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www.Arablaw.org. /. EH3I 'DDHJ2J  'D*FEJ) 'D%/'1J)  /'1 H'&D DD7('9) H'DF41  9E'F  71  2000. JHF3 91(  9BH/ FBD 'D*CFHDH,J' H'DEHBA EF 41H7G' 'DEBJ/) DDEF'A3) HAB'K DDB'FHFJF 'D#1/FJ H'DE51J  (-+ EF4H1 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ*  'DEHB9: www.Arablaw.org. +'FJ'K: 'DBH'FJF B'FHF EF9 'D'-*C'1 'D91'BJ 1BE (71) D3F) 1941 ('DED:J). B'FHF *F8JE 'D-J') 'D'B*5'/J) 'D91'BJ 1BE (11) D3F) 1942 ('DED:J). 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 1BE (40) D3F) 1951. B'FHF *F8JE 'D*,'1) 'D91'BJ 1BE (20) D3F) 1970. B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'D91'BJ 1BE (149) D3F) 1970 ('DED:J). B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'D91'BJ 1BE (30) D3F) 1984 B'FHF (1'!'* 'D'.*1'9 H'DFE'0, 'D5F'9J) H'DE9DHE'* :J1 'DEA5- 9FG' H'D/H'&1 'DE*C'ED) 'D91'BJ 'D5'/1 (#E1 3D7) 'D'&*D'A 'DE$B* 1BE (81 )D3F) 2004. B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'D*HF3J 1BE (64) D3F) 1991. B'FHF *4,J9 'DEF'A3) HEF9 'D'-*C'1 H'D:4 'D*,'1J 'DJEFJ 1BE (19) D3F) 1999. B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'DE51J 1BE (77) D3F) 1999. B'FHF -E'J) 'DE3*GDC 'DE51J 1BE (97) D3F) 2006. B'FHF 'DEF'A3) :J1 'DE41H9) H'D#31'1 'D*,'1J) 'D#1/FJ 1BE (15) D3F) 2000. B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'D#1/FJ 1BE (49) D3F) 2002. B'FHF -E'J) 'D%F*', 'DH7FJ 'D#1/FJ 'DE$B* 1BE (50) D3F) 2002. '*A'BJ) *1(3  'DE*9DB) ('D-BHB 'DAC1J) 'DE*5D) ('D*,'1) D3F) 1994. +'D+'K: 'DC*( ('DD:) 'D%FCDJ2J) Kenneth W. Clarkson, Roger Le Roy Miller, Bonnie Blaire, west business Law, west publishing company, st Paul, 1980. Henry R. Cheeseman, contemporary and e-commerce Law, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, U.S.A, 2003. 1'(9'K: 'DBH'FJF 'D#,F(J) Sherman act U.S.A. Act 1890. Clayton act U.S.A. Act 1914. cod de La commerce, dalloze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enneth W. Clarkson, Roger Le Roy Miller, Bonnie Blaire, west business Law, west publishing company, st Paul, 1980, P. 806. (2) J0G( 'D1#J 'D1',- ABGJ'K %DI #F E9J'1 'D*EJJ2 (JF 'DEF'A3) 'DE41H9) H:J1 'DE41H9) J*E+D (E9J'1 " 'D.7# " A6D'K 9F (96 'D"1'! 'D*J *#.0 (E9J'1 #.D'BJ #H *3*F/ %DI 'D9'/'* H'DE4'91. DE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD #F81: 2JF) 'D5A'1  'DEF'A3) :J1 'DE41H9) DDEDCJ) 'D5F'9J)  EC*() 'D-'E/ DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  71  2002  531 HE' (9/G'. (1) (G0' 'DE9FI: 92 'D/JF 'D/F'5H1J  /. 9(/'D-EJ/ 'D4H'1(J  'DE3$HDJ) 'DE/FJ) AJ 6H! 'DABG H'DB6'!  (/HF *'1J. F41  51289. (2) E+'D 0DC E' F5* 9DJG 'DE'/*'F (98 H99) EF B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'D91'BJ 'DED:I 1BE (149) D3F) 1970  #E' B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'DF'A0 D3F) 1984 ADE JF5 9DI 'D'D*2'E ('D'E*F'9 9F 'DEF'A3) :J1 'DE41H9)  HC0DC E' *F5 9DJG 'DE'/) (66/1) EF B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'DE51J 1BE (17) D3F) 1999  H'D*J *F5 9DJ #FG " J9*(1 EF'A3) :J1 E41H9) CD A9D J.'DA 'D9'/'* H'D#5HD 'DE19J) AJ 'DE9'ED'* 'D*,'1J)...." (1) 5/1 B'FHF 4J1E'F 9'E 1890  H5/1 B'FHF CD'J*HF HB'FHF D,F) 'D*,'1) 'DA/1'DJ) 9'E 1914  #E' B'FHF 1H(F3HF ('*E'F AB/ 5/1 9'E 1930 H,EJ9G' **9DB (EF'G6) 'D'-*C'1 H*B1J1 'D-B AJ 'DEF'A3). (2) /. C'ED (C1J  E('/& 'D'B*5'/  'D/'1 'D,'E9J)  (J1H*  1986  5129. (1) (HD #. 3'EHJD3F  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  5364. (2) F41 G0' 'DB'FHF AJ 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ)  'D9// 1974 AJ 29/11/1941. HB/ #D:J G0' 'DB'FHF (5/H1 B'FHF *F8JE 'D-J') 'D'B*5'/J) 1BE (11) D3F) 1942. () Kenneth W. Clark Son, Op. Cit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enneth W. Clarck, Rogev Leroy Miller, Op. Cit., P. 806. (1) C0DC #F81 F5 'DE'/) 420/2  EF B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'DA1F3J. (1) 'DEH'/ (4-5) EF B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'D#1/FJ  HC0DC (4-#-2) EF B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'DJEFJ  H'DA5D 'D1'(9 EF B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'D*HF3J. (1) HDE J-// 'DE419 'D#1/FJ H'DJEFJ  AJE' %0' C'F *B1J1 'D#39'1 JCHF AJ -'D) 2J'/) 'D#39'1 #H 'F.A'6G'  (D #H1/ 'DE419'F B'9/) 9'E) *F7(B AJ 'D-'D*JF  'DEH'/ (4-() #1/FJ H(4-#-2) JEFJ. 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Cit., P. 808. (1) #F81 'DEH'/ 5/1 EF B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'D#1/FJ  H7/ +'D+'K EF B'FHF 'DEF'A3) HEF9 'D'-*C'1 'DJEFJ. () Henry. R. Cheeseman, Op. Cit., P. 882. (1) *9DJB D,F) 'D.(1'! 9DI 'DB'FHF 'DFEH0,J DDEF'A3)  542. () Henry, R. Cheeseman, Op. Cit., P. 883. (2) 'DE'/) (3) EF B'FHF CD'J*HF 'D#E1JCJ  H#F81: Kenneth, W. Clarkson, Roger Leroy Miller, Op. Cit., P. 822. (3) #F81 'DEH'/ (420/1) EF B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'DA1F3J  H(7/4) EF B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'DJEFJ  H(5/#) EF B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'D#1/FJ. (1) /. -3JF E-E/ A*-J  'DEE'13'* 'D'-*C'1J) H'D*-'DA'* 'D*,'1J) D*BHJ6 -1J) 'D*,'1) H'DEF'A3) " /1'3) DF8'E 'D'F*J*13* AJ 'DFEH0, 'D#E1JCJ "  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  E51  (/HF *'1J. F41  522-24. (2) /. -3JF E-EH/ A*-J  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  526. (1) C0DC 'DE'/) (7/6) EF B'FHF 'DEF'A3) HEF9 'D'-*C'1 H'D:4 'D*,'1J 'DJEFJ. (2) (G0' 'DE9FI  /. 9(/'DE,J/ 'D-CJE  'DEH,2 AJ 41- 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ  ,1-  E5'/1 'D'D*2'E  E7(9) 'D9'FJ  (:/'/  74  1974  589. 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(1) *B1J1 D,F) 'D.(1'! -HD B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'DFEH0,J  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  544. (2) #F81 AJ *-/J/ EAGHE 'D611 'D0J J5(( 'DEF*,JF 'DE'/) (2) EF G0' 'DB'FHF. (1) *B1J1 D,F) 'D.(1'! -HD B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'DFEH0,J  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  545-46. (2) /. -3JF E-E/ A*-J  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  531. (1) HG0' 'D417 C'F EB(HD'K AJ 'DHD'J'* 'DE*-/) 'D#E1JCJ)  HJ91A (417 'D*,'1) 'D9'/D) Afair trade agreement  H0DC (EB*6I B'FHF EJD1 *'J/FC (Miller-Tydings) 'D0J 5/1 9'E 1937 H9/D B'FHF 4J1E'F  'D0J J-81 AJ E'/*G 'D#HDI #J '*A'B 9DI *BJJ/ 'DEF'A3)  :J1 %F B'FHF EJD1 *'J/FC #D:J AJ 13/3/1976. #F81: Kenneth W. Clarkson, Roger Leroy Miller, Op. Cit., P. 823. (1) 'DE'/) (2-#HD'K-() EF 'DB'FHF 'DFEH0,J DDEF'A3). (2) 'DE'/) (2-#HD'K-,) EF 'DB'FHF 'DFEH0,J DDEF'A3). (3) #F81: *9DJB D,F) 'D.(1'! 9DI B'FHF 'DEF'A3)  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  537. () Henry R. Cheeseman, Op. Cit., P. 889. (2) *9DJB D,F) 'D.(1'! 9DI B'FHF 'DEF'A3) 'DFEH0,J  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  539. (1) #F81 F5 'DE'/) (7) EF 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'D91'BJ 'D*J *(JF -'D'* 'D*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D-B. 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