'/) (10) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) *B*51 9DI 0C1 9('1) " H'-*1'E -BHB 'D".1JF" H D' *4J1 %DI 9('1) " 'H 3E9*GE". DCF 0DC D' JF7HJ 9DI '.*D'A ,HG1J (JFG' H(JF 'DAB1) 'D+'D+) EF 'DE'/)(19) EF 'D9G/ 'D/HDJ. DE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD  #F81: Zanghi Claudio,  La libert d expression dans la convention European des droits de l homme et dans le pacte des Nations Unies Relatif aux droits civils et politiques  , in Revue General de Droit Internationale Public, tom 74, no.3 (1970), pp. 588-589. () Article 19, Defining Defamation: Principles on Freedom of Expression and Protection of Reputation (London, July 2000), p.2. () Black s law Dictionary, p1307. () DCF *1/ '3*+F'!'* 9DI E' *0C1G 'DAB1) 'D+'FJ) EF G0G 'DE'/) F(JFG' D'-B'K. () See Defamation Act (1993 c. 31). HDD'7D'9 9DI 'DF5 'DC'ED DG0' 'DB'FHF  1',9: The Year Book of Media and Entertainment Law, op. cit., pp. 509-524. () Steigrim Wolland, op. cit. ,pp. 5-6. () 'DH+'&B 'D13EJ) DD,E9J) 'D9'E)  'D/H1) 'D9'41)  'DED-B'*  'D(F/ 28 EF ,/HD 'D#9E'D ('D,2! 'D+'FJ)  'DH+JB) A/2929,  'DA5D 'D3'/3 'DAB1'* 99-101. () Lingens & Leitgeb v. Austria, 11 December 1981. Application no. 8803/79. H**D.5 HB'&9 G0G 'DB5J) AJ 'F Lingens H2EJD' DG F41' EB'D) 0C1' AJG' (#F (M)  HGH 96H (1DE'FJ  '/9I 'DC0( -JFE' 51- ('FG C'F J9DE ('F '*-'/ 'D5F'9JJF 'DFE3'HJJF B/ B'E (*-1J6 E$33) E' 9DI *31J- 9E'DG' D:16 'D/9'J) 'D3J'3J). A1A9* /9HI 6/ Lingens H2EJDG (EH,( 'DE'/) (111) EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DFE3'HJ. H(E' 'FGE' 9,2' 9F '+('* 5-) '/9'&GE'  AB/ '/JF' ('DB0A EF .D'D 'D5-'A). 1A9 Lingens H2EJDG 4CHI %DI 'DD,F) 'D#H1(J) D-BHB 'D%F3'F 0C1' AJG' ('FG" DJ3 EF 'D61H1J AJ E,*E9 /JEB1'7J 'F JB*51 'D*9(J1 9F 'D1#J EF .D'D 'D5-'A) 9DI 'D(J'F'* 'D*J JECF %+('* 5-*G'  H (.'5) '0' E' F41* *9DJB'* 'F*B'/J) (F'! 9DI 5-) %9D'F'* 3J'3J). H('DF*J,) '/9I 'DE4*CJ'F ('F 'DE'/) (10) EF 'D'*A'BJ) 'D#H1(J) *F4& A16J) EA'/G' 'F 'DE9DHE'* 'DEF4H1) AJ 'DE,'D 'D3J'3J *9/ 5-J-). == == H(:6 'DF81 9F 'D#GEJ) 'D#3'3J) D-1J) 'D*9(J1 AJ 'DE,'D 'D3J'3J  1A6* 'DD,F) 'D#H1(J) *DC 'D-,). DB/ #.0* 'DD,F) (H,G) 'DF81 'DB'&D) (#FG -*I (1:E 'F "'D'D*2'E 'DEA1H6 9DI 'D5-'A) ('F *F41 AB7 E' JECF %+('* 5-*G GH 'D*2'E DJ3 0J *7(JB 9'E"  A'F -E'J) 3E9) 'D".1JF  3H'! #C'FH' 3J'3JJF 'E EH'7FJF 9'/JJF  " GH #3'3 419J J(11 *BJJ/ -1J) 'D*9(J1". () DE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD  #F81: Christian JACQ, Francis TEITGEN,  The Press in Mireille Delmas-Marty, op. cit, pp.72-73. () Lord Shaw cross , op.cit., p.57. () 'DE'/) (14)  'DAB1) 'D#HDI. () 'DE'/) (14)  'DAB1) 'D+'FJ). () See Roger Pinto, op. cit., p. 236. () DD'7D'9 9DI F5 -CE 'DE-CE)  'F81: Journal of International Commission of Jurists, vol. VI, no. 2 (Geneva, 1965), pp. 317-319. () Steingrim Wolland, op. cit. p. 184. () 'F81 B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D91'BJ 'DE9/D  'DE'/) (433)  'DAB1) 'D+'FJ). () Human Rights Watch, Freedom of Expression and the Public Debate in Chile (New York, 1998). Available at: http:// www.hrw.org /reports 98/chile/ () Judgment 12/1984/131/ of 8 July 1986. () Vojin Dimitrijevic,  Freedom of Expression in the Framework of the CSCE  , in A. Bloed and P. Van Dijk (eds.), The Human Dimension of the Helsinki Process: the Vienna Follow- up meeting and its aftermath, (Dordrecht martinus Nijhoff, 1991), p.150. () 'DEF8E) 'DE51J) D-BHB 'D'F3'F: 'D*B1J1 'D3FHJ D3F) 2001  'DAB1) 3'/3'K  ,. E*HA1 9DI: http://www.eohr.org/ar/annual/2002/p.2-6. () See supra, note 78. () Christian JACQ and Francis TEITGEN, op. cit., p72. () AAJ 'DF1HJ,  9DI 3(JD 'DE+'D  '3*./E 'DEH8AHF 'D9EHEJHF H3'&D 4*I DEB'6') 'D#4.'5 'D0JF JF*B/HF 3DHCGE  H(.'5) 'D5-AJJF. HDG0' 'D:16  *E 'D'3*F'/ 9DI #-C'E 'DEH'/ EF 247-250 EF B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DF1HJ,J 'D.'5) (B0A 'D3E9). 'F81: Vojin Dimitrijevic, op. cit. p. 150.     'D1'A/JF DD-BHB E,D/ (1/'D3F) 'D+'EF)) 9// (18) *41JF #HD (2003) =========== ============================ 'DBJH/ 'DH'1/) 9DI 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1 PAGE 230  PAGE 229  'D1'A/JF DD-BHB E,D/ (1/'D3F) 'D+'EF)) 9// (18) 3F) (2003) [5185-5231] 'DBJH/ 'DH'1/) 9DI 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1 x6z6|6~6 : ::::X:;;;;;<t<v<x<z<<<<<BBBBCCCDJGLGNGPGHILLLL8OFOTOVOXOZOPPPPRRRRXUZU\U^U6V8V:V>VVVֱ֦hWZ>*CJ^JaJ hWZB*CJZ^JaJ phhWZCJ^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ "jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJ hWZCJH*Z^JaJ A:0:X:<TGHINQViPj2n2vj$ 9`a$$ 9]^`a$$ 9`a$$ 9`a$$ 9]^`a$VVVVXlX@YVYZZV[n[__DjFjHjJj&n(n*n,nrrrr(v*v,v.vwwwwwwwTxbxyyyyyB~D~F~H~J~L~`~n~p~~~~~~^`bdz|ָhWZZ^JaJ hWZCJ^JaJ hWZ>*CJ^JaJ hWZCJZ^JaJ hWZCJH*Z^JaJ "jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJ H܉ZFZ<>ޡHԧR$^`a$$^`a$$A$a$$r]r^`a$ $da$ $`a$$ 9]^`a$  ڠܠhޡ FHJL`z΢RpDHJN46\fh֬ެƽƽƽƽ䴬䛑ƽhWZ5Z\^JhWZ5\^JhWZ@^JhWZ@^JhWZ@Z^JhWZ6]^J hWZ^JhWZ6Z]^JjhWZ0JUZ^J hWZZ^JhWZCJZ^JaJ hWZCJ^JaJ 9RFdܬ(nrƶR$^`a$$A$a$$A$a$$A$^`$A$^`a$$rA$^`ra$$a$$^`a$$^`a$$rA$^`ra$T&(*,`*lnpr̲βƴȴnrtvĶƶȶʶطڷVZ{{hWZ>*CJ^JaJhWZCJ^JaJ"jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJhWZCJZ^JaJjhWZ0JCJUZ^JhWZCJZ^JhWZ6]^JjhWZ0JUZ^J hWZ^JhWZ6@Z]^JhWZ@Z^J hWZZ^J0ZjlȾʾ468:ܿ޿R|*V.df  BFHx& NRVݴݢݢ hWZH*^JhWZ6@]^JhWZ@^JhWZ6Z]^JjhWZ0JUZ^JhWZ6]^J hWZ^J hWZZ^JhWZCJ^JaJhWZCJZ^JaJ@bDlP`$a$$A$a$$A$^`a$$^`a$$A$a$ $`a$$^`a$ $A$`a$ 68:NP lnpNPRTXb³hWZ6Z]^JhWZ0J^JjhWZ>*UZ^JjxhWZ>*U^J hWZ>*^JjhWZ>*U^J hWZH*^JjhWZ0JUZ^J hWZZ^JhWZ6]^J hWZ^J:FHfh^`bdXhvxz|JXtvxz  DRbdfhltѿѵѵѵѵhWZCJ^JaJ"jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJhWZCJZ^JaJjhWZ0JUZ^JhWZ6]^J hWZZ^J hWZ^JGx,&v dH\t^$a$$A$^`a$$^`a$$^`a$$^`a$$A$a$FHJLPXZ\^`$rvx<J\^`bfp  @`brʸޮhWZ6Z]^J"jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJhWZCJZ^JaJhWZ6]^J hWZZ^J hWZH*^JjhWZ0JUZ^J hWZ^JDf6dvB$^`a$$a$$^`a$$^`a$$A$^`a$$A$a$*,hj8::Hbdfhtxz"*@BDF| hWZH*^JhWZ6]^JhWZ6Z]^JjhWZ0JUZ^J hWZ^J hWZZ^JP"vxz|$& r                      F         $&*fLNҺܰܥhWZ5\^JaJhWZ6Z]^JhWZCJZ^JaJhWZ6CJ]^JaJhWZCJ^JaJ hWZZ^JhWZ6]^J hWZ^JjhWZ0JUZ^J?x     F  "L$A$^`$^`a$$ PA$]^$^`a$$a$$A$a$$a$$^`a$$A$a$$A$^`a$NPRTv0>hxZ\^ùùùùùòÕÏxÕÕÏxjhWZ0JUZ^JhWZ6]^J hWZ^J"jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJhWZCJZ^JaJ hWZZ^JhWZCJ^JaJhWZCJZ^JaJhWZ5>*\^JaJhWZ^JaJhWZ5\^JaJ$jhWZ0J5UZ\^JaJ,Z !6!!v#$^`a$$^`a$$A$^`a$ $`a$$a$$A$a$$A$a$$A$P"b    !!! !! !4!6!8!:!!!!!!!v#####߿hWZ6CJ]^JaJhWZCJ^JaJ"jhWZ0JCJUZ^JaJhWZCJZ^JaJ hWZ>*^JjhWZ0JUZ^J hWZZ^J hWZ^JhWZ6]^JhWZ6Z]^J9v############v$x$%% %$%&% $h`h$&`#$)!$$d%d&d'dNOPQ$$a$$A$^`a$##########$($2$:$P$t$v$x$$$$%%%%%%%% %"%$%&%(%*%6%8%>%@%B%F%J%t%~uhWZCJZ^J hWZ0JjhWZUZhhWZ0JZ^JaJ hE0JZ^JaJmHnHuhWZ0J^JaJjhWZ0JUZ^JaJjhWZUZ hWZZ^J hWZZ^J hWZZhWZCJZ^JhWZCJZ^JjhWZUhWZ*&%(%B%H%J%%%%%%%%6&8&:&<&>&$a$$$a$*!$$d%d&d'dNOPQa$$$$h&`#$`h$&`#$a$t%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%6&8&:&>&@&B&٭hWZCJZ^JaJ hWZZ^JaJ(hWZ9Z^JaJ(hWZ9CJZ^JaJhWZ hWZZhWZ<CJZ^JhWZCJZ^JhWZCJZ^J>&@&B& $da$$B 00P&P <0' (5!"#$% (2Dpv$$If!vh#vC:V l V0 5C4DyK  http://wwwyK http://www/ODINDO<@FFI@@b"  666666666vvvvvvvvv666666>6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666hH6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666662 0@P`p2( 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p8XV~^J _HmH nH sH tH J`J Normal$A$_HaJmH sH tH @@@  Heading 1$@& CJ^JaJJ@J  Heading 2$$@&a$9CJ ^JaJ4J @J  Heading 9 $$@&a$9CJ$^JaJ4DA`D Default Paragraph FontVi@V 0 Table Normal :V 44 la (k ( 0No List @>@@ Title$a$5\aJ htHuFJ@F Subtitle$a$5\aJ htHubOb Heading 2.Heading 2$$@&a$5\aJ htHuzO"z !Body Text Indent.Body Text Indent $A$a$CJaJhtHuVS@2V Body Text Indent 3 `aJhtHu\O\ Heading 3.Heading 3$@&5\aJ$htHuNT@RN  Block Text^`aJhtHutOt Heading 1.Heading 1 $ PP@&]^P5\aJhtHu0O0 1CJ aJ htHu@B@@  Body TextxaJhtHu4U@4  Hyperlink >*B*^J 2)@2  Page Number^J B @B Footer  9r aJhtHu6@6  Footnote Text@&@@ Footnote ReferenceH*@P@@  Body Text 2 $A$a$CJfR@f Body Text Indent 2$VA$^`Va$ CJ^JaJVC@V Body Text Indent $`a$ CJ^JaJ 4@4 Header ! 9r PK![Content_Types].xmlN0EH-J@%ǎǢ|ș$زULTB l,3;rØJB+$G]7O٭V$ !)O^rC$y@/yH*񄴽)޵߻UDb`}"qۋJחX^)I`nEp)liV[]1M<OP6r=zgbIguSebORD۫qu gZo~ٺlAplxpT0+[}`jzAV2Fi@qv֬5\|ʜ̭NleXdsjcs7f W+Ն7`g ȘJj|h(KD- dXiJ؇(x$( :;˹! I_TS 1?E??ZBΪmU/?~xY'y5g&΋/ɋ>GMGeD3Vq%'#q$8K)fw9:ĵ x}rxwr:\TZaG*y8IjbRc|XŻǿI u3KGnD1NIBs RuK>V.EL+M2#'fi ~V vl{u8zH *:(W☕ ~JTe\O*tHGHY}KNP*ݾ˦TѼ9/#A7qZ$*c?qUnwN%Oi4 =3N)cbJ uV4(Tn 7_?m-ٛ{UBwznʜ"Z xJZp; {/<P;,)''KQk5qpN8KGbe Sd̛\17 pa>SR! 3K4'+rzQ TTIIvt]Kc⫲K#v5+|D~O@%\w_nN[L9KqgVhn R!y+Un;*&/HrT >>\ t=.Tġ S; Z~!P9giCڧ!# B,;X=ۻ,I2UWV9$lk=Aj;{AP79|s*Y;̠[MCۿhf]o{oY=1kyVV5E8Vk+֜\80X4D)!!?*|fv u"xA@T_q64)kڬuV7 t '%;i9s9x,ڎ-45xd8?ǘd/Y|t &LILJ`& -Gt/PK! ѐ'theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0wooӺ&݈Э5 6?$Q ,.aic21h:qm@RN;d`o7gK(M&$R(.1r'JЊT8V"AȻHu}|$b{P8g/]QAsم(#L[PK-![Content_Types].xmlPK-!֧6 0_rels/.relsPK-!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-!0C)theme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-! ѐ' theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK] :!' [D1 !#$j%&,-./]1T223 6>!?AB_EcEGHdLMOOP+Q STWVZ<__aceikpscsssUtpvxz}1KI=;vPw nW#Sש"@ɬ0!mh0  Ec~&B:Mt"#0#B#]###'8(R((((n))C**++---.|...o/0000 1111 2224\555f66$7r:E<j<<<<T=|==W>>}?@@P@_AbA-!-0! Z Z (paƍ((x6VZN#t%B& "#%')+)Fe< :Rv#&%>&B&!$&(*,!!tbAX@   @D  ,(  nB  c $DԔ3"? N0n"2 #  s"*?N2  3 jJ 02`B B c $DjJ 1n"1`B B c $DjJ N11\2  3 jJ 3"?^ U2P"U2  #  s"*?`B B c $DjJ `U2P"U2`B  B c $DjJ U2U2 (  "  0jJ))?3"? B S  ?!P"rw1sNn"s P"sos"56X[dgRSIJ&'g h   , - jkz{^_BC"#23ab\]GM "##$$&&`&b& '!'>(?(})~)******n+o+{+|+++--[-\-----c.d...//`1a133%6&688<;=;==?!?M?AADDfEgE|EFF3FGG~HDIEIiLjLMMMNNNNNFOGOtOuOOOOOPPPPQQ'S(STTVVpXqXZZZZZZC\J\{]|]``Za[aaaabcceeiikkllUnVnoo+o,oIoJopppppprrttsvtv`wawwwww2{3{{{}}KLЂтCxyʼnƉ +1y~ijԑՑ`d[b'-̬Ҭ4=ǰʰӰذ,1"#@E~#$/NYx#mn7JK9bcRS01EFu"33333333333333333"N ʄRr_N-t/4Pf?B AF/.dS.2Y=<KV?q!CrpHEI--YpV(6bL fek:XpMyo~.+xx MM]M`CJ^J o(" `CJ^J o() MM]M`CJ^J o(()]`^J o()" ]`CJ^J o()"MM]M`^J o() ]`CJ^J o(HMM]M`^J o(()]`^J o()h^h`CJ o() ]`CJ^J o(H MM]M`CJ^J o( ]`CJ^J o()h`^J o(" ]`CJ^J o() ]`CJ^J o()]`CJ^J aJo()B pMyot/-YpVN 6bHEIS.2KV?f=/.ekR+xx f!CWZE@d"1EPX`!HHLHjHHHHH(Unknown G.Cx Times New Roman5Symbol3. .Cx ArialU @MCS Taybah S_U normal.; @Akhbar MTG @MCS ARAFAT HIGHC @MCS AL SHAMALK ASimplified ArabicE b@Monotype KoufiM ATraditional ArabicA$BCambria Math#1hFhƄC4jH:.`WH:.`W!4"" KqHP $PE2! xx ''DBJH/ 'DH'1/) 9DI 'D-B AJ -1J) 'D*9(J1rhRenasoP            Oh+'0  8 D P \hpx( rhNormalRenaso203Microsoft Office Word@|r@j@ԥQ4K@k[.H:՜.+,D՜.+,X hp  lawcolW`" ( Title 8@ _PID_HLINKSAP~+ http://www/  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-/012345789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUWXYZ[\]_`abcdejRoot Entry FA[lData .1Table6>WordDocumentDZSummaryInformation(VDocumentSummaryInformation8^CompObjr  F Microsoft Word 97-2003 Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q