ࡱ> 79456_0 bjbj Gbbc A H\0008h\0t9XX(*%*%*%8999999|<.?V9-*%$$^*%*%9<<.9222*%.<82*%822n7@8``X%4 8 8D90t98 ?1r?@8?8 *%*%2*%*%*%*%*%992*%*%*%t9*%*%*%*%?*%*%*%*%*%*%*%*%*% :  #. /. 9'E1 9(/ 'DA*'- 'D,HE1/ #3*'0 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E CDJ) 'DB'FHF / ,'E9) 'DEH5D/. F:E '3-'B 2J' E/13 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E CDJ) 'DB'FHF / ,'E9) 'DEH5DEB/E): J9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ (E5'/1G 'D91AJ) H'D'*A'BJ) HE('/&G 0DC 'DA19 'DB/JE DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  *(DH1* #-C'EG 9(1 9BH/ EF 'D2EF ".0) 4CD BH'9/ 91AJ) H'*A'BJ) ,1I *BFJFG' AJ '*A'BJ'* 9'E) EF0 'DB1F 'D*'39 941 DJHA1 'D-E'J) 'DB'FHFJ) DD%F3'F H'DEE*DC'* 'DE/FJ) 9DI '.*D'A #FH'9G' AJ #HB'* 'D-1H( H'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-)  HJ-BB 6(7 #9E'D 'DB*'D H#3'DJ(G (*BJJ/ -B 'D#71'A AJ 'D-1( #H 'DF2'9 'DE3D- EF '3*./'E E' *4'! EF H3'&D H#3'DJ( AJ 'DB*'D (G/A *.AJA 'DE9'F') H'D"D'E H*BDJD 'D.3'&1 'D*J *.DAG' G0G 'D#H6'9 /HDJ) C'F* #E /'.DJ) H'D*J JH',GG' 'D#A1'/ 93C1JJF C'FH' #E E/FJJF. (JFE' J9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F A19'K -/J+'K DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  8G1 AJ #9B'( 'D-1( 'D9'DEJ) 'D+'FJ) 'D*J /'1* 1-'G' AJ 'DB1F 'D941JF  -J+ ,1I */HJD -BHB 'D%F3'F (9/ 'F*G'! G0G 'D-1( %/1'C'K EF 'D/HD #F *F8JE 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) J,( #F J*E HAB'K DE('/& -BHB 'D%F3'F  H%/E',G' AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E.   HDCF 8GH1 G0JF 'DA19JF D*-BJB G/AGE' 'DE4*1C -E'J) 'D%F3'F H5J'F) C1'E*GP H'D*.AJA EF E9'F'*GP  ,9D 'D(96 EF 'DE.*5JF ('DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E J*H,GHF F-H %/1', E5'/1 #-/GE' 6EF E5'/1 'D".1 ('D1:E EF #F DCD EFG' E9FIK E.*DA'K HE5'/1 E.*DA)  H9D'B) E*EJ2) ((96 'DE('/& AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  D0DC ,'! G0' 'DA5D E(JF'K 'D'.*D'A'* 'DB'&E) (JF 'DB'FHFJF EF F'-J) E9FI CD EFGE'  HEF F'-J) 9D'B*GE' (E(/# 'D3J'/) H-81 '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  DCJ F5D AJ 'DFG'J) %DI 'D#+1 'DE*1*( 9DI G0G 'D'.*D'A'*  9F 71JB (J'F 'D9D'B) 'DB'&E) (JFGE'  H9DJGP FB3E 'DEH6H9 %DI +D'+) E('-+  J*F'HD 'DE(-+ 'D#HD EFG' *91JA 'DB'FHFJF #E' 'DE(-+ 'D+'FJ AJ(JF 9D'B*GE' (E('/& AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E HAJ 'DE(-+ 'D+'D+ F3D7 'D6H! 9DI 9D'B*GE' E9 (96GE' 'D(96. 'DE(-+ 'D#HD *91JA 'DB'FHFJF 'D-',) %DI -E'J) 'DA1/ EE' B/ J*916 DG EF 9FA H*93A 9DI #1'6J 'D/HD 'D*J J*H',/ 9DJG'  HD/* E,EH9*JF E*EJ2*JF EF 'DBH'9/ B3E EFG' 3EJ ('DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ 'D0J CE57D- 8G1 AJ 3(9JFJ'* 'DB1F 'DE'6J H'1*(7 ('DEA'H6'* 'D*J ,1* (JF 1974-1977 AJ ,FJA H'D*J 'F*G* (H69 (1H*HCHDJ ,FJA 'DED-BJF ('*A'BJ'* ,FJA 'D#1(9 D9'E 1949  H'D0J DG E1'/A'* #.1I 3(B*G AJ 'D8GH1 HGE' E57D- B'FHF 'D-1( HE57D- B'FHF 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) H'DD0'F J4J9 '3*./'EGE' EF B(D 'D93C1JJF H'DB3E 'D+'FJ EF 'DBH'9/ J7DB 9DJG' *3EJ) 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F 'D0J CE57D- #J6' 8G1 AJ 3(9JFJ'* 'DB1F 'DE'6J 9DI '+1 FA'0 'D9G/JF 'D/HDJJF D-BHB 'D%F3'F  HDG0JF 'DB'FHFJF E9'FJ E*EJ2)  HD',D (J'F 5H1) 'D'.*D'A (JF 'DB'FHFJF EF G0G 'DF'-J) B3EF' 'DE(-+ %DI E7D(JF. 'DE7D( 'D#HD *91JA 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ H1/* *9'1JA C+J1) (.5H5 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ  -J+ 91A (#FG "E,EH9) 'DE('/& H'D#-C'E 'DEF8E) DDH3'&D H'D71B 'D.'5) ('D-1( ('D%6'A) %DI 'D-E'J) DD3C'F 'DE/FJJF  H'DE16I H'DE5'(JF EF 'DEB'*DJF #31I 'D-1( "(). H(#FG "E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'D/HDJ) 'DEH6H9) (EB*6I '*A'BJ'* H'91'A /HDJ) E.55) ('D*-/J/ D-D 'DE4'CD 0'* 'D5A) 'D%F3'FJ) 'DF',E) E('41) 9F 'DEF'29'* 'DE3D-) 'D/HDJ) #H :J1 'D/HDJ) H'D*J *-/ D'9*('1'* %F3'FJ) EF -B #71'A 'DF2'9 AJ 'DD,H! %DI E' J.*'1HFG EF #3'DJ( HH3'&D AJ 'DB*'D  H*-EJ 'D#4.'5 H'DEE*DC'* 'D*J **611 EF ,1'! 'DF2'9"().CE' 91A (#FG "E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'D/HDJ) 'D*J **H.I -E'J) A&'* E9JF) *6E 'D#4.'5 'D0JF D' J4*1CHF AJ 'DB*'D #H 'D0JF CAH' 9F 'DE4'1C) AJG CE' **H.I EF9 (96 'D#3'DJ( H'DH3'&D AJ 'D#9E'D 'D-1(J)".() H(#FG "E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'D/HDJ) 'D*J *3*G/A AJ -'D'* 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) -E'J) 'D#4.'5 H'DE5'(JF EF ,1'! G0' 'DF2'9 HAJ %7'1 #H39 -E'J) 'D#9J'F 'D*J DJ3* DG' 9D'B) E('41) ('D9EDJ'* 'D93C1J)".() H91A #J6' (#FG "E,EH9) 'DE('/& H'DBH'9/ 'DE*AB 9DJG' /HDJ' H'D*J *G/A %DI 'D-/ EF '3*./'E 'D9FA AJ HB* 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 9F 71B -E'J) 'D#A1'/ 'DE4*1CJF AJ 'D9EDJ'* 'D-1(J) #H 'D0JF CAH' 9F 'DE4'1C) AJG'  H'D,1-I H'DE16I H'DE5'(JF H'D#31I H'DE/FJJF HC0DC 9F 71JB ,9D 'D9FA AJ 'DE9'1C 'D93C1J) EB*51' 9DI *DC 'D#9E'D 'D61H1J) D*-BJB 'DG/A 'D93C1J".() HAJ 'D*9'1JA 'D3'(B) GF'C *1CJ2 9DI 'DG/A EF G0' 'DB'FHF H9DI 'D-'D'* 'D*J *31J .D'DG' BH'9/G 0'* 'D7(J9) 'D91AJ) H'D'*A'BJ)  H'D#4.'5 'D0JF J*E -E'J*GE H'DEE*DC'* 'D*J JE*F9 9F EG',E*G' HDCF EF /HF (J'F 'D#4.'5 'D0JF JD*2EHF (E1'9') G0G 'DBH'9/. (JFE' H1/ AJ FEH0, #.1 EF 'D*9'1JA 'D*J *F'HD* G0' 'DB'FHF (J'F 'D#4.'5 'D0JF 3JD*2EHF (BH'9/G. AB/ 91A (#FG ",ED) 'DBH'FJF 'D*J *-EJ 'D0JF D' J4'1CHF AJ 'D#9E'D 'D-1(J) #H 'D0JF CAH' 9F 'DE4'1C) AJG'  H*F6E H3'&D 'DB*'D H#3'DJ(G HGH H',( 'D*7(JB #+F'! 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 'D/HDJ) H:J1 'D/HDJ)  HED2E 9DI 'D3H'! DD/HD H'D,E'9'* 'DE9'16) 'DE3D-) HGH ED2E #J6' DDBH'* 'DE4'1C) AJ 9EDJ'* -A8 'D3D'E H%FA'0 'D3D'E %0' E' 4'1C* G0G 'DBH'* AJ #9E'D B*'DJ) ".() H91A (#FG "E,EH9) 'DE('/& H'DBH'9/ 'D*J *-/ EF '3*./'E 'D9FA #+F'! 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) #H EF 'D"+'1 'DF',E) 9F 'D-1( *,'G 'D%F3'F 9'E)"  AGH A19 EF A1H9 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E D-BHB 'D%F3'F :16G -E'J) 'D#4.'5 'DE*611JF AJ -'D) 'DF2'9 'DE3D- H-E'J) 'DEE*DC'* H'D#EH'D 'D*J DJ3* DG' 9D'B) ('D9EDJ'* 'D93C1J) HGH J39I %DI -E'J) 'D3C'F 'D:J1 'DE4*1CJF AJ 'D9EDJ'* 'D93C1J) #H 'D0JF CAH' 9F 'D'4*1'C AJ 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) E+D 'D,1-I H'D:1BI #31I 'D-1(.() HDCF H('D1:E EF *-/J/ G0' 'D*91JA DD:16 'D9'E 'D0J #4'1* %DJG 'D*9'1JA 'D3'(B) HGH 'D-/ EF #9E'D 'D9FA D-E'J) 'D#4.'5 'D0JF D' J4'1CHF AJ 'D#9E'D 'D9/'&J) #H CAH' 9F 'DE4'1C) AJG'  %D' 'FG J9H/ HJ,9D EF 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ A19' DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F 9DI 'D1:E EF #F CD H'-/ EFGE' J9/ A19' E3*BD' HB'&E' (0'*G HGH E' 3FD'-8G 9F/ 'D(-+ AJ F7'B *7(JB CD EF 'DB'FHFJJF. 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F (JFE' 91A 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F (#FG "J*E+D AJ E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ H'DE('/& 'DEF5H5 9DJG' AJ 'D%9D'F'* H'DE9'G/'* 'D/HDJ) H'D*J *$EF -BHB H-1J'* 'D#A1'/ H'D49H( AJ EH',G) 'D/HD) #3'3' HGJ -BHB D5JB) ('D%F3'F H:J1 B'(D DD*F'2D 9FG'  H*D*2E 'D/HD) (-E'J*G' EF 'D'9*/'! #H 'D'F*G'C ".() HEF EF8H1 #.1 91A (#FG "E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'DB'FHFJ) 'DE*5A) ('D9EHEJ) H'D*,1J/ 'D*J '1*6*G' 'D,E'9) 'D/HDJ) #5/1*G' AJ 5H1) E9'G/'* H(1H*HCHD'* /HDJ) ED2E) (B5/ -E'J) -BHB 'D%F3'F 'DE-CHE (H5AG %F3'F' H96H' AJ 'DE,*E9 EF 9/H'F 3D7'*G 'D-'CE) #H *B5J1G' H*E+D 'D-/ 'D#/FI EF 'D-E'J) 'D*J D' J,H2 DD/HD 'D#96'! AJG' 'DF2HD 9FG E7DB' #H 'D*-DD EF (96G' AJ :J1 'D'3*+F'!'* 'DEB11) AJG'".() HAJ G0JF 'D*91JAJF 'D*1CJ2 ,'1J 9DI 'DG/A H9DI 'DBH'9/ 'D*J JF(9 G0' 'DB'FHF H*-/J/G' (#FG' 'DBH'9/ 'DH'1/) AJ 'D'*A'BJ'* H'D5CHC 'D/HDJ) (JFE' AJ *9'1JA #.1I ,1I (J'F 'DA*1) 'D*J J31J .D'DG' A91A (#FG "J*6EF E('/& HBH'9/ *31J AJ 2EF 'D3DE H'D-1( 9DI 'D3H'!"() HDCF EF /HF #F J-// 'DG/A EF G0' 'DB'FHF. HAJ *91JA #.1 (#FG "E,EH9) 'DBH'9/ 'D*J *3*G/A -E'J) -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 2EF 'D3DE"() . %D' %F G0' 'D*91JA ':AD 0C1 31J'F B'FHF -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ A*1) 'D-1( #H CE' *3EI 'D"F 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-). CE' H,/* *9'1JA *1C2 9DI 'D%9D'F'* H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D*J J*CHF EFG' -J+ 91A (#FG "J6E 'D%9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F D9'E 1948 H'D9G/JF 'D/HDJJF H'D(1H*HCHD'* 'DED-B) (GE' ('D%6'A) %DI 'D'*A'BJ'* 'D*A5JDJ) 'D#.1I 'D*J H69* (3(( #GEJ*G' HGJ 'D'*A'BJ) 'D/HDJ) DEF'G6) 'D*90J( H'*A'BJ) -BHB 'D7AD H'*A'BJ) -61 'D*EJJ2 6/ 'DE1#) H'*A'BJ) EF9 'D*EJJ2 'D9F51J"() HEJ2) G0' 'D*91JA 'FG C'F B'51' 9F 'D%-'7) (C'A) 'DBH'9/ 'D*J *CHF B'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F 'D9'DEJ) EFG' H'D%BDJEJ) 'D9'E) EFG' H'D.'5) CE' 'FG 1C2 9DI 'D,'F( 'D4CDJ DDB'FHF /HF 'DEH6H9 #H 'D#71 'D2E'FJ) 'D*J J31J .D'DG'. AB'FHF -BHB 'D%F3'F CE' H5AG 'D(96 H',( 'D*7(JB EF -J+ 'DE(/# AJ ,EJ9 'D#HB'* #J AJ HB* 'D3DE H'+F'! 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 9DI 'D3H'!  J13J BH'9/ ED2E) DD-CHE'* AJ 9D'B*G' ('D#A1'/  *H,/ BH'9/G AJ 9// EF 'D5CHC 'D9'DEJ) H'D%BDJEJ) 'D*J *:7J F7'B H'39 EF 'DB6'J' E+D 'D-BHB 'DE/FJ) H'D3J'3J) #H *1C2 9DI -BHB (9JFG' 9DI 3(JD 'DE+'D -61 'D*90J( #H *1C2 9DI A&'* E9JF) EF 'DE3*AJ/JF C'D#7A'D H'DF3'! CE' *H,/ %DI ,'F( G0G 'DE9'G/'* E,EH9) EGE) EF 'DBH'9/ 'D91AJ) JBHE 9DJG' G@@0' 'DB'FHF(). 'DE(-+ 'D+'FJ 9D'B) 'DB'FHFJF (E('/& AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E 'D0J FB5/G GF' GH 9D'B) 'DB'FHFJF (4CD .'5 (E(/# 3J'/) 'D/HD HE(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ). A'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ J-/ EF -1J) 'D/HD AJ '3*./'E E' *1J/ EF H3'&D H#3'DJ( AJ 'DB*'D HAJ 'D*9'ED E9 'D#A1'/ 'D0JF HB9H' *-* 3D7*G' EF #A1'/ 'D9/H  HJ3*G/A 'D,2! 'D#C(1 EF BH'9/G %DI *F8JE ,'F( EF ,H'F( '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) #D' HGJ '3*./'E 'DBH) 'DE3D-) /HF #F J*71B #H JG*E (E41H9J) #H 9/E E41H9J) '3*./'EG' . (JFE' J39I 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F 'D0J J3*G/A AJ 'DEB'E 'D#HD *F8JE 'D9D'B) (JF 'DA1/ H/HD*G (5A) #3'3J) %DI 'D-/ EF 3D7) 'D/HD) 9DI 'D#A1'/ H6E'F -CHE) ,J/) DGE EE' J-HD /HF 'D*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D3D7) 'DE.HD) DG' HJCAD BJ'EG' (H',('*G' *,'G #A1'/G' (-E'J*GE EF CD '9*/'! JB9 #H B/ JB9 9DJGE HJ*#+1 ('3*./'E 'DBH) #J'K C'F FH9G' AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ)  H0DC J9H/ %DI #F E6EHF BH'9/G H*FAJ0G' D' JCHF 9DI #CED H,G %D' %0' '3*B1* 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) H*-BB 'D3DE 'D0J 3JGJ& DD/HD %EC'FJ) 'D*H,G F-H 'D'G*E'E HE9'D,) EH'6J9 -BHB 'D#A1'/ 'D.'69JF D3D7*G' H*FEJ*G'. H9DJG F(-+ G0G 'D9D'B) AJ E7D(JF AJ 'D'HD 9D'B) 'DB'FHFJF (E(/# 3J'/) 'D/HD HAJ 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ 9D'B*GE' (E(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH). 'DE7D( 'D#HD 9D'B) 'DB'FHFJF (E(/# 3J'/) 'D/HD 3J'/) 'D/HD *9FJ : -1J) 'D/HD) AJ 'D*51A /'.D %BDJEG' H.'1,G  HDCF AJ %7'1 E' *A16G BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E 'D91AJ) H'D'*A'BJ)(). HDG0G 'D3J'/) 'D*J **E*9 (G' 'D/HD E8G1'F  ADD/HD) 'D-B AJ E('41) CD 'D'.*5'5'* 3H'! /'.D %BDJEG' HAJ 5D*G' (19'J'G'  #H .'1, 'D%BDJE AJ '*5'DG' H9D'B*G' ('D/HD 'D#.1I. A/'.D 'D%BDJE GJ 'D*J **HDI *F8JE #/') 'D-CE H'/'1) 4$HF 'D%BDJE 'DE.*DA) HH69 'D*41J9'* H*F8JE 'DB6'! HG0' GH 'DE8G1 'D/'.DJ DD3J'/). HAJ 'D.'1, GJ 'D*J **HDI *F8JE 9D'B'*G' E9 'D/HD 'D#.1I 9F 71JB *('/D 'DEE+DJF 'D/(DHE'3JJF H'DBF'5D H-6H1 'DE$*E1'* H%(1'E 'DE9'G/'* H'D'4*1'C AJ 96HJ) 'DEF8E'* 'D/HDJ) H:J1 0DC EF E8'G1 'DF4'7 'D/HDJ() H*/.D 6EF G0G 'D4$HF AJ F7'B (-+F' AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ H'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F *51A 'D/HD AJ -'D'* 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) (FH9JG' ('DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ) H9D'B) 'D/HD) (#A1'/G' ('DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F). 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ H3J'/) 'D/HD : J4'1C 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ 'DF29) 'DE*EJ2) DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E HGJ *BJJ/G D3J'/) 'D/HD  -J+ DF JCHF DD/HD) E7DB 'D-1J) AJ '.*J'1 'DH3'&D H#3'DJ( 'DB*'D  #H AJ E9'ED*G' DEF JB9HF AJ B(6*G' EF 6-'J' 'D-1H( H'DF2'9'* 'D/HDJ)  (D **CHF EE'13*G' D3J'/*G' 6EF 'D-/H/ 'D*J *B*6JG' E*7D('* 'D%F3'FJ)(). AG0' 'DB'FHF (BH'9/G 'D91AJ) H'D'*A'BJ) BJ/ 3J'/) 'D/HD EF F'-J*JF  'D'HDI A16 BJH/'K 9DI 3DHC 'D/HD #71'A 'DF2'9 'DE3D- AJ #+F'! 'D9EDJ'* 'DB*'DJ) HGJ 61H1) 'D*EJJ2 (JF E' GH E/FJ EF 'DEE*DC'* H'D#4.'5 H(JF E' GH 93C1J(). H,9D -B 'DE*-'1(JF AJ '.*J'1 H3'&D %D-'B 'D611 ('D9/H -B'K EBJ/'K HDJ3 E7DB'K ('DF5 9DI -81 '3*./'E (96 #FH'9 'D#3D-) H*BJJ/ '3*./'E  H-81 'DD,H! %DI (96 'D3(D H'D#3'DJ( AJ 'D9EDJ'* 'DB*'DJ)  AB/ -81 9DI 'D/HD 'DE*-'1() #F: *3*./E 'D3E #H 'D#3D-) 'D3'E) AJ 'DB*'D. 'DD,H! %DI 'D:/1 (G/A B*D #H ,1- #A1'/ 'D/HD) 'DE9'/J) #H 'D,J4 'DE9'/J. B*D #H ,1- 'D9/H 'D0J #A5- 9F FJ*G AJ 'D'3*3D'E. 'D%9D'F (9/E 'D%(B'! 9DI 'D-J'). *9E/ %3'!) '3*./'E 9DE 'DG/F) #H 'D#9D'E 'DH7FJ) #H 'D4'1'* #H 'D#2J'! 'D93C1J) DD9/H. */EJ1 EE*DC'* 'D9/H #H -,2G' /HF #F JB*6J 0DC 61H1'* -1(J). '3*./'E 'D#3D-) H'DB0'&A H'DEH'/ 'D*J EF 4#FG' #-/'+ %5'('* H"D'E D' E(11 DG'. EG',E) 'DE/F H'DB1I H'DE3'CF :J1 'DE-EJ) #H B5AG'  #J'K C'F* 'DH3JD) 'DE3*./E). EG',E) /H1 'D9('/) H'DE9'1A H'DAFHF H'D"+'1 'D*'1J.J) H'DE3*4AJ'*. *91J6 E/JF) DD3D( H'DFG( H-*I %F (':*G' 'DG,HE(). #J BJ/ -B 'D/HD AJ %7'1 *51AG' (G0' 'D4#F AJ -1( /HDJ) B'&E) (JFG' H(JF :J1G' . #E' 'DF'-J) 'D+'FJ) AB/ BJ/ EF 3J'/) 'D/HD AJ *9'EDG' E9 'D#4.'5 'D0JF JB9HF AJ B(6*G' (3(( 'D-1( 'DB'&E) (JFG' H(JF :J1G' EF 'D/HD  #J 'D#4.'5 'DH'B9JF *-* 3D7*G'  EF 'D#31I  H'D,1-I  H'D:1BI  H'DE/FJJF H'DB*DI  H*F7(B 9DI G$D'! BH'9/ '*A'BJ'* ,FJA 'D#1(9() HJ3*AJ/HF EF #-C'E 'D-E'J) 'DECAHD) DGE AJ G0G 'D'*A'BJ'* 'D#1(9 AJ EH',G) 'D/HD) 'DH'B9JF *-* 3D7*G' HGE DJ3H' EF 19'J'G' . HG0G 'DBJH/ AJ '3*./'E #3'DJ( 'DB*'D #H E9'ED) 6-'J' 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) DE *9/ (B'51) 9DI 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 'D/HDJ) ACD E' 0C1F'G GF' C'F .'5'K ('DBH'9/ 'DE*(9) AJ 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 'D/HDJ) . (D *H,G 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ AJ %7'1 *BJJ/G D3J'/) 'D/HD #DJ A16 E,EH9) EF 'D'D*2'E'* 9DI 9'*B 'D/HD HDH #FG' *E+D 'D-/ 'D#/FI 'DH',( E1'9'*G  AJ -1H(G' 'D/'.DJ) #J AJ 8D 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 'D/'.DJ)  A-81 G0' 'DB'FHF 9DI #71'A 'DF2'9 H#-/G' GF' JCHF 'D/HD) 5'-() 'D3J'/)  #F *1*C( (96 'D#A9'D D#F AJ '1*C'(G' 'DE3'3 ('D-BHB 'D#3'3J) DD%F3'F H'D*J D' JECF #F J9J4 (/HFG'() HEF (J'F 0DC CDG FD'-8 #F 'DG/A 'D#.J1 EF G0G 'DBJH/ 'DEA1H6) 9DI 3J'/) 'D/HD C'F EH,G'K %DI *.AJA 'DE9'F') AJ #+F'! 'D-1H( /'.DJ) C'F* #E /HDJ) . 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F H3J'/) 'D/HD : DD(-+ 9F '+1 G0' 'DB'FHF AJ 3J'/) 'D/HD D'(/ EF 'DF81 %DI H69 -BHB 'D%F3'F B(D 9'E 1945 H(9/G. AB(D 9'E 1945  C'F 'G*E'E 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E (E3'&D **9DB (-BHB 'D%F3'F  E1C2'K 9DI -E'J) ,H'F( E9JF) EF -J') 'D%F3'F  HGJ ,'F( 'D-1J) -J+ -81* BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E 'DE*',1) ('D1BJB H9ED* 9DI EC'A-*G (H69 '*A'BJ'* 9/J/) (/# (9'E 1885  1890  1919  1926  H'G*E 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ #J6' (,'F( 'D5-) (-81G D*,'1) 'DE./1'* (H69 BH'9/ *-81 G0G 'D*,'1) AJ 1912  +E .E3 '*A'BJ'* AJ 1926  HEC'A-) 'D#H(&) H'D#E1'6 (H69 'D'*A'BJ) 'D/HDJ) 'D5-J) 9'E 1903 'D*J 9/D* 9'E 1912 +E 1926  CE' C'F GF'C 'G*E'E (-BHB 'DEDCJ) 'D#/(J) H'D5F'9J)  AC'F* GF'C '*A'BJ) 1886 D-E'J) 'DEDCJ) 'D+B'AJ) H'DAFJ) H'D#/(J)  H'*A'BJ) 1883 'D.'5) (-E'J) 'DEDCJ) 'D5F'9J)  %DI ,'F( -E'J) G0' 'DB'FHF D7H'&A E9JF) HGJ 'D9E'D H'D'BDJ'* A'D9E'D (/# 'D'G*E'E (GE (BJ'E EF8E) 'D9ED 'D/HDJ) 1919 'D*J H69* 'D9/J/ EF 'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) *G*E ('D9E'D H4$HFGE  #E' 'D'BDJ'* A'F H69GE 'DB'FHFJ B'E* ((J'FG '*A'BJ'* 'D5D- 'D*J #FG* 'D-1( 'D9'DEJ) 'D'HDI H'DEH6H9) 1919  1920(). HAJE' 9/' G0G 'D'*A'BJ'* 'D*J F8E* ,H'F( EF -BHB 'D%F3'F  (BJ 'DB3E 'D#C(1 EF -BHB 'D%F3'F 'D#3'3J) (9J/'K 9F *F'HD 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E H.'69'K DD#-C'E H'DBH'FJF 'D/'.DJ) DD/HD (9J/) 9F 1B'() 'DE,*E9 'D/HDJ. HDCF G0' 'DH69 (/# ('D*:JJ1 (9/ 9'E 1945 H(12* E('/& -BHB 'D%F3'F C#3'3 EH6H9J H9'E ('DF3() %DI 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  HC'F EF F*'&, 0DC #F #5(-* E('/& -BHB 'D%F3'F *4CD #33'K .'1,) 9F 'D/HD) HE*7AD) 9DJG' AJ 0'* 'DHB*  H(E9FI ".1 #5(-* 'DBJE 'DB'FHFJ) H'D',*E'9J) 'D/'.DJ) .'69) DDA-5 H'D*BJJE 'D.'1,J. A(9/ G0' 'D9'E '5(- 'D'-*1'E 'D4'ED D-BHB 'D%F3'F E(/#K #3'3J'K EF E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ  #13'G EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  H,3/*G EF (9/G 'D%9D'F'* H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ)(). H*:D( *J'1 'D-E'J) 'D/HDJ) D-BHB 'D%F3'F 9DI E(/# -5'F) 'D/HD) EF */.D 'DEF8E'* 'D/HDJ) EF0 'DD-8) 'D*J B'E* AJG' 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  H'5(- ('D%EC'F DDEF8E) 'D/HDJ) 'DF81 AJ E3'&D **9DB (-BHB 'D%F3'F ('D1:E EF H,H/ 'DE(/# 'D0J #13*G 'D#EE 'DE*-/) HGH 9/E 'D*/.D AJ 'D4$HF 'D/'.DJ) DD/HD(). H*(/D* 'D-'D) ('DF3() %DI 'D/HD EF 9/E 'D*/.D AJ 4$HFG' 'D/'.DJ) HEF (JFG' E3'&D -BHB 'D%F3'F %DI 'D*/.D HA16 'D1B'() 'D/HDJ) 9DI G0G 'DE3'&D HJ*H6- 0DC (4CD 'C(1 9F/E' F9H/ %DI F5 A 7 EF E/2 EF EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 'D*J -81* 9DI 'DEF8E) (#,G2*G' 'DE.*DA) 'D*/.D AJ 'D4$HF 'D/'.DJ) DD/HD (F5G' "DJ3 AJ G0' 'DEJ+'B E' J3H: DD#EE 'DE*-/) #F **/.D AJ 'D4$HF 'D/'.DJ) 'D*J *CHF EF 5EJE 'D3D7'F 'D/'.DJ D/HD) E'  HDJ3 AJG E' JB*6J 'D#96'! #F J916H' E+D G0G 'DE3'&D D'F *-D (-CE 'DEJ+'B  9DI #F G0' 'DE(/# D' J.D (*7(JB */'(J1 'DB3E 'DH'1/) AJ 'DA5D 'D3'(9"  AG0G 'DAB1) #97* 'DE,'D DD*/.D EF ,'F( 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) AJ -'D*JF: 'D-'D) 'D#HDI : HGJ %0' C'F 'D4#F 'D/'.DJ B/ FBD %DI 'DF7'B 'D/HDJ (H'37) 'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) #H BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ (-J+ DE J9/ 4#F'K /'.DJ'K .'69'K D3J'/) 'D/HD HD#F8E*G' HBH'FJFG' 'D/'.DJ)  AGF' *3*7J9 'DEF8E) 'D*/.D HE9'D,) 'DE3#D) H%5/'1 *H5J'*G' #H B1'1'*G' (4#FG' /HF -1, JF(9 EF F5 E/2 A (7). HG0' GH E' -5D AJE' J*9DB (-BHB 'D%F3'F 'D*J F8EG' 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F (-J+ DE *9/ 4#F'K /'.DJ'K  (D %F 'D/HD 'D#71'A AJ 'D'*A'BJ'* 'DECHF) DG0' 'DB'FHF *D*2E (#9E'D #-C'E G0G 'D'*A'BJ'* HJCHF 'D*2'EG' ('-*1'E H6E'F *E*9 19'J'G' ('D-BHB 'DH'1/) AJG' H0DC 9F 71JB 'D'D*2'E (@: 'D-E'J) : #J #F 9DI 'D/HD) #F *6EF B'FHFG' 'D/'.DJ D'-C'E 'D*9'B/J) 'DF'4&) 9F 'D'*A'BJ'* 'D*J GJ 71A AJG' HEF ,G) +'FJ) #F *9/D H*D:J *DC 'D#-C'E H'DBH'FJF 'D3'1J) 'DEA9HD 'D*J **9'16 #H *F7HJ 9DI *9'16 E9 'D'D*2'E'* 'DF'4&) 9F #-C'E 'D'*A'BJ). 'D'-*1'E : #J 9/E BJ'E 'D/HD) EF ,G) ('F*G'C #-C'E 'D'*A'BJ) AJ 9D'B*G' (EH'7FJG' #H EEF J*H',/HF 9DI #1'6JG' H'F *BHE (*(FJ 3J'3'* H(1'E, H.77 HDJ3 AB7 *41J9'* D6E'F 'D%9E'D 'DC'ED DD'*A'BJ) HG0' J*E+D (BJ'E 'D/HD) ('D*/1J( H'D*H9J) H'DF41 D-BHB 'D%F3'F. 'D*92J2 : HJ9FJ #F *BHE 'D/HD) (.DB 'D(J&) H'D41H7 'DD'2E) D6E'F 'D#9E'D 'DC'ED DD-BHB H'D-1J'* 'DH'1/) AJ 'D'*A'BJ)(). G0G 'D'D*2'E'* JB'(DG' (1F'E, 1B'() /HDJ) *F81 EF .D'DG 'DEF8E) AJ E/I BJ'E 'D/HD (G0G 'D'D*2'E'* H.'5) EF .D'D F8'E 'D*B'1J1 'D*J *BHE 'D/HD (%13'DG' %DI EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) A*BHE 'D,G'* 'DE9FJ) (%5/'1 'D*H5J'* %DI 'D/HD) (5// BJ'EG' (*FAJ0 'D*2'E'*G' (EH,( 'D'*A'BJ'* C'D*H5J'* 'D*J *5/1G' 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) DD/HD) (5// EE'13'*G' D'.*5'5G' AJ E,'D -BHB 'D%F3'F  #H 'DE,D3 'D'B*5'/J H'D',*E'9J  #H D,F) -BHB 'D%F3'F. H'D-'D) 'D+'FJ) : GJ 'D*/.D AJ 'D4$HF 'D/'.DJ) D*-BJB G/A 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) AJ 'D-A'8 9DI 'D3DE H#D'EF 'D/HDJJF  HGH E' J$C/G 9,2 E (2) A (7)  AAJ 'D-'D) 'D*J 3*5(- AJG' 'F*G'C'* -BHB 'D%F3'F *4CD .71'K 9DI 'D3D'E H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF  DF JCHF GF' (%EC'F 'D/HD) 'D*J *G*E (G0G 'D'F*G'C'* #F *-*, ('F G0G 'D#EH1 */.D AJ F7'B 3D7'FG' 'D/'.DJ D*EF9 EF */.D 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) AJ 'DF81 AJG' %D' %F 'DH69 GF' ('* J4CD *G/J/'K #H .1B'K DE5D-) 9DJ' DDE,*E9 'D/HDJ 'D*J *.1, 9F %7'1 'D4$HF 'D/'.DJ) #J %FG' DE *9/ 'EH1'K /'.DJ) E-8)  HGF' 3JCHF DE,D3 'D#EF 'D*/.D H%5/'1 B1'1'*G 'DED2E) '3*F'/'K %DI #-C'E 'DA5D 'D3'(9 AJ EH',G) 'D/HD) 'DE9FJ). HD' JECF #F J*GE E,D3 'D#EF (#FG B/ */.D AJ 4#F /'.DJ DD/HD  F81'K %DI #F 'D#EE 'DE*-/) EF0 (/'J) *#3J3G' C'F* B/ 1(7* (JF E3#D) '-*1'E -BHB 'D%F3'F H-A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF  (9/G' EF (JF 'D9H'ED 'D#3'3J) 'D*J JCHF AJ EB/H1G' #F *$+1 AJ 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF(). HJ*#C/ 0DC EF 'DF5H5 'DH'1/) AJ 'DEJ+'B 0'*G' HEF (JFG' F5 E/1 A (1) 'D*J F5* 9DI #F 'DG/A 'D#HD DD#EE 'DE*-/) "-A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF H*-BJB'K DG0G 'D:'J) **.0 'DGJ&) 'D*/'(J1 'DE4*1C) 'DA9'D) DEF9 'D#3('( 'D*J *G// 'D3DE H%2'D*G'  HDBE9 'D9/H'F  #H :J1G' EF H,HG 'D%.D'D ('D3DE & " A9('1) 'D#3('(  9'E) HDE *-//G' #H *B51G' 9DI 'DF2'9'* #H 'DEH'BA 'D/HDJ)  (D JECF DD4#F 'D/'.DJ #F JCHF EF (JF G0G 'D#3('( 'D*J 3*/A9 'DEF8E) %DI HBAG' DD-A'8 9DI 'D3D'E H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF. HA6D'K 9F G0' 'DF5  F5 A 3 EF E 0'*G' (E/1) EF 'DEJ+'B 'D*J #/1,* -BHB 'D%F3'F 6EF EB'5/ 'DGJ&) H#G/'AG'  H1(7* (JF CD G/A #.1 (-J+ %F 'D%.D'D (#-/GE' 3J$/J %DI 'D%.D'D ('D#.1(). H('D1(7 (JF G0G 'D#G/'A H'4'1) A 7 / E2 %DI 'D*/.D (*7(JB */'(J@1 'DA5D 'D3'(9  %FE' #97I DDE,D3 'D-B AJ 'D*/.D  ('9*('1G 'D,G) 'D*J **HDI *FAJ0 #-C'E 'DA5D 'D3'(9 H'DBJ'E (EGE) -A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF #H #9'/*G' %DI F5'(G' AJ -'D 'D.1B -*I %F C'F* 'DE3#D) GJ 'F*G'C'* -BHB 'D%F3'F . HB/ 1(7 E,D3 'D#EF ('DA9D (JF 'D3DE 'D/HDJ 'DE3$HD 9F 'D-A'8 9DJG H-BHB 'D%F3'F EF 2'HJ) *G/J/ 'F*G'C'* -BHB 'D%F3'F DD3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF  HB11 61H1) HBA G0G 'D'F*G'C'* D6E'F 'D3DE H-A8G  HEF (JF G0G 'DB1'1'* 'DEGE) 'D*J 1(7 (JF 'D'F*G'C'* 'D-'5D) D-BHB 'D%F3'F H(JF 'D3DE 'D/HDJ 'D9BH('* 'D*J A16* 9DI /HD) ,FH( 'A1JBJ' '3*F'/'K %DI #-C'E 'DA5D 'D3'(9  9DI '+1 'D'F*G'C'* 'D5'1.) D-BHB 'D%F3'F H'D*J C'F J*916 DG' 'D3C'F 9DI #J/J 'D-CHE) 'DB'&E)(). H'DB1'1 'D5'/1 9'E 1991  AJ 5 FJ3'F 'DE1BE (688) H'DE*9DB ('F*G'C'* -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 'D91'B  -J+ 5/1 'DB1'1 *7(JB'K D#-C'E 'DA5D 'D3'(9  E(JF'K AJG #F 'D'F*G'C'* 'D*J *916 DG' 'D91'BJHF 4CD* .71'K 9DI 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF() . H,GH/ 'D#EE 'DE*-/) EF ,'F( E,D3 'D#EF D-E'J) -BHB 'D%F3'F D' *B*51 9DI 'DE+'DJF 'D3'(BJF (D GF'C '3*91'6 C(J1 EF B(DG HEF B(D #,G2) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 'D1&J3J) 'D#.1I C'D,E9J) 'D9'E) H'DE,D3 'D'B*5'/J H'D',*E'9J H'D#E'F) 'D9'E) DEH'6J9 HE4'CD -BHB 'D%F3'F HAJ (D/'F E.*DA) JECF 'DHBHA 9DJG' ('D1,H9 %DI 'DB1'1'* H'D*H5J'* 'DE.*DA) 'D*J *5/1 9F G0G 'D#,G2) AJ EH'6J9 -BHB 'D%F3'F H'D'F*G'C'* 'D*J **916 DG' %DI ,'F( E' *5/1G E-CE) 'D9/D 'D/HDJ) EF B1'1'* (G0' 'D4#F ".1G' 'DB1'1 'D5'/1 AJ B6J) 'D,/'1 'D9'2D (,/'1 'D*EJJ2 'D9F51J ) AJ B6J) AD37JF 6/ 'DCJ'F 'D5GJHFJ(). 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ 9D'B*GE' (E(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) EF (JF 'DBH'9/ 'D#3'3J) 'D*J JBHE 9DJG' 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  B'9/) -81 '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ)  HH1/ 'DF5 9DJG' AJ EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/) AJ E/2 A (4) C#-/ 'DE('/& 'D#3'3J) 'D*J JF(:J #F *3J1 9DJG' 'D/HD 'D#96'! AJ 9D'B'*G' 'D/HDJ)  HEF7HB G0G 'DB'9/) GH "JE*F9 #96'! 'DGJ&) ,EJ9GE AJ 9D'B'*GE 'D/HDJ) 9F 'D*G/J/ ('3*./'E 'DBH) #H '3*./'EG' 6/ 3D'E) 'D#1'6J #H 'D'3*BD'D 'D3J'3J D#J) /HD)  #H 9DI #J H,G ".1 D' J*AB HEB'5/ 'D#EE 'DE*-/)"  %0F ('** 'DB'9/) 'D#3'3J) -81 '3*./'E 'DBH) HDCF /HF #F *-// E9FI 'DBH) 'D*J J-81 9DI 'D/HD '3*./'EG' #H 'D*G/J/ ('3*./'EG' AJ 9D'B'*G' E9 (96G' 'D(96. H(3(( 0DC 'FB3E* 'D'*,'G'* AJ *A3J1 E9FI 'DBH) 'DE-8H1)  A0G( ,'F( EF 'DC*'( %DI %F 'DEB5H/ ('DBH) 'DE-8H1) GF' GJ ('DBH) 'DE3D-)) E3*F/JF AJ 1#JGE 9DI E' F5* 9DJG EB/E) EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/) (*9G/ 'D/HD (9/E '3*./'E 'DBH) 'DE3D-) AJ :J1 'DE5D-) 'DE4*1C). AJ -JF 9'16 ".1HF G0' 'D1#J HB'DH' %F *A3J1 ('DBH)) J,( #F J*6EF 'D6:H7 'D3J'3J) H'D'B*5'/J) %DI ,'F( 'DBH) 'DE3D-)  F81'K %DI #F 'DEJ+'B 9F/E' #97I DE,D3 'D#EF 'D-B AJ '*.'0 */'(J1 'DB31 H'DBE9 6/ 'D/HD 'DEF*GC) DD'D*2'E'* 'DH'1/) AJ 'DEJ+'B  #4'1 %DI 'D6:H7 'D'B*5'/J) H'D3J'3J) CB79 'D9D'B'* 'D'B*5'/J) H'D/(DHE'3J)  %DI ,'F( 'D*/'(J1 'DE3D-)  HDE JB51G' AB7 9DI 'D*/'(J1 'D93C1J)(). H'D1#J 'D1',- 'D0J F$J/G %F 'D-81 'DH'1/ AJ 'DEJ+'B J4ED CD 'D#FH'9 EF BH) 93C1J) ('DE3D-)) 6:H7 'B*5'/J)  3J'3J)  *F8JE H*4,J9 BH'* :J1 F8'EJ)  #H %13'D E1*2B) (G/A 'D%:'1) 9DI %BDJE /HD) #.1I  *F8JE #9E'D %1G'( #H 'D-1( 'D#GDJ) AJ /HD) #.1I  H6EF 0DC 'D*-1J6 9DI G0G 'D#9E'D #H 'DE3'9/) AJG'  #H BJ'E 'D/HD (%B'E) *F8JE AJ #1'6JG' (G/A 'DBJ'E ('D#9E'D 'D3'(B) AJ #1'6J /HD) #.1I(). HDCF G0' 'D-81 *1/ 9DJG +D'+) '3*+F'!'* JECF AJG' '3*./'E 'DBH)  HGJ '3*./'E 'DBH) 'DE3D-) EF ,'F( /HD) D:16 'D/A'9 'D419J 9F FA3G'  '3*./'E */'(J1 'DBE9 'DH'1/) AJ 'DA5D 'D3'(9 EF ,'F( 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 'D*J *BHE 'D/HD (*FAJ0G' '3*F'/'K %DI 'DB1'1'* 'DED2E) 'D*J *5/1G' 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ)() H'D'3*+F'! 'D#.J1  GH E('41) -1H( 'D*-1J1 'DH7FJ) 'D*J J*E 'D'9*1'A (G' CFH9 EF #FH'9 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 'D/HDJ) J*E E('41*G' '3*F'/'K %DI E' DD49H( EF -B AJ *B1J1 E5J1G'(). HDCF J8G1 GF' 3$'D 9F 9D'B) 'DB'FHFJF (G0' 'DE(/# H(#J FH9 EF #FH'9 'DBH) J*#+1'F 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ HE(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH): %0' 9/F' %DI 'D*9'1JA 'D*J BJD* AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ  A%FG' CDG' *4J1 %DI #F G0' 'DB'FHF J8G1 DD*7(JB H'D31J'F AJ A*1) 'D-1H( H'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) HEF (JFG' 'D-1H( H'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 'D/HDJ) 'D*J GJ 5H1) EF 5H1 '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ)  HGF' 3J+'1 'D3$'D 9F 9D'B*G (E(/# '3*./'E 'DBH) AGD GH JF'B6 G0' 'DE(/# HJB11 'DE41H9J) 9DI '3*./'E 'DBH)  #E 'FG JF7(B (4CD E3*BD 9DI *7(JB E(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH) H'-*1'E 'D/HD) DG H'D%,'() 9DI G0' 'D3$'D *#*J EF .D'D 'DG/A 'D0J J39I %DJG G0' 'DB'FHF HGH *F8JE 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) HEF (JFG' 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) H'D-1H( 'D/HDJ) D#,D *.AJA E9'F') 'D(41  HJ(/# ('D31J'F H'D8GH1 %DI -J2 'D*7(JB AJ A*1) 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 'D/HDJ) #J@'K C'F*  3H'! C'F* :J1 E41H9) HB9* E.'DA) DDB'9/) 'D/HDJ) (-81 '3*./'E 'DBH))  #E C'F* E41H9) ,'!* *7(JB'K 'D'3*+F'!'* 'DH'1/) 9DI 'DB'9/) 'D3'(B)  C'3*./'E 'D/HD) BH*G' 'DE3D-) 6/ /HD) #.1I DD/A'9 419J'K 9F FA3G'  #H '3*./'E 'DBH) 'DE3D-) EF ,'F( 'DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) ('D#EE 'DE*-/)) *FAJ0'K DB1'1 ED2E #5/1G E,D3 'D#EF 7(B'K DDE'/) 43 EF 'DEJ+'B  A5D 3'(9 #E C'F* -1H( *-1J1 H7FJ). H('D*'DJ A'F GF'C A5D *'E (JF 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ ('DB'FHF 'DE7(B AJ A*1) 'D-1H( 'D/HDJ)) H(JF E(/# *-1JE '3*./'E 'DBH)  AGH (31J'FG D' J6AJ 'D419J) 9DI 'D#9E'D 'D*J *BHE (G' 'D/HD  AGH J31J 9DI 'DE41H9 EFG' H:J1 'DE41H9  A'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D' JECF #F JBA EHBA 'DE*A1, EF 'D-1H( H'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 'D/HDJ)  AC'F D'(/ DBH'9/G EF #F *.'7( G0G 'D-BJB) H*F8JEG' D#,D 6E'F 'D-/ 'D#/FI EF 'D%F3'FJ) AJ 8D G0G 'D#H6'9 'DD'%F3'FJ)  HGF' DF J(-+ AJ #J EF 'D71AJF C'F D,H!G DDBH) E41H9'K HB'FHFJ'K  (D 3J31J ('D*3'HJ (JF 'D71AJF (JF 'D71A 'D0J D,# %DI 'DBH) (5H1) B'FHFJ) H'D71A 'D0J C'F EHBAG :J1 B'FHFJ  D#F 6-'J' CD' 'D71AJF J-*',HF %DI 'D-E'J) EF "+'1 'D-1H( H'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) (FA3 'D/1,) H(/HF *EJJ2  H(0DC B'E 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ 9DI E(/# EGE GH E(/# 'DA5D (JF 'DB'FHF AJ 'D-1( HB'FHF 'D-1( (B'FHF EF9 'D-1()(). 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F HE(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH): JECF %/1'C 'D5D) (JF -BHB 'D%F3'F HE(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH)  EF .D'D 'D#G/'A 'D*J H1/* AJ EB/E) EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/) HEF (JFG' "2  'D*#CJ/ 9DI 'D#JE'F (E' DD%F3'F EF -BHB #3'3J) HE' DDA1/ EF C1'E) HB/1 HE' DD1,'D H'DF3'! EF -BHB E*3'HJ)  H 4  /A9 'D1B@J 'D',*E'9J B/E'K  H1A9 E3*HI 'D-J') AJ ,H EF 'D-1J) #A3-"(). HB/ *B11 %F *-BJBG' D' J*E %D' %0' 9'4* 'D/HD E9 (96G' 'D(96 AJ 3D'E H-3F ,H'1  H'D3J1 9DI HAB E('/& E9JF) *6EF #D' J*E '3*./'E 'DBH) 'DE3D-) AJ :J1 'DE5D-) 'DE4*1C)(). AGF'C *#CJ/ EF0 'D(/'J) 9DI #F -BHB 'D%F3'F H'2/G'1G' H6E'F *E*9 'D(41 (G' DF JCHF %D' %0' B'E 'D3DE H(FJ* 'D9D'B'* (JF 'D/HD 9DI #33 (9J/) 9F '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ). HGH E' #9J/ *#CJ/G 9F/E' *E H69 #G/'A 'D#EE 'DE*-/) AJ 'DE'/) (1)  HEF (JFG' G/AG' (#F *9ED 9DI -D 'DE3'&D 0'* 'D5(:) 'D'B*5'/J) H'D',*E'9J) H'D%F3'FJ) H9DI *92J2 '-*1'E -BHB 'D%F3'F H'D-1J'* 'D#3'3J) DDF'3 ,EJ9'K H'D*4,J9 9DI 0DC '7D'B'K /HF *EJJ2 B'&E 9DI #3'3 'D,F3 #H 'DD:) #H 'D/JF HD' *A1JB (JF 'D1,'D H'DF3'!() HJ1*(7 *-BJBG (E1'9') E('/& E9JF) -//*G' E(2) EF EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  HEF (JFG' 'D*J **9DB ('DEH6H9 'DH'1/ GF'  E(/# *3HJ) 'DEF'29'* (H3'&D 3DEJ)  H-81 '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ)(). H(0DC *CHF -BHB 'D%F3'F E1*(7) AJ *FAJ0G' H*B/EG' ('-*1'E 'D/HD DDE(/#JF 'DE0CH1JF  #J #F *FAJ0 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F D' J*HBA 9DI '-*1'E 'D/HD) DG /'.D #1'6JG'  (D J9*E/ AJ *FAJ0 (FH/GP H*ECJF 'D#A1'/ EF 'D*E*9 ('D-BHB 'DH'1/) AJG 9DI '-*1'E 'D/HD DE(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* E9 (96G' 'D(96 H%0' HB9 'D9C3 A'F 0DC 3J9JB *E*9 'D#A1'/ (-BHBGE 9DI F-H *'E  HGH E' #C/*G 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) DD#EE 'DE*-/) AJ %9D'FG' 'DE*9DB (-B 'D49H( AJ 'D3DE -J+ #91(* AJG %F 'D-J') /HF -1( GJ 417 /HDJ #3'3J DD1A'GJ) 'DE'/J) DD(D/'F H*B/EG' H'D*FAJ0 'D*'E D,EJ9 'D-BHB H'D-1J'* 'D#3'3J) 'D*J *F'/J (G' 'D#EE 'DE*-/) H'F 'D3DE 'D/'&E AJ 8D 'D951 'DFHHJ  GH 'D417 'D#HD DDE-'A8) 9DI 'D-6'1) 'D%F3'FJ) H(B'! 'D,F3 'D(41J(). H(0DC A'F 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F J*#+1 (/1,) C(J1) (%BF'9 'D/HD ('3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* E9 (96G' 'D(96 H'-*1'EG' DE(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH)  (9C3 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ 'D0J J8G1 DD*7(JB AJ A*1) 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) HEF 6EFG' 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 'D/HDJ) 'D*J *B9 AJ (96 'D-'D'* .1B'K DE(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH)  HGF' *(JF FB7) 'D'.*D'A (JF 'DB'FHFJF. HJ+'1 'D3$'D (9/G' 9F E5J1 -BHB 'D%F3'F (9/ #F *E .1B 'DE(/# H'3*./E* 'DBH) ('DA9D (JF 'D/HD  (#F F4( F2'9 E3D- (JFG'  AGD 3J*HBA 31J'F 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F 'D,H'( 3JCHF 7(9'K ('DFAJ  -J+ J3*E1 31J'F G0' 'DB'FHF  H'F C'F D' J3*7J9 #F J-/ EF 'D"+'1 'D3D(J) 'D*J 3J,1G' 'DF2'9 'DE3D- 'D/HDJ 9DI -BHB 'D%F3'F #H JHBAG'  HG0' 'DCD'E D' JB*51 9DI 'D-'D) 'D*J J*E AJG' 'DD,H! %DI 'DBH) .1B'K DDE(/#  H'FE' JF7(B 9DI 'D-'D'* 'D*J J*E AJG' '3*./'E 'DBH) ('D*7(JB DD'3*+F'!'* EF E(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH)  HGJ -'D) 'D/A'9 'D419J  H'D*/'(J1 'D93C1J) 'DE*.0) EF ,'F( EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  H-'D) E('41) 'D49H( D-BG' AJ *B1J1 E5J1G' DCJ **.D5 EF 'D3J71) 'D'3*9E'1J)  #H 'D'-*D'D ('F *BH/ F2'9'* E3D-) 6/G'  AJ8D B'FHF -BHB 'D%F3'F 3'1J'K H(0DC J8G1 'D*4'(G (JF 'DB'FHFJF AJ 'FGE' J31J'F AJ E+D G0G 'D-'D'* (G/A H'-/ GH -E'J) 'D%F3'F. 'DE(-+ 'D+'D+ 7(J9) 'D9D'B) (JF 'DB'FHFJF H,/F' AJE' 916F'G 3'(B'K H,H/ '.*D'A'* B'&E) (JF 'DB'FHFJF J9H/ 8GH1G' %DI '.*D'A E9FI CD EFGE' H'.*D'A 'DE5'/1 'D*J ,'!' EFG'  HC0DC %DI '.*D'A 7(J9) 9D'B) CD EFGE' (E(/# -81 '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ)  HEF ,G) #.1I D'-8F' #F CD' 'DB'FHFJF ('D1:E EF G0' 'D'.*D'A 39J'K %DI *BJJ/ 3J'/) 'D/HD) D',D -E'J) 'DA1/ EF 3H! '3*9E'DG' D3D7*G' CD EFGE' .D'D 'DA*1) 'D*J J31J AJG'  HEF GF' J+'1 'D3$'D -HD 7(J9) 'D9D'B) (JF 'DB'FHFJF ('DF81 %DI G0G 'D'.*D'A'*  HG0' 'DG/A 'DE4*1C (JFGE'  HDCJ F,J( 9F G0' 'D3$'D D'(/ DF' EF 'DE1H1 (E1-D*JF E1 (G' CD' 'DB'FHFJF  'DE1-D) 'D'HDI *EJ2* (H,H/ 'FA5'D *'E (JF 'DB'FHFJF H'DE1-D) 'D+'FJ) (/# AJG' 'D*B'1( H'D*/'.D (JF 'DB'FHFJF HDCF EFG' #3('( 3F3*91@ B P BDFNP@Z|4P2468 N"P"R"T"####&´嗉{n\nn\nn\nn\n"jh<0JCJUZ^JaJ h<CJH*Z^JaJ h<6CJZ]^JaJ(h<6CJZ]^JaJ(h<6CJZ]^JaJ,jh<UZ h<Zh<5CJZ\^JaJ h<6CJ$Z]^JaJ,h<CJ^JaJ h<CJZ^JaJh<CJZ^JaJ jh<CJUZ^JaJ $Dz @ B P vo$pkd$$IfTl 0I   V0 4 la$U$If`Ua$$ P BFP>@Z|24P<V"#&~(>) $` $` $`a$$a$ $`$ $`a$$ $`a$&&&&,,, ,~////~2222 5555 8888::::;;;;>>>>.D0D2D4D:DXDD(H2HMMMNNNNRRRRTȺȞ֐Ȟh<5CJZ\^JaJ h<6CJZ]^JaJ(h<6CJZ]^JaJ(h<6CJZ]^JaJ(h<6CJZ]^JaJ,h<CJZ^JaJ "jh<0JCJUZ^JaJ h<CJH*Z^JaJ 8>) ,/|2~22258t:;l@8D:DXDDELMMMMN$a$ $` $`a$ $`a$$ $`NTPbQT UhW*YZ@[[4\v\&]]<^^d_f_h_j_l__di $T^T`$ & F 8^` $`a$$T U^W`WbWdW Y"Y$Y&Y____~bbbbggggzq|qqqqqvvvvyyy y~~jlnpފޖxz|h<6CJZ]^JaJ,h<CJ^JaJ "jh<0JCJUZ^JaJ h<CJH*Z^JaJ h<CJZ^JaJ h<5CJZ\^JaJ Ciji(j6suv$y~t| $`a$ $` $`$ & F 8^`$ $`a$z20@NZ>HJ2468:X $`a$$ $`a$z68:<DFHJ@BDF:X8t桑h<6CJZ]^JaJ(Uh<6CJZ]^JaJ,h<CJ^JaJ h<5CJZ\^JaJ "jh<0JCJUZ^JaJ h<CJH*Z^JaJ h<CJZ^JaJ h<6CJZ]^JaJ(9X8t@ l n0\  !x""$ & F 8`$ & F 8`$ $`a$6G' AJ E7D(JF. 'DE7D( 'D#HD E1-D) 'D'FA5'D (JF 'DB'FHFJF #J DE *CF GF'C 9D'B) B'&E) #5D' (JF 'DB'FHFJF  H'3('( 0DC *9H/ %DI '.*D'A *'1J. F4#) CD EFGE' 9F 'D#.1  HEHBA 'DEF8E'* 'D/HDJ) 'D*J C'F* 1'9J) D#-/ 'DB'FHFJF EF 'D*71B %DI 'DB'FHF 'D#.1. AG0'F 'DA19'F EF A1H9 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E *7H1' (5H1) E*EJ2) HE3*BD) CD EFGE' 9F 'D#.1  A'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ J9/ A19'K B/JE'K EF A1H9 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  (/# (4CD 91AJ +E *(DH1* BH'9/G AJ '*A'BJ'* /HDJ) 9'E) #HDG' C'F* *9H/ D9'E 1864 +E 9B(G' H69 '*A'BJ'* D'G'J 1899 H 1907 H'*A'BJ) ,FJA D9'E 1906 HEF (9/G' '*A'BJ*J ,FJA D9'E 1929  H(9/G' '*A'BJ'* ,FJA 'D#1(9 D9'E 1949 H(1H*HCHDJG' D9'E 1977. (JFE' ,'! H69 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F E*#.1'K D0DC J9/ A19'K -/J+'K EF A1H9 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  DE J8G1 %D' AJ #9B'( 'D-1( 'D9'DEJ) 'D+'FJ)  AB/ 8G1 */HJD -BHB 'D%F3'F #HD 'D#E1 AJ EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/) AJ +E'FJ EH'/ #3'3J)  +E 9B(G' *(FJ 'D%9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F D9'E 1948 'D0J 9/ 'D.7H) 'DC(J1) AJ H69 'D#33 'D9'E) DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F  'D0J 9DI #+1G H69* 'D9/J/ EF 'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) 'D9'E) H'D.'5) 'D%BDJEJ) H'D9'DEJ) (19'J) 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  H'DEF8E'* 'D/HDJ)  H'DHC'D'* 'DE*.55)  HGC0' C'F *7H1 -BHB 'D%F3'F 'D0J (/# (%5/'1 'D%9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F E3*BD'K HEFA5D'K 9F *7H1 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ(). #E' 'D3(( 'D+'FJ DD'FA5'D H'D'3*BD'D (JF 'DB'FHFJF H*-/J/'K EF 9'E 1948 HGH 'D9'E 'D0J (/#* AJG HEF (9/G E('/& HBH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F ('D8GH1 -*I 9'E 1968  AC'F J9H/ %DI 'DEH'BA 'D*J *(F*G' 'DEF8E'* 'D/HDJ) 'DE41A) 9DI 'DB'FHFJF HFB5/ (GE' ('D*-/J/  EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) 1'9J) 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F H'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 'DEG*E) H'D1'9J) DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ . -J+ '3*(9/* CD' 'DEF8E*JF 'DF81 #H *F'HD E3'&D JG*E (G' 'DB'FHF 'D#.1  H'3*E1 'D-'D 9DI G0G 'DH*J1) EF 9'E 1948 %DI 9'E 1968  'F7D'B'K EF #3('( **9DB (7(J9@) 9ED CD' 'DEF8E*JF HE('/&GE'. A'D#EE 'DE*-/) EF ,'F(G' 1A6* 'D*916 DB'FHF 'D-1( AJ #9E'DG' AJ 'DA*1) 'DB1J() EF F4#*G' . D#3('( **9DB (#F G0G 'DEF8E) ,'!* D#,D EF9 '3*./'E 'DBH) HEF (JFG' 'D-1H(  AD'(/ DG' %0F EF 9/E 'DF81 AJ G0' 'DB'FHF CJ *-'A8 9DI +B) 'D1#J 'D9'E AJ A9'DJ*G' HB/1*G' 9DI -A8 'D3DE H'D#EF 'D/HDJJF  HDG0G 'D#3('( ,'! 'D%9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F 1948 .'DJ'K EF 'D*916 DEH6H9 -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ A*1) 'DF2'9@'* 'DE3D-)  CE' B11* D,F) 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E 'D*'(9) DD#EE 'DE*-/) '3*(9'/ EH6H9 B'FHF 'D-1( EF ,/HD #9E'DG' AJ 9'E 1949 9F/E' CDA* (*BFJF BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  -*I D' J+'1 'D4C AJ 'DE(/# 'D0J *6EFG 'DEJ+'B HGH -81 '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) HAJ CA'!) 'DH3'&D 'DE*H'A1) DD#EE 'DE*-/) DDE-'A8) 9DI 'D3D'E(). HEF ,'F( #.1 ,'! EHBA 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 E4'(G'K DEHBA 'D#EE 'DE*-/)  EB11) 'D'(*9'/ 9F E3'&D -BHB 'D%F3'F D'F *7HJ1 G0G 'D-BHB H*1HJ,G' GH EF '.*5'5 EF8E) 'D#EE 'DE*-/) H'DGJ&'* 'D#.1I 'DEF4#) DG0' 'D:16  HG0G 'DEF8E'* EF F'-J) #.1I GJ EF8E'* 0'* 7'(9 3J'3J  A-*I *-'A8 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 9DI E('/&G' #GEG' 'D-J'/ H'D'3*BD'D B11* 'D'(*9'/ 9F *F'HD EH6H9 -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ #F47*G' HGH E' 8G1 H'6-'K 9F/ %9/'/ '*A'BJ'* ,FJA 'D#1(9 D9'E 1949 -J+ DE J1/ AJG' 0C1 DE57D- -BHB 'D%F3'F  H(0DC -5D 'D'FA5'D 'D*'E (JF 'DB'FHFJF(). 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ E1-D) 'D*B'1( (JF 'DB'FHFJF H*(/# G0G 'DE1-D) EF 9'E 1968  -J+ (/# 'D*:J1 AJ 'D9D'B) E' (JF 'DB'FHFJF EF 'D'FA5'D %DI 'D*B'1(  H3(( G0' 'D*:J1  C'F J9H/ %DI 'D*:JJ1 'D0J 71# 9DI EH'BA 'D#EE 'DE*-/) H.'5) (9/ 'F9B'/ E$*E1 7G1'F 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F 9'E 1968  'D0J *F'HD* AJG 'D#EE 'DE*-/) EH6H9 -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ A*1) 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-)  H-HD* 'D'F*('G 5H( 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) H0DC 9(1 B1'1'* H/1'3'* *-* 9FH'F ('-*1'E -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ A*1) 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-)) HB/E* 'DEB*1-'* DH69 BH'9/ ,/J/) D-E'J) 'D%F3'F AJ 8D G0G 'D81HA  HEF9 #H *-/J/ #3'DJ( E9JF) DD-1( H'DD,H! %DI '*A'BJ'* ,FJA 7D('K D'-*1'E E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ  A(/# 'DB'FHFJF ('D*7H1 H'D*(DH1 E9'K (9/ #F *E 'D%9D'F AJ E$*E1 7G1'F "%F 'D3DE GH 'D417 'D#HD D'-*1'E -BHB 'D%F3'F '-*1'E'K C'ED'K  H'F 'D-1( *9/ 'FC3'1'K DG0G 'D-BHB H'F 'DE('/& 'D%F3'FJ) J,( #F JCHF DG' 'D:D() AJ 8D 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-)"(). HAJ 'D9'E 0'*G #J 1968  #5/1* 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) B1'1'K HGH 'DB1'1 'DE1BE (2444) (/  23)  *$C/ AJG E' ,'! EF EB11'* AJ E$*E1 7G1'F 'D/HDJ  HEF (JFG' #F JBHE 'D#EJF 'D9'E ('D*4'H1 E9 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1  (DA* 'F*('G 'D/HD 'D#96'! AJ 'D#EE 'DE*-/) %DI 'DBH'9/ 'D3'1J) DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ H'F J-+G' 9DI *#EJF -E'J) 'DE/FJJF H'DEB'*DJF HAB'K DE('/& B'FHF 'D#EE 'DF'(9) EF 'D#91'A 'DE*(9) EF 'D#EE 'DE*E/F)  HEF BH'FJF 'D%F3'FJ) HE' JEDJG 'D6EJ1 'D9'E  CE' #C/ B1'1 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) 'DE('/& 'D#3'3J) 'D+D'+ 'D*J C'F 'DE$*E1 'D+'FJ 941 DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 H'DGD'D 'D#-E1 D9'E 1965 'DEF9B/ AJ AJF' B/ #C/ E1'9'*G' AJ A*1) 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) HGJ: %F -B #71'A 'DF2'9 AJ '3*./'E H3'&D %D-'B 'D611 DJ3 E7DB'K. %F 4F G,E'* *3*G/A 'DE/FJJF (5A*GE G0G #E1 E-8H1. H,H( 'D*EJJ2 AJ ,EJ9 'D#HB'* (JF A&) 'D#4.'5 'DE4*1CJF AJ 'D#9E'D 'D9/'&J) HA&) 'D3C'F 'DE/FJJF (G/A -E'J) 'DA&) 'D#.J1) H*,FJ(G' 'D611 B/1 'D%EC'F(). +E #5/1* 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) AJ 9'E 1970 B1'1'K *6EF +E'FJ) E('/& #3'3J) HGJ: %F -BHB 'D%F3'F 'D#3'3J) CE' *E B(HDG' AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E HCE' +(**G' 'DBH'FJF H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ)  *3*+E1 AJ 'D*7(JB AJ A*1) 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-). 'D*EJJ2 (JF 'D#4.'5 'DE4'1CJF AJ 'D#9E'D 'D9/'&J) H'D3C'F 'DE/FJJF. (0D 'D,GH/ D-E'J) 'DE/FJJF EF 9EDJ'* 'D*/EJ1 'D*J *F4# AJ 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) H'*.'0 CD 'D'-*J'7'* D*,F( 'D.3'&1 'D(41J) H'D#61'1 ('D3C'F. -81 ,9D 'D3C'F 'DE/FJJF E-D'K #H G/A'K DDG,HE H'D9EDJ'* 'D93C1J). -81 ,9D 'D#9J'F 'DE/FJ) E-D'K #H G/A'K DD9EDJ'* 'D93C1J). -81 ,9D 'D#E'CF 'DE.55) #H 'DEF'7B 'DE.55) D-E'J) 'DE/FJJF E+D 'DE3*4AJ'* E-D'K DDG,HE. -81 ,9D 'DE/FJJF G/A'K D#9E'D 'F*B'EJ) #H E-D'K DD*1-JD 'D93C1J #H #J) G,E'* *$+1 AJGE. *9/ %E/'/'* 'D%:'+) 'D/HDJ) DDE/FJJF H(EH,( EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/) H'D%9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) D-BHB 'D%F3'F (E' *6EF*G EF H3'&D DCA'D*G' HC0DC E' #4'1* %DJG 'DBH'9/ H'DE('/& 'D%F3'FJ) 'D#.1I %DI ,'F( E('/& 'D%:'+) 'D/HDJ) 'D*J H69* EF ,'F( 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 AJ 'DE$*E1 'D-'/J H'D941JF D3F) 1969 EF 'D#EH1 'DH',( '*('9G' AJ A*1) 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) H'D*J JF(:J 9DI #71'A 'DF2'9 (0D CD 'D,GH/ D*3GJD *7(JBG'(). HAJ 9'E 1971 /9* 'D,E9J) 'D9'E)  'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 D*C13 ,GH/G' D6E'F 'D*7(JB 'D#A6D DBH'9/ 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-)  H'9'/) *#CJ/ 'D%,1'!'* 'D#.1I 0'* 'D5D) EF ',D *-3JF -E'J) 'DE/FJJF AJ #+F'! 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-)  HD%+'1) E9'JJ1 EGJ#) D2J'/) -E'J) 'D#4.'5 'D0JF JB'19HF 6/ 'DGJEF) 'D'3*9E'1J)  H'D'-*D'D 'D#,F(J  H'D#F8E) 'D9F51J) HD*7HJ1 BH'9/ E*9DB) ('D-E'J) H'DE9'ED) 'D%F3'FJ) DDE-'1(JF HC0DC E3#D) -1( 'D95'('* H*7HJ1 'DBH'9/ 'DE*9DB) ('D,1-I H'DE16I. HAJ 9'E 1973 H69* 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) 3*) E('/& #3'3J) DDH69 'DB'FHFJ DDEB'*DJF 'D0JF JF'G6HF 'D3J71) 'D'3*9E'1J) H'D#F8E) 'D9F51J)  /HF 'D#61'1 (H69GE 'DB'FHFJ 6EF %7'1 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ H*7(JB -E'J) -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ #+F'! 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) HG0G 'DE('/& GJ: %F E+D G0G 'D51'9'* E41H9) HE*7'(B) E9 E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E. D' *9/ #J) E-'HD) DBE9GE EF3,E) E9 EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/) H'9D'F E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ (.5H5 'D9D'B'* 'DH/J) H'D*9'HF (JF 'D/HD H'D%9D'F 'D9'DEJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F& J,( '9*('1GE F2'9'* E3D-) /HDJ) ('DE9FI 'DH'1/ AJ '*A'BJ'* ,FJA 'D#1(9 D9'E 1949 H*E*9GE ('DH69 'DB'FHFJ 'DE+(* AJ G0G 'D'*A'BJ'* H'DBH'9/ 'D/HDJ) 'D#.1I ('DF3() %DI 'D#4.'5 'DED*2EJF (G'. J,( 9/ ,EJ9 'DEB'*DJF 'D0JF J*E '9*B'DGE #31I -1( 7(B'K D'-C'E '*A'BJ) ,FJA 3 . J9/ '3*9E'D 'DE1*2B) 6/ -1C'* 'D*-1J1 ,1JE) HJ,( E9'B(@) G$D'! 'DE1*2B) . J3*/9J 'F*G'C 'DH69 'DB'FHFJ DG$D'! 'DEB'*DJF  *-EJD 'DEF*GC 'DE3$HDJ) 'D/HDJ) 7(B'K D#-C'E 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E(). HEF ,'F(G' C'F* 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 B/ 7D(* AJ E$*E1G' 'D-'/J H'D941JF 'DEF9B/ AJ 1969  EF 'D#EE 'DE*-/) #F *H'5D ,GH/G' AJ EH6H9 (-BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-)) H#C/* 61H1) 'D*9'HF E9 (96G' 'D(96 DH-/) 'DG/A 'D0J *(:JG CD' 'DEF8E*JF H #C/* 'D#.0 ('DEB11'* 'D*J H69*G' 'D#EE 'DE*-/) AJ E$*E1 7G1'F 1968  H'DBJ'E (%6'A) BH'9/ ,/J/) DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ  HD',D 0DC *E 9B/ 'DE$*E1 'D/(DHE'3J AJ 3HJ31' E' (JF 1974  1977  DDF81 AJ '*A'BJ'* ,FJA 'D#1(9 HH69 BH'9/ ,/J/) *CAD -E'J) DD%F3'F AJ 81HA 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-)  H'F*GI 'DE$*E1 (H69 (1H*HCHDJ ,FJA D9'E 1977(). HDE *B*51 ,GH/ 'DEF8E*JF 9DI 9B/ 'DE$*E1'* 'D*J *3*G/A -E'J) -BHB 'D%F3'F H*7HJ1 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ H'D*9'HF AJE' (JFG' DD9ED 9DI 6E'F *7(JB #-C'E 'DB'FHFJF  (D *H,G* #F47*G' 'D#.1I %DI *0CJ1 'D/HD ('D*2'E'*G' AJ *7(JB 'DB'FHFJF. AB/ #5/1* 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) 'D9/J/ EF 'D*H5J'* *F'HD* AJG' #H6'9 -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 'D/HD  E4J1) AJG' %DI 'D'F*G'C'* 'D*J J*916 DG' 'D#A1'/ AJ G0G 'D/HD (3(( 'D.1HB'* 'DH'B9) DD'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ) 'D.'5) (-BHB 'D%F3'F HBH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ F0C1 EFG' 9DI 3(JD 'DE+'D  'D*H5J) 'D*J H,G*G' 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) %DI -CHE) /HD) EJ'FE'1 AJ 9'E 1995  7'D(* AJG' 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) EF 'D-CHE) #F *BHE (& 14  ('D3E'- DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 ('D'*5'D ('D3,F'! (-1J) HAJ %7'1 EF 'D31J) . 15  #F *-*1E 9DI 'DH,G 'DC'ED 'D'D*2'E'* 'DE*1*() 9DJG' (EH,( '*A'BJ'* ,FJA 'D#1(9 D9'E 1949  H'F *3*AJ/ EF 'D./E'* 'D*J *B/EG' 'DGJ&'* 'D%F3'FJ) 'DE-'J/) & )(). H'D*H5J) 'D*J H,G*G' 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) 9'E 1995 %DI -CHE) 'D3H/'F  E7'D() AJG' -CHE) 'D3H/'F #F *BHE (@ (& 5 'D*BJ/ ('D5CHC 'D/HDJ) 'DE9EHD (G' AJ E,'D -BHB 'D%F3'F HD' 3JE' 'D9G/JF 'D/HDJJF  '*A'BJ) 'DB6'! 9DI 'D*EJJ2 'D9F51J  '*A'BJ) -81 *,'1) 'D1BJB H%D:'! 'D1B  '*A'BJ) -BHB 'D7AD  H*FAJ0 G0G 'D5CHC H*ECJF ,EJ9 'D#A1'/ 'DEH,H/JF AJ %BDJEG' AJ 'D*E*9 ('D-BHB 'DH'1/) AJ G0G 'D5CHC (/HF *EJJ2 . 6 #F *BHE (HBA ,EJ9 'D:'1'* 'D,HJ) 9DI 'D#G/'A 'DE/FJ) H#4C'D 'DG,HE 'D#.1I 'D*J *9/ 'F*G'C'K DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ . 7 CE' *7D( 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) EF ,EJ9 'D#71'A AJ 'DB*'D #F *-*1E #-C'E 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ (E' AJG' #-C'E E (3) 'DE4*1C) D'*A'BJ'* ,FJA 'D#1(9 D9'E 1949 H(1H*HCHDJG' 'D%6'AJ'F D9'E 1977  HHBA '3*./'E 'D#3D-) 6/ 'DE/FJJF H-E'J) ,EJ9 'DE/FJJF EF 'DF3'! H'D#7A'D H'D'BDJ'* 'D'+FJ) H'D/JFJ) EF 'D'F*G'C'* (E' AJ 0DC 'D*41J/ 'D,(1J  H'D'9*B'D 'D*93AJ H'D*90J( & )(). #E' EF ,'F( 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 HA1H9G' AF1I #F #F47*G' DE *9/ B'51) 9DI E3'9/) 6-'J' 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) '3*F'/'K %DI 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ  (D *,'H2* #F47*G' E' GH EF5H5 9DJG AJ G0' 'DB'FHF H(/#* *BHE (EGE'* */.D AJ %7'1 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F HAJ 'DA*1'* 'D*J J31J 9DJG' G0' 'D#.J1 C*B/JE 'DE3'9/'* 'D%F3'FJ) D6-'J' 'DCH'1+ 'D7(J9J)  HDD#A1'/ AJ 8D 81HA (9J/) 9F -'D) 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) F0C1 EFG'  BJ'E (9+) 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 AJ 'D91'B (/9E 'D./E'* 'D7(J) H'DE3*4AJ'* AJ 'D91'B 'D*J 'F.A6 E3*HI 'D./E) AJG' F*J,) 'D9BH('* 'D'B*5'/J) 'D*J A16* 9DJG  AB'E* (%9'/) *#GJD 'D(FJ) 'D5-J) H'D./E'* 'D5-J) .D'D /H1'* */1J( 'D9'EDJF ('DE,'D 'D5-J 9DI 'D9F'J) ('D'E H'D7AD AJ E1'C2 'D9F'J) 'D5-J) 'D#HDJ)  %9'/) *#GJD 9F'(1 'DE16I H'DE7'(. H'DE:'3D AJ E3*4AI 'D14'/ 'D7(J 'D.'5 ('D#E1'6 'DFA3J) .D'D 9'E 2000  2001  HAJ 9'E 2001 *E 'F4'! #1(9 E-7'* D*FBJ) 'DEJ'G AJ 'DEF'7B 'D,FH(J)  H'9'/) *#GJD 9 E3*4AJ'* H16 E1C2'K 5-J'K () HAJ E,'D 'DE3'9/'* 'D*J *B/EG' .D'D 'DCH'1+ 'D7(J9J) 3'GE* 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1  AJ E3'9/) 6-'J' 2D2'D ((E) AJ 'J1'F EF .D'D E' B/E*G EF E3'9/'* AFJ) H7(J) DEH',G) 'D"+'1 'D*J .DAG' 'D2D2'D(). HDCF %DI ,'F( 'D#3('( 'D3'(B) 'D*J B1(* (JF 'DB'FHFJF  GF'C #3('( #.1I 3'GE* AJ 'D*B1J( (JF 'DB'FHFJF H3GD* 9DI 'DEF8E'* 'D/HDJ) 'DE41A) 9DI 'DB'FHFJF AJ *:JJ1 EHBAG'  HGJ %F 'D#3'3 'DAD3AJ DDB'FHFJF H'-/ GH *HAJ1 'D-E'J) DD#4.'5 (-E'J) 'D-BHB 'D#3'3J) DD%F3'F EF %3'!) '3*9E'D 'D3D7) HEF 'D9FA H'D'67G'/  A'DB'FHF'F J39J'F %DI G/A H'-/ GH -E'J) 'D%F3'F() %DI ,'F( BJ'E 'DB'FHFJF 9DI E,EH9) EF 'DE('/& 'DE4*1C) EFG' -B 'D%F3'F AJ 'D-J')  HAJ '-*1'E C1'E*G 'D%F3'FJ) HE(/# 9/E 'D*EJJ2 'D0J J9FJ %F 'D-BHB 'D*J J*6EFG' 'DB'FHF'F J,( *7(JBG' /HF #J *EJJ2 B'&E 9DI #3'3 'D91B  'D,F3  'D/JF  'DD:) & 'D.  HE(/# -B 'D%F3'F AJ 9/E *916G DD*90J(  H-BG AJ 'D#EF 'D4.5J 'D0J J9FJ -81 'D#9E'D 'D'F*B'EJ) 6/G  H-,2G #H FAJG #H *HBJAG *93A'K H-81 'D9BH('* 'D,E'9J)  H'.0 'D1G'&F() E9 BJ'E 'D'+FJF 9DI E(/# ".1 GH %F DCD %F3'F 'D-B AJ 'D6E'F'* 'DB6'&J)  HE(/# '-*1'E 'D41A H'D-BHB 'D9'&DJ) H'DE9*B/ HE(/# -B CD %F3'F AJ #F J*E '-*1'E EDCJ*G H9/E 'F*2'9G' EFG *93A'K(). 'D.'*E) : %F /1'3) CD EF 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ H'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F #A6* %DI '3*8G'1 .5'&5 H*1CJ() CD EFGE' -J+ '*6- EF .D'D 'DEB'1F) (JF 'DB'FHFJF H*-DJD (FH/GE' #F GF'C FB'7 *4'(G H'.*D'A B'E* (JF 'DB'FHFJF  B'/* %DI 'DHBHA 9DI .5'&5 HE2'J' 'DB'FHFJF H(JF* (#FGE' A19'F E*EJ2'F HE3*BD'F EF A1H9 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  HECF* EF *-/J/ 3E) 'D9D'B) 'DB'&E) (JFGE' HGJ 'D*C'ED (JF 'DB'FHFJF AJ 'D-E'J) 'D*J JB/E'FG' DD%F3'F AJ 8D 'D81HA 'DE4*1C) 'D*J J31J .D'DG' 'DB'FHF'F  AB/ *(JF #F : DDB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ E9FI E*EJ2 9F 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F  AGH JG/A %DI *.AJA E9'F') 'D(41 AJ #+F'! 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-)  AJG*E H(/1,) #3'3J) (E9'ED) 'D#A1'/ 'D0JF HB9H' AJ B(6) #-/ #71'A 'DF2'9 'DE3D-  H('DCJAJ) 'D*J */'1 (G' 'D9EDJ'* 'D9/'&J) . (JFE' J9FI 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 'DEB'E 'D#HD (*F8JE 'D9D'B) (JF 'DA1/ H/HD*G AJ39I (5A) #3'3J) %DI 'D-/ EF 3D7) 'D/HD) 9DI 'D#A1'/ H6E'F -CHE) ,J/) DGE  EE' J-HD /HF 'D*93A AJ '3*9E'D 'D3D7) 'DE.HD) DG' HJCAD DG' BJ'E' (H',('*G' *,'G #A1'/G' (-E'J*GE EF CD '9*/'! JB9 #H B/ JB9 9DJGE. 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ 'D0J BJ/ 3J'/) 'D/HD (-J+ -/ EF -1J*G' AJ '3*./'E E' *1J/ EF H3'&D H#3'DJ( AJ 'DB*'D HAJ 'D*9'ED E9 'D#A1'/ 'D0JF HB9H' *-* 3D7*G' EF #A1'/ 'D9/H  *EJ2 (#FG B'FHF J39I HEF .D'D 'D,2! 'D#C(1 EF BH'9/G %DI *F8JE ,'F( EF ,H'F( '3*./'E 'DBH) AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) #D' HGJ '3*./'E 'DBH) 'DE3D-) /HF #F J*71B #H JG*E (E41H9J) #H 9/E E41H9J) '3*./'EG' . (JFE' '*3E 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F (#FG B'FHF D' J39I %DI *F8JE '3*./'E 'DBH) 'DE3D-)  (D GH J*#+1 ('3*./'E 'DBH) #J'K C'F FH9G' AJ 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ)  H0DC J9H/ %DI #F E6EHF BH'9/G H*FAJ0G' D' JCHF 9DI #CED H,G %D' %0' '3*B1* 'D9D'B'* 'D/HDJ) H*-BB 'D3DE 'D0J 3JGJ& DD/HD %EC'FJ) 'D*H,G F-H 'D'G*E'E HE9'D,) EH'6J9 -BHB 'D#A1'/ 'D.'69JF D3D7*G' H*FEJ*G'. %F 'DGJ&'* 'D*J 3'GE* AJ H69 BH'9/ 'DB'FHFJF H'DE41A) 9DI *7HJ1G' DJ3* (H'-/)  AGJ E.*DA) CE' **E'J2 AJ 3E'*G' H7(J9*G'  A'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ 3'GE* AJ H69G GJ&'* /HDJ) :J1 -CHEJ) *F*G, 'D-J'/J) AJ 9EDG' . (JFE' 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F 3'GE* AJ H69G H*7HJ1G GJ&'* /HDJ) -CHEJ) 0'* 7(J9) 3J'3J)  HGH E' B'/ %DI 'D*#+J1 AJ 9D'B) 'DB'FHFJF ((96GE' 'D*J '*3E* AJ (/'J*G' ('D'FA5'D +E *:J1* %DI 'D*B'1( H'D*/'.D H(3(( EF *:J1 H,G'* F81 'DGJ&'* 'DE9FJ) ('DBH'FJF. 'DE5'/1 : #HD'K : 'DE5'/1 'D91(J): 'DC*(: 1-/. #-E/ %(1'GJE 4D(J  'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ  'D/'1 'D,'E9J) (J1H*  1986. 2-/. ,9A1 9(/ 'D3D'E  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F  /1'3'* AJ 'DB'FHF H'D41J9) 'D%3D'EJ)  /'1 'DC*'( 'DD(F'FJ  (J1H*  1998. 3-/..J1J '-E/ 'DC('4  "'D-E'J) 'D,F'&J) D-BHB 'D%F3'F /1'3) EB'1F) AJ 6H! #-C'E 'D41J9) 'D%3D'EJ) H'DE('/& 'D/3*H1J) H'DEH'+JB 'D/HDJ)"  /'1 'D,'E9JJF  'DB'G1)  2002 . 4-/. 2J/'F E1J(H7  "'DE/.D %DI 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ" 6EF E,D/ -BHB 'D%F3'F  "/1'3'* -HD 'DH+'&B 'D9'DEJ) H'D%BDJEJ)" %9/'/ CD EF /. E-EH/ 41JA (3JHFJ H/. E-E/ 'D39J/ 'D/B@@'B H/. 9(/ 'D98JE 'DH2J1  /'1 'D9DE DDED'JF  (J1H*  'DE,D/ 'D+'FJ  72  1998 . 5-#.4'1DH* DJF/3J  F3'! JH',GF 'D-1(  'DF'41 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1  ,FJA 2002 . 6-/. 9'E1 'D2E'DJ  E/.D %DI 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ  'DF'41 H-/) 'D7('9) H'D%F*', 'DAFJ AJ 'DE9G/ 'D91(J D-BHB 'D%F3'F  *HF3, 1997. 7-/. 92* 39/ 'D3J/ 'D(19J  -E'J) -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 8D 'D*F8JE 'D%BDJEJ  E7(9) 'D9'5E)  'DB'G1)  1985. 8-/. 9DJ 5'/B #(H GJA  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1993. 9-/. 9E1 39/ 'DDG  E/.D AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F  /JH'F 'DE7(H9'* 'D,'E9J)  'D,2'&1  1993. 10-/. AJ5D 47F'HJ  "-BHB 'D%F3'F H'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ"  /'1 'D-'E/  9E'F  2001. 11-/. CE'D -E'/  'DF2'9 'DE3D- H'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE$33) 'D,'E9J) DDF41  (J1H*  1995. 12-/. E-E/ FH1 A1-'* "*'1J. 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ H'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ D-BHB 'D%F3'F"  6EF C*'( /1'3'* AJ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ %9/'/ F.() EF 'DE*.55JF H'D.(1'!  *B/JE /. EAJ/ 4G'(  /'1 'DE3*B(D 'D91(J  (J1H*  71  2000 13-/.E-EH/ 3'EJ ,FJF)  B'FHF 'D-1( H'D-J'/  E7(9) D,F) 'D*#DJA H'DF41 H'D*1,E)  'DB'G1) 1944. 'D(-H+ H'DE7(H9'*: 'D(-H+: 14-/. ,9A1 9(/ 'D3D'E  *91JAG 'DH'1/ AJ (-+G "'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ HB'FHF -BHB 'D%F3'F" 'DEB/E %DI E$*E1-BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 'D3DE H'D-1( 'DEF9B/ AJ 'DEEDC) 'D91(J) 'D39H/J) AJ 14/*41JF 'D#HD/2003  51  9DI 'DEHB9: www.hrpw.org/news_1.htm 15- 'DB'6J ,E'D 4GDHD "'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ"  52  9DI 'DEHB9: www.ism_justice.hat.tn/ar/for.initiale/dih.doc 16- /. 9'E1 9(/ 'DA*'- 'D,HE1/  "*/.D 'D#EE 'DE*-/) AJ 4$HF 'D/HD" 'DEF4H1 AJ E,D) 'D1'A/JF  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  9// 3  1997 . 17- /.9(/ 'DD7JA (F 39J/ 'D:'E/J  *91JAG 'DH'1/ AJ (-+G "'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ HB'FHF -BHB 'D%F3'F EF EF8H1 %3D'EJ" 'DEB/E %DI E$*E1 -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 'D3DE H'D-1( 'DEF9B/ AJ 'DEEDC) 'D91(J) 'D39H/J) AJ 14/*41JF 'D#HD/2003  51  9DI 'DEHB9: www.hrpw.org/news_1.htm 18- /. EF5H1 'D,E1J "E-CE) 'D,F'J'* 'D/HDJ) : (/'J) 8GH1 'DEH'7F 'D9'DEJ"  2001  52  9DI 'DEHB9: http://www.balagh.com/islam/4m0oeggo.htm 19-'DE7(H9'*: -E,D/ ('D#EE 'DE*-/) H-BHB 'D%F3'F) EC*( 'D%9D'E 'D9'E DD#EE 'DE*-/)  FJHJH1C  1968 -"'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ %,'('* 9DI #3&D*CE"  EF E7(H9'* 'D5DJ( 'D#-E1  'DF'41 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1  ,FJA  2001 . -'D'*-'/ 'D(1DE'FJ  "'-*1'E 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ HCA'D) '-*1'EG"  'DF'41 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1  ,FJA  1BE (1)  1999. 20- 'DEH'+JB H'D'*A'BJ'* H'D%9D'F'*: -EJ+'B 'D'EE 'DE*-/) 1945 -'*A'BJ) D'G'J 'D1'(9) 'D.'5) ('-*1'E BH'FJF H#91'A 'D-1( 'D(1J) D9'E 1907. -'*A'BJ'* ,FJA 'D'1(9 1949 D9'E. -(1H*HCHDJ ,FJA D9'E 1977. - 'D%9D'F'* 'D5'/1) 9F 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* 9DI 'DEHB9: www.1umn.edu/humanrts/arabic/sub.doc.html +'FJ'K : 'DE5'/1 'D',F(J): 21- Asbiorn Eide: the law of war and human rights, Jean Pectit and Christophe swinarski, studies and essays on int. humanitarian law and real cross Principles, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Geneva, 1984. 22-Francois Bugion,  Droitde Geneva et droit de la Haye", int. Review of red cross, icrc, Geneva, Vol. 83, No. 844, 2001. 23-Gerard Cohen  Jonathan,  La evolution du  droit international des droits de L homme", Hubert Theirry, Levolution du droit international, Melanges Offerts, A. Editions Pedone, Paris, 1998. 24-Marco Sassoli, Antoine A. Bouvier, and others, "How Does law Protect in War , int. committee of red cross, Geneva, 1999. 25-Ralph Crawshaw, human rights and their protection under int. law, 2000, P. 4, on http://www.coe.int/t/e/human_rights/police/2.2000 26- Marco Sassoli, Antoine A. Bouvier, and others, "How Does law Protect in War , int. committee of red cross, Geneva, 1999, P.84. 27-Dr. Ramesh Thakur,  Global norms and int. humanitarian law int. review of red cross, icrc, Geneva, Vol. 83, No. 841, 2000. 28-Shigeki Miyazaki, "The Martens clause and int. humanitarian law", Jean Pectit and Christophe Swinarski, studies and essays on int. humanitarian law, Martinus Nijhoff, Geneva, 1984. () 'F81: - Dr. Ramesh Thakur,  Global norms and int. humanitarian law int. review of red cross, icrc, Geneva, Vol. 83, No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www.ism_justice.hat.tn/ar/for.initiale/dih.doc () 'F81 /.E-E/ FH1 A1-'*  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  584-585. () 'F81 /. .J1J '-E/ 'DC('4  "'D-E'J) 'D,F'&J) D-BHB 'D%F3'F /1'3) EB'1F) AJ 6H! #-C'E 'D41J9) 'D%3D'EJ) H'DE('/& 'D/3*H1J) H'DEH'+JB 'D/HDJ)"  /'1 'D,'E9JJF  'DB'G1)  2002  5229. () 'F81 /.9(/ 'DD7JA (F 39J/ 'D:'E/J  *91JAG 'DH'1/ AJ (-+G "'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ HB'FHF -BHB 'D%F3'F EF EF8H1 %3D'EJ" 'DEB/E %DI E$*E1 -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 'D3DE H'D-1( 'DEF9B/ AJ 'DEEDC) 'D91(J) 'D39H/J) AJ 14/*41JF 'D#HD/2003  51  9DI 'DEHB9: www.hrpw.org/news_1.htm () 'F81 /. ,9A1 9(/ 'D3D'E  *91JAG 'DH'1/ AJ (-+G "'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ HB'FHF -BHB 'D%F3'F" 'DEB/E %DI 'DE$*E1 #9D'G  51  9DI 'DEHB9 'DE0CH1 #9D'G. () 1',9 (-+ /. EF5H1 'D,E1J "E-CE) 'D,F'J'* 'D/HDJ) : (/'J) 8GH1 'DEH'7F 'D9'DEJ"  2001  52  9DI 'DEHB9: http://www.balagh.com/islam/4m0oeggo.htm () 'F81 4'1DH* DJF/ 3J  E5/1 3'(B  523. () /. E-E/ 7D9* 'D:FJEJ  'D:FJEJ AJ B'FHF 'D3D'E  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1970  5688. () /. 9DJ 5'/B #(H GJA  . 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  EF4#) 'DE9'1A  'D%3CF/1J)  1993  5120 . () Francois Rigaux, "Le droit international, instrument de La action humanitaire", Revue culturelle int. editee Par lassocian pour Ledition et la diffusion de transeuropeenns, No. 18, Paris, Frans, 2000,P. 71. () 'F81 /. 9'E1 'D2E'DJ  E/.D %DI 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ  'DF'41 H-/) 'D7('9) H'D%F*', 'DAFJ AJ 'DE9G/ 'D91(J D-BHB 'D%F3'F  *HF3, 1997  578 H 579. () 'F81 E/22  E/23 (AB1'*G' (#  (  ,  /  G@  H  2) E/25  E/27  E/28  EF '*A'BJ) D'G'J DD-1( 'D(1J) D9'E 1907 ('D'*A'BJ) 'D1'(9))  HB/ #9J/ *#CJ/ G0' 'D-CE (#F -B 'D/HD AJ '3*9E'D 71B H#3'DJ( 'DB*'D DJ3 E7DB'K AJ (1H*HCHD ,FJA 'D#HD D9'E 1977  AJ 'DEH'/ 35 A (1  2) H 37 'D*J H6-* 'D#A9'D 'D*J *9/ EF B(JD 'D:/1  E/38  E/39  E/40  E/41 E9 %6'A) F5H5 ,/J/) *-81 '3*./'E #3'DJ( HH3'&D AJ 'DB*'D *D-B #61'1' ('D(J&) 'D7(J9J) (A 3 EF E35)  HC0DC A16* 9DI 'D/HD 'D#71'A #F J*-BBH' 9F/ *7HJ1 #H 'B*F'! 3D'- ,/J/ #H #/') DD-1( #H '*('9 #3DH( DD-1(  EF %F 0DC D' J9/ E-8H1'K (EH,( G0' 'D(1H*HCHD #H #J) B'9/) #.1I EF BH'9/ 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E 'D*J JD*2E (G' 'D71A 'DE*9'B/ AJ G0' 'D(1H*HCHD (E/36). () 'F81 E/5 EF , (1)  E/4 EF , (2)  E/5 EF , (3)  E/4 EF , (4). () E/3 'DE4*1C) D'*A'BJ'* ,FJA 'D#1(9 'D*J '3*CED* (H69 (1H*HCHD ,FJA 'D+'FJ D9'E 1977. () 'F81 /. 9DJ 5'/B #(H GJA  E5/1 3'(B  5310  5312. H /. E-E/ 3DJE :2HJ  'DH,J2 AJ '+1 'D'*,'G'* 'D3J'3J) 'DE9'51) 9DI -BHB 'D%F3'F  E7(9) 1AJ/J  'D#1/F  71  1985  546. () /. E-E/ 3DJE :2HJ  E5/1 #9D'G  548. () 'F81 /. 9(/ 'D98JE 'D,F2H1J  'D-E'J) 'D/HDJ) D-BHB 'D%F3'F H*7HJ1 'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ  (-+ EF4H1 AJ E,D) E51 'DE9'51)  'D9// 377  'D3F) 70  E7'(9 'D#G1'E  'DB'G1)  1979  5145. () 'F81 E,EH9) 'D*9DJB'* 'D9'E) 'DE*9DB) ('D9G/ 'D/HDJ DD-BHB 'D'B*5'/J) H'D',*E'9J) H'D+B'AJ) H9DI 'DEHB9: www.Mezan.org. () 'F81 /. -3F 'D,D(J  E('/& 'D#EE 'DE*-/) H.5'&5G' 'D*F8JEJ)  E9G/ 'D(-H+ H'D/1'3'* 'D91(J)  E7(9) 'D,JD'HJ  'DB'G1)  1970  590. () E/1 A (1) H (3) EF EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/). () 'F81 (-+ /. 9'E1 9(/ 'DA*'- 'D,HE1/  "*/.D 'D#EE 'DE*-/) AJ 4$HF 'D/HD" 'DEF4H1 AJ E,D) 'D1'A/JF  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  9// 3  1997  5140. () 'F81 'DE-'EJ ('3JD JH3A  3J'/) 'D/HD AJ 6H! 'D-E'J) 'D/HDJ) D-BHB 'D%F3'F  E1C2 'D%E'1'* DD(-H+ H'D/1'3'* 'D'3*1'*J,J)  #(H 8(J  71  2001  525. () HJECF 'D'7D'9 9DI B1'1'* H*H5J'* 'D#EE 'DE*-/) (E' AJG' B1'1'* E-CE) 'D9/D 'D/HDJ) ('D1,H9 %DI E1C2 'DH+'&B 'D.'5 ('D#EE 'DE*-/) 9DI 'DEHB9: www.un.org/arabic/documents () 'F81 AJ *A5JD G0G 'D"1'!  /. -3F 'D,D(J  E('/& 'D#EE 'DE*-/) H.5'&5G' 'D*F8JEJ)  E5/1 3'(B  539. H /. 5'D- ,H'/ C'8E  /1'3) AJ 'DEF8E'* 'D/HDJ)  E7(9) 'D%14'/  (:@@/'/  1975  5152-5154. () /. %(1'GJE '-E/ 4D(J  'D*F8JE 'D/HDJ  'D/'1 'D,'E9J) (J1H*  1986.  5179 H 5180. () 'F81 /. 9(/ 'DH'-/ E-E/ JH3A 'DA'1  #31I 'D-1(  9'DE 'DC*(  'DB'G1)  1975  551. () A (4) EF E/1 EF (1H*HCHD ,FJA 'D#HD D9'E 1977. () 'F81 CD EF: - Marco Sassoli, Antoine A. Bouvier, and others, "How Does law Protect in War , int. committee of red cross, Geneva, 1999, P.84. H /. 9'E1 'D2E'DJ  E5/1 3'(B  513. H E7(H9'* 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1  'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D%F3'FJ  EF E7(H9'* 'D5DJ( 'D#-E1  'DF'41 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1  ,FJA  2001 .  516. () 'F81 A (2) H (4) EF EB/E) EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/). () 'F81 A (5) H (6) EF EB/E) EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/). () 'F81 A (3) EF E/1 EF 'DE5/1 #9D'G. () 'F81 A (3) H (4) EF EJ+'B 'D#EE 'DE*-/). () 'F81 A (4) H(5) EF EB/E) %9D'F (-B 'D49H( AJ 'D3DE  'D5'/1 (B1'1 'D,E9J) 'D9'E 1BE (39/11) (*#1J. 12/*41JF 'D#HD/1984. () See: Asbiorn Eide:  The Law of war and human rights, differences and convergences , Jean Pectit, and Christophe Swinarski, studies and issays on int. humanertian law and real cross Principls, Op. Cit., P. 677. Aristidis Calogero Poulus straits:  Droit humanetaire  Droit de L homme et victims des conflects armes , Jean Pectit, Christophe Swinarski, Op.Cit., P 656. Patricia Buirette, le droit interenational humanetaire ladecouverte, Paris, 1996, P. 43. ()See: Robert Kolb, "The Relationship between int. humanitarian law and human rights law, a brief history of the 1948 universal declaration of human rights and the 1949 Geneva conventions", int. review of red cross, icrc, Geneva, No. 324, 1998, P. 1: www.icrc.org. - H /. 9(/ 'DH'-/ E-E/ JH3A 'DA'1  E5/1 3'(B  553. () See: Robert Kolb, Op. Cit., P. 2 () See: Adriaan Bos:  some reffections on the relationship between int. humanitarian law and human rights in the light of the adoption of Rome statute of int. criminal court , Collection on essays in the field of int. law, office of legal affiars, U. N., New York, 1999, P. 75. Johan Dugard,  Griding the gap between human rights and humanitarian law , int. review of icrc. No. 324, 1998, P. 445. www.icrc.com. 9DI 'DEHB9 : () 'F81 /. CE'D -E'/ 'DF2'9 'DE3D- H'DB'FHF 'D/HDJ 'D9'E  'DE$33) 'D,'E9J) DDF41  (J1H*  1995  5110. ()See: "Every one s, United Nations", Department of Public Information , U. N., New York, 9 Edition, 1979, P. 262. () See:  Every one s, United Nations , Op. Cit., P. 263. () See:  every one s, United Nations , Op. Cit., P. 264. () 'F81 B1'1 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) 'DE1BE (194) 'DE*.0 AJ 'D,D3) (99)  /H1) (50)  AJ 1995 H'DE*CHF EF 20 AB1)  'DE*9DB (-'D) -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ EJ'FE'1. () 'F81 B1'1 'D,E9J) 'D9'E) 1BE (197) 'DE*.0 AJ 'D,D3) (99) /H1) (50) AJ 1995 'DECHF E@F (16 AB1)) H'DE*9DB (-'D) -BHB 'D%F3'F AJ 'D3H/'F. () 'F81 E7(H9 "'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1 AJ 'DEF7B) 'D91(J)" 'DEC*( 'D%BDJEJ D/9E 'DF41 H'D#9D'E DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1  'DB'G1)  ,2  'DE3'9/)  2002  52. () 'F81 E,D) 'D%F3'FJ  EDA .'5 9F %J1'F  'DF'41 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1  ,FJA  'D9// (27)  2004  51. HDD*91A 9DI 'DE2J/ EF #F47) 'DD,F) 'D/HDJ) DD5DJ( 'D#-E1  .'1, F7'B 'DF2'9'* 'DE3D-) 1',9 EHB9G' 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* www.icrc.com/arabic. () See: A. H. Robertson, "Humanitarian law and human rights", Jean Pectit and, Op. Cit., P. 795. () Patricia Buirette, Op. Cit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t  6 8 : < z|~bdfh''''/ /222266&7(7*7,7 <<<<<<======>>>>&A(ABBDDDDDDnKpKǹh<CJ^JaJ h<6CJZ]^JaJ(h<6CJZ]^JaJ,"jh<0JCJUZ^JaJ h<CJH*Z^JaJ h<CJZ^JaJ E"#L$'Z+N-- /0(112079>DMUUUUUUY$ $`a$$ & F 8`$$ & F 8`pK\L^L`LbLMMMMPPPPRRTTTTUUUUUU~[[``*e4e0gDggpttVvv wjwlzzd{{{{~~.ԃڃJRTV˯˩ h<CJZ h<CJh<5CJZ\^JaJ h<6CJZ]^JaJ,h<CJ^JaJ "jh<0JCJUZ^JaJ h<CJH*Z^JaJ h<CJZ^JaJ @Y]c.g0gDgvgghiljtl(m6nooxp$X^`Xa$ $X^`X$^`a$$p^p`a$$ $`a$$a$ $`a$$ & F h^ha$xp*qqsptttVvv wjwlwxlzzd{{{| $^`$^`a$$a$$A$$p^p`a$$ $X^`X$X^`Xa$|}~~.‚:6JVTĊƊڊ$$ $A$^`$A$^`a$$$A$$a$$^`a$V~ŠƊȊʊڊ  @  ~nؘژ\^RT؛ڛܛzFHJФҤԤ泺泺 h<Z^Jjh<0JUZ^J h<ZaJ h<H*Zh<jh<0JUZ h<Zh<CJZ^JaJ h<CJ^JaJ Dڊޑ@|n֘Z֛$X^`Xa$$A$a$ $^`$a$$^`a$$$p^p`a$$A$֛~FФJ@TT$^`a$$^`a$ $^`$a$$^`a$$$X^`Xa$$7A$^7`a$LN">@BDVXJTHJƱȱʱz|޲Zdf  żŵ h<CJZh<CJZ^Jh<CJZ^JaJ jh<0JUZ^Jh<jh<0JUZ h<Z h<Z^J h<^JGTƱx޲Zb $ & FVA$^`Va$$A$a$ $rA$^`r$a$$ $^`$^`a$$^`a$024vz|~j68dhjlLPRvx ^`bfhlnrtxR¹¹¹ h<Z^Jh<CJZ^Jh<CJZ^Jjh<U h<CJZh<CJZaJh<CJaJjh<0JUZ h<Zh<DĽ.x|fNt$A$a$$7A$^7`a$$^`a$$^`a$ $X^`X$A$^`a$$A$$$ & FVA$^`Va$^`dfjlprvx$$&`#$)$$d%d&d'dNOPQ$$RTV 6@FLNXdfz~ؽزؽزxodooodo] h<Z^Jh<<CJZ^Jh<CJZ^Jh<CJZ^Jh<CJZ^J h<Zjh<UZ h<aJ h<ZaJjh<UZaJh<0JZ^JaJ h}{0JZ^JaJmHnHuh<0J^JaJjh<0JUZ^JaJh<jh<UZ^J h<Z^J$fF$a$$x^x`a$$a$$ $`a$ $gd}{$*$$d%d&d'dNOPQa$FL p Ƚsjf[h<CJZ^JaJ h<h<Z^JaJh<5CJZ\^JaJh<5Z\^JaJ h<Z^Jh<CJZ^Jh<CJZ^Jh<CJH*Z^J h<CJZ h<Zh<CJ$Z^JaJ4h<CJ$Z^JaJh<5CJH*Z\^JaJ,h<5CJZ\^JaJ(h<5CJZ\^JaJ, $$a$$E 00P&P <0' (5!"#$% (2*2Dp$$If!vh#v #v:V l V0 5 54b  666666666vvvvvvvvv666666>6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666hH6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666662 0@P`p2( 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p8XV~^J _HmH nH sH tH J`J Normal$A$_HaJmH sH tH 8@8  Heading 1$@&aJ$F@F  Heading 2$@&5CJ(\^JaJL@L  Heading 3$$@&a$5CJ(\^JaJL@L  Heading 4$$@&a$5CJ(\^JaJF@F  Heading 5$$@&a$ CJ^JaJF@F  Heading 7$$@&a$ CJ^JaJ DA`D Default Paragraph FontVi@V 0 Table Normal :V 44 la (k ( 0No List VC@V Body Text Indent$`a$ CJ(^JaJ4 @4 Footer  9r .)@.  Page Number4@"4 Header  9r FB@2F  Body Text$a$^JaJhtHu@>@B@ Title$`a$ CJ^JaJ@&@Q@ Footnote ReferenceH*:@b:  Footnote Text^JZR@rZ Body Text Indent 2$`a$ CJ^JaJ 0U0  Hyperlink>*B*PK![Content_Types].xmlN0EH-J@%ǎǢ|ș$زULTB l,3;rØJB+$G]7O٭V$ !)O^rC$y@/yH*񄴽)޵߻UDb`}"qۋJחX^)I`nEp)liV[]1M<OP6r=zgbIguSebORD۫qu gZo~ٺlAplxpT0+[}`jzAV2Fi@qv֬5\|ʜ̭NleXdsjcs7f W+Ն7`g ȘJj|h(KD- dXiJ؇(x$( :;˹! I_TS 1?E??ZBΪmU/?~xY'y5g&΋/ɋ>GMGeD3Vq%'#q$8K)fw9:ĵ x}rxwr:\TZaG*y8IjbRc|XŻǿI u3KGnD1NIBs RuK>V.EL+M2#'fi ~V vl{u8zH *:(W☕ ~JTe\O*tHGHY}KNP*ݾ˦TѼ9/#A7qZ$*c?qUnwN%Oi4 =3N)cbJ uV4(Tn 7_?m-ٛ{UBwznʜ"Z xJZp; {/<P;,)''KQk5qpN8KGbe Sd̛\17 pa>SR! 3K4'+rzQ TTIIvt]Kc⫲K#v5+|D~O@%\w_nN[L9KqgVhn R!y+Un;*&/HrT >>\ t=.Tġ S; Z~!P9giCڧ!# B,;X=ۻ,I2UWV9$lk=Aj;{AP79|s*Y;̠[MCۿhf]o{oY=1kyVV5E8Vk+֜\80X4D)!!?*|fv u"xA@T_q64)kڬuV7 t '%;i9s9x,ڎ-45xd8?ǘd/Y|t &LILJ`& -Gt/PK! ѐ'theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0wooӺ&݈Э5 6?$Q ,.aic21h:qm@RN;d`o7gK(M&$R(.1r'JЊT8V"AȻHu}|$b{P8g/]QAsم(#L[PK-![Content_Types].xmlPK-!֧6 0_rels/.relsPK-!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-!0C)theme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-! ѐ' theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK]  f ( D R{#{%'(+@-/4o78?DpGXJ=KsMR#TDUU]C__abperw>y|KلPt/děl[l)\  ^ BGs^) g#s[ Dc x J;@    J;@C  Z&TtpKVR qtwzP >)NiX"Yxp|ڊ֛T rsuvxy{!!@ @  (  nB  c $DԔ3"? N0n"2  #  s"*?l2   0v @jJ 02xB  B <Dv @jJ 1n"1xB  B <Dv @jJ N11 N0n"2  #  s"*?l2  0v @jJ 02xB B <Dv @jJ 1n"1xB B <Dv @jJ N11h (  "  0jJ))?3"?    0 v @jJ3"? h   3  3"? h   3  3"? hB  @ S DjJ3"?b   # 3"? B S  ?!#$%&$!+r D"r }r }0!r }r }0!}rz1s Nn"s ]}"sb0!"<=XYij ( ,-=>  ' ( F J   * + FG>?=?LMij  9:56+,[^E"F"""""""~##)$*$$$W&X&&&''((v)w)))))**:*;*****++n+o+++++|.}.0000115566r7s788:;I=J=?>@>@?A???]A^ACCDDFFsGtGAKBKvMxMMMMMPPQQRR&T'TUUHVIVyVzV,X-XZZ]] ^ ^F_G___``bbseteff{g|gjj+j,jGjHjmmmm9m:mmmoo r rOtPtw wAyByPyQylymy||HINO-.qr;<uv͂΂%&܄݄CD݉މSTxyƯ̈̀՛؛¢â¤ 569:ը֨;<ժ֪78JKRS*CAB5Nܮ@ACDijϰа Q|۲ clYZSTϺϼjk׽,-U[Z\"#ghz{[\ pq ).;<no~,101WX hp1<S #3_m9:hixy.0235689;<23@BCBD`b|~33333333) + EG uy۲+2c FS0<3@CCD`b|~ z6CF66366Tu?6Jܖ$iZ6Rz{v*88^8`o(.hh]h`^Jo( 88^8`o(.h^h`. 88^8`o(. 88^8`o(.^`o(. 88^8`o(.^`. 88^8`o(.hh^h`^Jo(- 88^8`o(.  h`CJ^J o(. 3Rz{ }{<ce@(mHH,HUnknown G.Cx Times New Roman5Symbol3. .Cx Arial; @Akhbar MTG @MCS ARAFAT HIGHU @MCS Taybah H_I normal.K ASimplified ArabicE b@Monotype KoufiU @MCS Taybah S_U normal.M ATraditional ArabicA$BCambria Math#1hfCiFU8+*]K8+*]K!20KqHP $P}{2! xx  'DA5D 'D#HDAhmadRenaso@         Oh+'0p   , 8 DPX`h AhmadNormalRenaso85Microsoft Office Word@k@$ꠎ@vήR@`*8+՜.+,0 hp  College of LawK]  Title  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#%&'()*+-./01238Root Entry F@ɒ`:Data 1Table?WordDocumentGSummaryInformation($DocumentSummaryInformation8,CompObjr  F Microsoft Word 97-2003 Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q