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avid W. Neubauer, Americas courts and the criminal justices system, 5 ed, wadswarth publishing company, 1996. Paul H. Robinson, Legality and discretion in the distribution criminal sanctions, Harvard Journal on legislation, Volume 20, No.2, 1988. Dennis Lloyd, introduction jurisprudence, second edition, London, 1965. Rogue (Georges), Lapplication de la peine parlejuge. Saleilles (Raymond), the individualization of punishment, London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ivid W. Neubauer: Americas courts and the criminal justice system, Sed, Wadswarth publishing company, 1996, P.67-68. () /. 9(/ 'D-EJ/ 'D4H'1(J  'D81HA 'DE4//) H'DE.AA) DD9B'(  /'1 'DE7(H9'* 'D,'E9J)  'D'3CF/1J)  1985  583. () /. E-E/ E57AI 'DBDDJ  9DE 'D',1'E H*7H1G AJ E51  E,D) 'DB'FHF H'D'B*5'/  91  37  1937  5115. () /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  9DE 'D9B'(  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1967  571. () /. -EH/J 'D,'3E  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D(:/'/J  E7(9) 'D%14'/  (:/'/  1963  5437. () /. #-E/ A*-J 31H1  'DH3J7 AJ B'FHF 'D9BH('*  ,1  'DB3E 'D9'E  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1981  5773. () /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DD(F'FJ  'DB3E 'D9'E  72  /'1 'DFB1J DD7('9)  (J1H*  1975  5766. () /. 9DJ 1'4/  'DB'FHF 'D,F'&J  'DE/.D H#5HD 'DF81J) 'D9'E)  72  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1974  5701. () /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DD(F'FJ  E5/1 3'(B  5765. () JH,JF ,J1G'*  CFH2 'DE-'E')  *1,EG %DI 'D91(J) -3F 'D,/'HJ HE-E/ 9E1  EC*() 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1967  5111. () /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DB3E 'D9'E  73  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1973  5849. () David W. Neubauer, Op. Cit, P.408. () /. 9(/ 'D-EJ/ 'D4H'1(J  E5/1 3'(B  583. () /. A'6D F51 'DDG 9H6  B'FHF 'D,2'! AJ E'6JG H-'61G  E,D) 'D-BHB  ,'E9) 'DCHJ*  94  38  1984  5177. ()Paul H. Robinson, Legality and Discretion in the distribution of criminal sanctions, Harvard journal on legislation volume20, No.2, 1988, P. 459. () Dennis Lloyd, Introduction to Jurisprudence, second edition, 1965, London, P.1. () #F81 AJ *A5JD 0DC: - David W. Neubauer, Op. Cit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avid W. Neubauer, Op. Cit. P. 68-69. () /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DB3E 'D9'E  E5/1 3'(B  5849. () /. E-EH/ E-EH/ E57AI  FEH0, DB'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DB'G1)  1976  512. () /. 9'/D 9'21  'DF81J) 'D9'E) AJ 81HA 'D,1JE)  'DE7(9) 'D9'DEJ)  'DB'G1)  1967  516-17. () /. 9DJ ,E9) E-'1(  /H1 'D',*G'/ 'DB6'&J AJ *7HJ1 'DB'9/) 'DB'FHFJ)  E,D) 'DB6'!  91-2  1991  572. () /. -3FJF %(1'GJE 5'D- 9(J/  'DF81J) 'D9'E) DD81HA 'DE.AA)  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1970  5198. () Roques (Georges). Lapplication Delaeine Parlejuge, P.54. () Saleilles (Raymond), The Individualization of punishment, London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