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'DE5'/1 : 'HD'K : 'DC*(: /. %(1'GJE 7G 'DAJ'6  'DB'FHF 'D%/'1J  EC*() 'DAD'-  'DCHJ*  1981. %(F EF8H1  D3'F 'D91( 'DE-J7  'DE,D/ 'D#HD  /'1 D3'F 'D91(  (J1H*  (/HF 3F) 7(9. #-E/ #EJF (C  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DE51J- 'DB3E 'D.'5-  'D,2! 'D#HD  E7(9) D,F) 'D*#DJA H'D*1,E) H'DF41  'DB'G1)  1949. /. -EJ/ 'D39/J  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D,/J/  ,3  ,1'&E 'D'9*/'! 9DI 'D#4.'5  E7(9) 'DE9'1A  (:/'/  1977. /. 3DJE'F E-E/ 'D7E'HJ- E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D%/'1J  'DC*'( 'D+'FJ  /'1 'DAC1 'D91(J  'DB'G1)  1979. /. 5('- E5('- E-EH/ 'D3DJE'F  'D-E'J) 'D,F'&J) DDEH8A 'D9'E  7/1  /'1 'D-'E/ DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  2004. /. 5D'- 'D/JF 9(/ 'DD7JA 'DF'GJ  E('/J! 'D*F8JE 'DB6'&J H'D*B'6J H'DE1'A9'* AJ 'DEEDC) 'D#1/FJ) 'DG'4EJ) 'D7(9) 'D#HDI  /'1 'DF41 H'D*H2J9  9EQ'F  1983. /.9(/ 'DA*'- .61  'DF8'E 'D,F'&J (#33G 'D9'E) AJ 'D%*,'G'* 'DE9'51) H'DABG 'D%3D'EJ)  'D,2! 'D#HD  EF4H1'* E9G/ 'D%/'1) 'D9'E)  'DEEDC) 'D91(J) 'D39H/J)  1402 G@ (1982E) /. 9(/ 'DB'/1 'D4J.DJ  'DB'FHF 'D%/'1J  /'1 (:/'/ DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  1994. 9DJ (F G'/J) H".1HF  'DB'EH3 'D,/J/ DD7D'(  'D41C) 'DH7FJ) DDF41 H'D*H2J9  'D7(9) 'D+'FJ)  'D,2'&1  1980. 9HF 'DE9(H/ : 41- 3FF '(J /'$H/ : DD9D'E) '(J 'D7J( E-E/ 4E3 'D-B 'D98JE "('/J E9 *9DJB'* 'D-'A8 4E3 'D/JF '(F BJE 'D,H2J)  '41'A: 5/BJ E-E/ ,EJD 'D97'1 "C*'( 'DA6'!" ('( AJ C1'GJ) 'D14H)  'D,2! 'D*'39  1BE 'D-/J+ 3577  /'1 'DAC1  (J1H*  1420 G@-2000E. /. 9(/ 'DEGJEF (C1 3'DE  'DB3E 'D.'5 AJ B'FHF 'D9BH('*  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1976. /. A.1J 9(/ 'D12'B 5D(J 'D-/J+J  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DB3E 'D.'5-  E7(9) 'D2E'F  (:/'/  1996. /. AH2J) 9(/ 'D3*'1  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*-'DB3E 'D.'5- /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1982. /. E'G1 9(/ 4HJ4 'D/1)  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*- 'DB3E 'D.'5-  72  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  1997. /. E-E/ -'E/ 'D,ED  'DEH8A 'D9'E ABG'K HB6'!K  'D7(9) 'D#HDI 'D,2! 'D#HD  ((. E) 1975. /. E-E/ E57AI 'DBDDJ  AJ 'DE3$HDJ) 'D,F'&J)  E7(9) ,'E9) A$'/ 'D#HD  'DB'G1)  1984. /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*- 'DB3E 'D.'5- 'D,1'&E 'DE61) ('DE5D-) 'D9'E)-  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1972  537. +'FJ'K: 'D13'&D H'D'7'1J- 'D,'E9J): #F3'E 9DJ 9(/ 'DDG '-E/ 'D5'&:  'D9F51 'D4.5J DD'.*5'5 AJ 'DB1'1 'D'/1'J  /1'3) EB'1F) -  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  2001. #J'/ -3JF 9('3 'D92'HJ  ,1JE) 'D%-*J'D AJ 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ-/1'3) EB'1F)-  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF H'D3J'3)  ,'E9) (:/'/  1985 39/ 5'D- 4C7J F,E 'D,(H1J- 'D,1'&E 'D%1G'(J) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D,F'&J- /1'3) EB'1F) AJ 'D#-C'E 'DEH6H9J)- #71H-) /C*H1'G  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D/ 2006. 4AJB 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-/J+J  'DF8'E 'D'F6('7J DEH8AJ 'D/HD) AJ 'D91'B  (/1'3) EB'1F))  CDJ) 'DB'FHF H'D3J'3)  ,'E9) (:/'/  1972  523. 7D'D 9(/ -3JF 'D(/1'FJ- 'D419J) 'D,2'&J)- #71H-) /C*H1'G  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  2002. 9/F'F 9DJ C'8E  ,1JE) 'D14H) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ  ((/1'3) EB'1F))) 13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF H'D3J'3)  ,'E9) (:/'/  1977. /. E'G1 5'D- 9D'HJ 'D,(H1J  E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D%/'1J  /1'3) EB'1F)  72  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  1996. E-E/ E1/'F  'D*3DJE AJ ,1'&E 'D#EH'D AJ 'D*41J9 'D91'BJ  /1'3) EB'1F)-  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D 1999. EFI E-E/ (DH -3JF 'D-E/'FJ  'D5A) AJ B'FHF 'D9BH('*  /1'3) EB'1F)  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  2005. +'D+'K : 'D(-H+ H'D/H1J'*: #-E/ 9(/ 'D92J2 'D#DAJ  5H1 'D14H) AJ 'DB'FHF 'DE51J  'DE,D) 'D,F'&J) 'DBHEJ)  'DE1C2 'DBHEJ DD(-H+ 'D%,*E'9J) 'D,F'&J)  ,EGH1J) E51 'D91(J)  'D9// 'D#HD  'DE,D/ 'D+'EF H'D941HF  1985. E,EH9) #-C'E E-CE) 'DFB6 'DE51J) : FB6 1BE 412 AJ 7/5/1951  FB6 1BE 938 AJ 7/10/1958  FB6 1BE 928 AJ 6/10/1968. 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ)  'D9// (300)  'D5'/1 AJ 6/2/1960. 1'(9'K : 'DBH'FJF: #- 'DBH'FJF 'D91'BJ): B'FHF 'D./E) 'DE/FJ) 0J 'D1BE (103) D3F) 1931 ('DED:I). B'FHF 'D./E) 'DE/FJ) 0J 'D1BE (64) D3F) 1939 ('DED:I). B'FHF 'D./E) 'DE/FJ) 0J 'D1BE (55) D3F) 1956 ('DED:I). B'FHF 'D./E) 'DE/FJ) 'DF'A0 0J 'D1BE (24) D3F) 1960 'DE9/D. B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0 0J 'D1BE (111) D3F) 1969 'DE9/D. B'FHF 'DE-'A8'* 0J 'D1BE (159) D3F) 1969 'DE9/D. B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0 0J 'D1BE (83) D3F) 1969 'DE9/D. B'FHF C*'( 'D9/HD 0J 'D1BE (27) D3F) 1977 'DE9/D. B'FHF 'F6('7 EH8AJ 'D/HD) 0J 'D1BE (14) D3F) 1991 'DE9/D. (- 'DBH'FJF 'D91(J): B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D*HF3J ('DE,D) 'D,F'&J)) D3F) 1913 'DE9/D. B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DE51J 0J 'D1BE (58) D3F) 1937 'DE9/D. B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D3H1J 0J 'D1BE (148) D3F) 1949 'DE9/D. B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D#1/FJ 0J 'D1BE (16) D3F) 1960 'DE9/D. B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'DJEFI (B'FHF 'D,1'&E H'D9BH('*) 0J 1BE (12) D3F) 1994 'DE9/D. (*) #3*DE 'D(-+ AJ 28/2/2008 *** B(D DDF41 AJ 5/5/2008 . (1) 3H1) 'D(B1) - 'D"J) 188. (2) 9HF 'DE9(H/ : 41- 3FF '(J /'$H/: DD9D'E) '(J 'D7J( E-E/ 4E3 'D-B 'D98JE "('/J E9 *9DJB'* 'D-'A8 4E3 'D/JF '(F BJE 'D,H2J)  '41'A : 5/BJ E-E/ ,EJD 'D97'1  "C*'( 'DB6'!"  ('( AJ C1'GJ) 'D14H)  'D,2! 'D*'39  1BE 'D-/J+ 3577  /'1 'DAC1  (J1H*  1420 G@-2000E  5392. (3) JF81: /.E-E/ E57AI 'DBDDJ  AJ 'DE3$HDJ) 'D,F'&J)  E7(9) ,'E9) A$'/ 'D#HD  'DB'G1)  1984  5114. (4) JF81: /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('*  'DB3E 'D.'5  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1988  514. (5) HGJ A&) EF 'D,1'&E 'D*J *.69 D#-C'E .'5)  #GEG' #FG D' JN*N5NHQN1O #F JO9/QO A'9D'K DG' %D'QN EF J-ED (('D5A))) 'D*J J-//G' 'DB'FHF  #E' EF D' J-EDG' AJ,H2 #F J9N/QO ((41JC'K)) A-3(: JF81 EFI E-E/ (DH -3JF 'D-E/'FJ  'D5A) AJ B'FHF 'D9BH('*  /1'3) EB'1F)  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  2005  568.  /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  E1,9 3'(B  518. (1) .55 'DE419 'D91'BJ 'DEH'/ [307- 314] D,1JE) 'D14H)  HG0G 'DEH'/ *OCQNHF 'DA5D 'D#HD 6EF 'D('( 'D3'/3 'D0J 9FHF DG (@ ['D,1'&E 'DE.D) (H',('* 'DH8JA)]. (2) AJE' J*9DB ('D-'D) 'D#HDI -// 'DE419 9BH() 'D3,F E/) D' *2J/ 9DI 941 3FJF 'H ('D-(3 H'D:1'E) 9DI #F D' *BD 9E' 7D( #H #97I #H HO9P/N (G...  AJ -JF ,9D 'D9BH() 'D3,F E/) D' *2J/ 9F 3(9 3FH'* #H ('D-(3 AJ 'D-'D) 'D+'FJ)  H0DC AJ 'DE'/) (307) B'FHF 'D9BH('*. (1) JF81: %(F EF8H1  D3'F 'D91( 'DE-J7  'DE,D/ 'D#HD  /'1 D3'F 'D91(  (J1H*  (/HF 3F) 7(9  5841. (2) JF81 9DJ (F G'/J) H".1HF  'DB'EH3 'D,/J/ DD7D'(  'D7(9) 'D+'FJ)  'D41C) 'DH7FJ) DDF41 H'D*H2J9  'D,2'&1  1980  598. (3) JF81: /. 5D'- 'D/JF 9(/ 'DD7JA 'DF'GJ  E('/J! 'D*F8JE 'DB6'&J H'D*B'6J H'DE1'A9'* AJ 'DEEDC) 'D#1/FJ) 'DG'4EJ) 'D7(9) 'D#HDI  /'1 'DF41 H'D*H2J9  9EQ'F  1983  523. (4) JF81: 'DEH'/ 29- 43 EF B'FHF 'DE1'A9'* 'DE/FJ) 'D91'BJ 'DF'A0 0J 'D1BE 83 D3F) 1969 'DE9/D. (5) JF81: /. E'G1 5'D- 9D'HJ 'D,(H1J  E('/& 'DB'FHF 'D%/'1J  /1'3) EB'1F)  72  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  1996  5161. (6) JF81: /. 9(/ 'DB'/1 'D4J.DJ  'DB'FHF 'D%/'1J  /'1 (:/'/ DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  1994  5200. (1) JF81: 'DEH'/ (9-11) EF B'FHF C*'( 'D9/HD 'DF'A0 0J 'D1BE (27) D3F) 1977 'DE9/D 'D*J -//* H',('* C'*( 'D9/D H'DE'/*'F (20  21) EF B'FHF 'DE-'A8'* 0J 'D1BE (159) D3F) 1969 'D*J -//* H',('* 'DE-'A8  H'DEH'/ (34  41  42  46  49) 'D*J -//* H',('* 'DB'&E EB'E HE/J1 'DF'-J). (2) JF81: 9/F'F 9DJ C'8E  ,1JE) 'D14H) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ  ((/1'3) EB'1F)))  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF H'D3J'3)  ,'E9) (:/'/  1977  588. (1) DDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD JF81: 4AJB 9(/ 'DE,J/ 'D-/J+J  'DF8'E 'D'F6('7J DEH8AJ 'D/HD) AJ 'D91'B /1'3) EB'1F)  13'D) E',3*J1  CDJ) 'DB'FHF H'D3J'3)  ,'E9) (:/'/  1972  523. (2) EF4H1 AJ 'DHB'&9 'D91'BJ)  'D9// (300)  'D5'/1 AJ 6/2/ 1960. (3) JF81: /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  E1,9 3'(B  5200. (4) /. -EJ/ 'D39/J  41- B'FHF 'D9BH('* 'D,/J/  ,3  ,1'&E 'D'9*/'! 9DI 'D#4.'5  E7(9) 'DE9'1A  (:/'/  1977  5191. (1) JF81 'DEH'/ [307- 341] EF B'FHF 'D9BH('*. H'D*J F5* 9DI A&'* 9/J/) EF 'D#4.'5 JO9N/QO #A1'/G' EF 'DEH8AJF 'D9'EDJF AJ *7(JB F5H5 ,1'&E 'D14H) H'D%.*D'3 H*,'H2 'DEH8AHF -/H/ H8'&AGE  H%F DE JCHFH' C0DC HAB'K DDEAGHE 'D%/'1J DDEH8A 'D9'E. H-3F'K A9D 'DE41QP9 'D,F'&J 'D91'BJ. (2) HDDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD -HD G0JF 'DEAGHEJF- 'D%/'1J H'D,F'&J- JF81: /. 5('- E5('- E-EH/ 'D3DJE'F  'D-E'J) 'D,F'&J) DDEH8A 'D9'E  71  /'1 'D-'E/ DDF41 H'D*H2J9  9E'F  2004  552-65 /. E-EH/ F,J( -3FJ  'DE1,9 'D3'(B  519. (3) EFI E-E/ (DH -3JF 'D-E/'FJ  E1,9 3'(B  569. () Marcel Waline/ Manuel Elementaire de Dort Administatif, 4 edition, Recueit,1 Surey, Paris, 1946, P. 350. ; De Laubadere/ Traite Dorit Administratif, 6 edition, Paris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