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'DF7'B E$33) (ICANN) 'DF3() D'3E'! 'DF7'B 'D9'E) ('H 'D/HDJ)) gTLD . 'E' '3E'! 'DF7'B 'DH7FJ) 'D*J *-ED 1EH2 'D/HD ccTLD A**HD'G' GJ&'* HE$33'* H7FJ) AJ CD /HD) *-* '41'A E$33) (IANA) . HG0' J9FJ .6H9 '3E'! 'DF7'B EF 'D7'&A) 'D'HDI B'FHFJ'K H*BFJ'K DE$33) (ICANN) 'DE4'1 'DJG' . 'E' 'D7'&A) 'D+'FJ) EF '3E'! 'DF7'B A'FG' *.69 B'FHF'K DDBH'9/ H'D6H'(7 'D*J *-//G' 'DBH'FJF 'DH7FJ) AJ CD /HD)()  'E' *BFJ'K A'FG' *.69 DE$33) (IANA) 'DE4'1 'DJG' 3'(B'K . 'DE7D( 'D+'D+ 'DBH'9/ 'DE9*E/) AJ EF- H*3,JD #3E'! 'DF7'B B(D 'D(-+ AJ G0G 'DBH'9/  D' (/ EF *#4J1 (96 'D-B'&B 9F H'B9 '3E'! 'DF7'B 9(1 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ* . HEFG' 'FG '0' C'F* '3E'! 'DF7'B 'DH7FJ) ccTLD *.69 DD6H'(7 'D*J *-//G' BH'9/ 'D/HD) 'D*J J-ED 'D'3E 1E2G' (#J -1AJF EF '3EG') . A'F 'D'E1 E.*DA *E'E'K ('DF3() D'3E'! 'DF7'B 'D9'E) ('D/HDJ)) g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ccTLD AJE' J*9DB (G0G 'D'3E'! 'D'.J1)  A6D'K 9F (96 E' 'G*/* 'DJG E-'CE (96 'D/HD EF E('/& AJ G0' 'DE,'D . H%DI ,'F( 0DC GF'C (96 'DE('/& 'D*J *(F*G' 'DEF8E) 'D9'DEJ) DDEDCJ) 'DAC1J) WIPO (.5H5 *3,JD '3E'! 'DF7'B H.'5) 'D9'E) 'H 'D/HDJ) EFG' g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irst come , First Serve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fr H'D*J '5/1*G' 41C) "AFNIC" H'DE7(B) AJ 26 C'FHF 'D+'FJ 2001(). CE' 'C/ 'DB6'! G0' 'DE(/# AB/ ,'! AJ -CE DE-CE) ('1J3 'F 'D'3(BJ) AJ *EDC H*3,JD '3E 'DF7'B *CHF DEF (J5D #HD'K)(). HB/ #C/* 'DEF8E) 'D9'DEJ) DDEDCJ) 'DAC1J) G0' 'DE(/# AJ *B1J1G' 'DE4'1 'DJG 3'(B'K  AJ 3J'B *3,JD '3E'! 'DF7'B 'D9'E) 'H 'D/HDJ) g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ybersquatbing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be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The recognition of rights and the use of names in the internet domain name system, report of the second WIPO internet domain name process September 3, 2001. '*A'BJ) ('1J3 D-E'J) 'DEDCJ) 'D5F'9J) DD9'E 1883 H*9/JD'*G' . '*A'BJ) 'D,H'F( 'DE*5D) ('D*,'1) EF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) (*1J(3) . 1'(9'K- '3E'! 'DF7'B DEH'B9 'D'F*1FJ* : www. legislation. hm so. gov. uk lacts. www. arablaw. org. www. ec. gov. sg/sum 5. www. gn4me. com. www. ac4mit. org/clubme. www. wipo2. wipo.int. www. icann. org/new. www. google. net. () HEF *DC 'D*41J9'* E+D'K B'FHF (-E'J) 'DE3*GDC 6/ 'DB15F) 'D'DC*1HFJ)) 'D'E1JCJ Anticybersquatting  Consumer Protection Act ACPA, 1999 E4'1 'DJG D/I : 'DE3*4'1 9E1 E-E/ (F JHF3  '4G1 'DE('/& 'DE*9DB) ('D'F*1FJ* AJ 'DB6'! 'D'E1JCJ  AKAKUS  2004  567 . HB'FHF 'D'*5'D'* 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D'FCDJ2J  Electronic Communication Act 2000 HGH EF4H1 9DI 'DEHB9 'D'DC*1HFJ : http : // www. legislation. hmso. gov. uk/acts/ HC0DC B'FHF 'D*HBJ9 'D1BEJ 'D'DE'FJ DD9'E 1997 HGH E4'1 'DJG D/I : 'DE-'EJ JHF3 91(  AJ (-+G 'DEH3HE ('D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ))  H'DEF4H1 9DI 'DEHB9 : www. arablaw. org HC0DC *41J9 'DE9'ED'* 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D3F:'AH1J DD9'E 1998 H'DEF4H1 9DI 'DEHB9 'D'DC*1HFJ : http:// www. ec. gov. sg / sum 5 . HC0DC 'D*41J9'* 'D91(J) HEFG' *41J9 'DE('/D'* H'D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D*HF3J 1BE 83 D3F) 2000 HB'FHF 'DE9'ED'* 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D'1/FJ 'DEHB* 1BE 85 D3F) 2001 HB'FHF /(J DDE9'ED'* H'D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) 1BE 2 DD9'E 2002 . HGJ ,EJ9'K EF4H1) 9DI 'DEHB9 'D'DC*1HFJ : www. gn4me. com == 'E' *41J9 'D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D(-1JF DD9'E 2002 AB/ F5* 'DE'/) (21/3) EFG 9DI 'FG : (JB5/ ('3E 'DF7'B (bh) AJE' J*9DB (*7(JB '-C'E G0G 'DE'/) 'DE3*HI 'D9DHJ DDF8'E 'D9'DEJ D'3E 'DF7'B 'DE9JF DEEDC) 'D(-1JF H'D0J J*CHF EF -1AJF HAB'K DDE9J'1 'D/HDJ 'J2H 1-3166 (1EH2 *E+JD '3E'! 'D(D/'F H*B3JE'*G' 'DA19J)) 'D.'5 ('DEF8E) 'D/HDJ) DD*BJJ3) . HDD'7D'9 9DI 'DF5 'DC'ED DG0' 'DB'FHF 'F81 'DEHB9 'D'DC*1HFJ : www. ac4 mit. org/ clubme . () 'F81 'DF5 'DC'ED DDE41H9 'DE51J 9DI 'DEHB9 : www. gn4me. com. () The Management of Internet Names and Addresses : Intellctual Property Issues. Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process. April 30, 1999 at :  HYPERLINK http://www http://www. wipo2. wipo.int/ no.4. () 'F81 : The Recognition of Rights and the Use of Names in the Internet Domain Name System, Report of the Second WIPO Internet Domain Name Process September 3, 2001, No. 19, at. www. WIPO 2. WIPO. Int/ process 2. () /. 7HFJ EJ4'D 9J3I  'D*F8JE 'DB'FHFJ D4(C) 'D'F*1FJ*  /1'3) EB'1F) AJ 6H! 'DBH'FJF 'DH7FJ) H'D'*A'BJ'* 'D/HDJ)  71  /'1 5'/1  D(F'F  2001  568 . ()The Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit., No. 17. ()The Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit., No. 17. () /. 7HFJ EJ4'D 9J3I  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  569 . ()The Final Report of the WIPO, Op. Cit., No. 18. () HGJ E$33) 'E1JCJ) .'5)  :J1 *,'1J)  E1C2G' AJ E/JF) DH3 'F,DH3 AJ HD'J) C'DJAH1FJ' . HDDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD -HD G0G 'DE$33) . 'F81 EHB9G' 9DI 'D'F*1FJ* www. icann.org/new.html ()Ibid. () /. 7HFJ EJ4'D 9J3I  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  569 . () HG0G 'DEF'7B GJ 'E1JC' 'D4E'DJ) H'E1JC' 'D,FH(J) H'H1(' 'D:1(J) H'H1(' 'D41BJ) H/HD 'D(D7JB H'D41B 'D'H37 H'3J'  'F81 : /. 7HFJ EJ4'D 9J3I  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  570 . ()The Final Report of the WIPO, Op. Cit., No. 20. HDDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD -HD '*A'BJ*J ('1J3 D-E'J) 'DEDCJ) 'D5F'9J) H TRIPS JECF 'D1,H9 %DI 'DEHB9: www. arab/ aw. org. () 'F81 9DI 3(JD 'DE'/) 21 EF B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D(-1JFJ  'DE4'1 'DJG' 3'(B'K  -J+ *F5 'DAB1) (1) EFG' 9DI 'FG (DH2J1 'DEH'5D'* 'F J5/1 B1'1'K (*F8JE *3,JD H'3*9E'D '3E 'DF7'B DEEDC) 'D(-1JF (bh) H'D*1.J5 ('3*9E'DG 'H -81 0DC & ) . ()The Final Report of the WIPO, Op. Cit., No. 16. () HG0' E' 'C/*G E4'17) 'D*3,JD 'D.'5) (41C) DNSBE 'D(D,JCJ) H'D.'5) ('3E'! 'DF7'B 'D*J *F*GJ ('DEB79 be H'D5'/1) AJ 3 C'FHF 'D'HD 2001 . 'F81 : /. 41JA E-E/ :F'E  -E'J) 'D9D'E'* 'D*,'1J) 9(1 'D'F*1FJ* AJ 9D'B*G' ('D9FH'F 'D'DC*1HFJ  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  2004  580 . () E4'1 'DJG D/I : /. G/I -'E/ B4BH4  'D-E'J) 'D,F'&J) DD*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) 9(1 'D'F*1FJ*  /'1 'DFG6) 'D91(J)  2000  580 . () The Final Report of the WIPO, Op. Cit., No.48. () Ibid. () 'F81 : /. 41JA E-E/ :F'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  584 . () HG0' E' 'C/*G #J6'K E4'17) *3,JD '3E'! 'DF7'B 'DA1F3J)  'DE4'1 'DJG' 3'(B'K  #J6'K. ()The Find Report of the WIPO, Op. Cit., N 108. () 'F81 : The Final Report of the WIPO, Op. Cit., No. 73. HB/ 'C/ 'D*B1J1 'DE0CH1 ,H'2 BJ'E 'DE$33) 'DE.HD) ('D*3,JD ('D*#C/ EF 'DE9DHE'* 'D3'(B)  H','2 DDE$33) 'DE4'1 'DJG' 'D:'! 'D*3,JD AJ -'D) 'D*+(* EF CHF G0G 'DE9DHE'* :J1 /BJB) H0DC (*9E/ H3H! FJ) EF 7'D( 'D*3,JD  H'6'A 9DI 'FG J,H2 '6'A) 417 AJ '*A'B 'D*3,JD JB11 G0' 'D,2'! DJCHF (E+'() 'D'3'3 'DB'FHFJ DG0' 'D,2'! . () H#-J'F'K *-// 'D/HD G0G 'D13HE AJ BH'FJFG' 'D/'.DJ) AJE' J*9DB (*3,JD '3E'! 'DF7'B 'DH7FJ) ccTLD  HEF 0DC F5 'DE'/) (14) EF E41H9 B'FHF 'D*,'1) 'DE51J 'D0J B11 'FG (DD,G) 'DE1.5 DG' (*3,JD '3E'! 'D/HEJF 'F **B'6I EB'(D'K 9F 'D*3,JD DCD '3E H*-// 'DD'&-) 'D*FAJ0J) G0' 'DEB'(D (E' D' J,'H2 .E3E'&) ,FJG 9F 'D'3E 'DH'-/) . () The Find Report of the WIPO, Op. Cit., no90. () *7'D9F' 5A-'* 'D'F*1FJ* ('DC+J1 EF -H'/+ 'D37H 9DI 'DEH'B9 H31B) '3E'! 'DF7'B EF B(D 'DE*7ADJF. HEF 0DC H'B9) '.*1'B 'DEHB9 'D.'5 ('D1&J3 'DDJ(J H*/EJ1G HEF +E 'D'3*JD'! 9DI '3E 'DEHB9 HGH alqathafi.org HC0DC -'/+) 'D37H 9DI EHB9 aljazeera.net H#J6'K EHB9 'DED*BI 'D3H1J DD-H'1 'D91(J 'DE3EI alkahf. Com/ nadi/index. HB/ F41* G0G 'D-H'/+ 9DI EHB9 CHCD (*'1J. 6/2/2005 www. google . net () AB/ 5/1 AJ A1F3' 'DB'FHF 1BE 230 D3F) 2000 'D.'5 ('DE3*F/'* H'D*H'BJ9 'D'DC*1HFJ) H'D0J 9/D (EH,(G 'DB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DA1F3J  HDDE2J/ -HD G0' 'DB'FHF HE6EHFG . 'F81 : #./. 9('3 'D9(H/J H#./.,9A1 'DA6DJ  -,J) 'D3F/'* 'D'DC*1HFJ) AJ 'D'+('* 'DE/FJ AJ 6H! 'D*9/JD 'D,/J/ DDB'FHF 'DE/FJ 'DA1F3J  E,D) 'D1'A/JF DD-BHB  *5/1 9F CDJ) 'DB'FHF  ,'E9) 'DEH5D  'D9// 11  'JDHD  2001 . HAJ 'DE'FJ' 5/1 AJ 'D9'E 1997 B'FHF 'D*HBJ9 'D1BEJ  HGH E4'1 'DJG 3'(B'K . HAJ %FCD*1' 5/1 B'FHF 'D'*5'D'* 'D'DC*1HFJ) DD9'E 2000 HGH #J6'K E4'1 'DJG 3'(B'K . () H'B5/ (G' CD EF *41J9 'DE('/D'* H'D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D*HF3J 1BE 83 D3F) 2000 H*41J9 'DE9'ED'* 'D'DC*1HFJ) 'D'1/FJ 'DE$B* 1BE 85 D3F) 2001  H*41J9 /(J DDE9'ED'* H'D*,'1) 'D'DC*1HFJ) 1BE 2 D3F) 2002 HGJ ,EJ9'K E4'1 'DJG' 3'(B'K . () #F81 : 'DE(-+ 'D'HD  'DE7D( 'D+'D+  'DE('/& 'DE9*E/) AJ EF- H*3,JD '3E'! 'DF7'B . () 'F81 : 'DE(-+ 'D'HD  'DE7D( 'D+'D+  'DE('/& 'DE9*E/) AJ EF- H*3,JD '3E'! 'DF7'B . () 'F81 : 'DE3*4'1 9E1 E-E/ (F JHF3  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  567 . () 'F81 *1,E) G0' 'DE57D- D/I : -'1+ 3DJE'F 'DA'1BJ  'DE9,E 'DB'FHFJ  EC*() D(F'F  (J1H*  75  1988  5354 . () /. 41JA E-E/ :F'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 5 188-191. () /. 41JA E-E/ :F'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5 5 188-191. () E. D. VA. No. 98-634- A. February 2. 1999. See the Final Report of the WIPO, fn. 135. () E4'1 'DJG D/I : /. 41JA E-E/ :F'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5147. ()F. Supp. 2d 1089 (D.Minn, 2000) See : The Report of the Second WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit., fn. 305. ()Deision of Sptember 30. 1997-40179/97, See: The Report of the Second, WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit., fn. 306. H'F81 AJ FA3 'D'*,'G -CE DDB6'! 'D(D,JCJ 'D0J B11 'F *3,JD '3E 'DF7'B (H'37) 'D:J1 JEF9 E'DC 'D'3E 'D*,'1J EF *3,JDG C'3E F7'B HJ9*(1 FH9'K EF 'DEF'A3) :J1 'DE41H9) : Tractebel, Court of Appeal of Brussels, April I, 1998, See: The Final Report of the WIPO, Op. Cit., fn.135. () /. 41JA E-E/ :F'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5165 . () HEF *7(JB'* 0DC 'D-CE 'D5'/1 AJ B6J) Saint- Tropez -J+ #E1* 'DE-CE) HDE/) 3*) '4G1 (F41 'D-CE (E-DG 9DI 'D5A-) 'D'HDI DEHB9 'D41C) Eurovirtual 9DI 4(C) 'D'F*1FJ*  E4'1 'DJG D/I : /.41JA E-E/ :F'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5179 . () H*3EI ('D'FCDJ2J) The World Intellectual Property Organization HB/ #F4#* G0G 'DEF8E)  'D*J *9FJ (B6'J' 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) 9EHE'K  AJ 'D9'E 1967 AJ 'D3HJ/ H'5(-* *'(9) DD'EE 'DE*-/) AJ 'D9'DE 1974 . HEB1G' AJ ,FJA H*6E 'D'F -H'DJ 177 /HD) HEFG' 18 /HD) 91(J) EF (JFG' 'D91'B. HDDE2J/ EF 'D*A'5JD 1',9 EHB9 G0G 'DEF8E) 9DI 'D'F*1FJ* www. wipo2.wipo.int . H'F81 C0DC : /. E-E/ -3'E E-EH/ D7AJ  *#+J1 '*A'BJ) 'D,H'F( 'DE*5D) ('D*,'1) EF -BHB 'DEDCJ) 'DAC1J) (*1JJ3) 9DI *41J9'* 'D(D/'F 'D91(J)  'DB'G1)  1999  55  'DG'E4 (14) . () HGH E4'1 'DJG 3'(B'K . 'F81 : The Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit. () HGH E4'1 'DJG 3'(B'K. 'F81 The Report of the Second WIPO. Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit HDD'7D'9 9DI 'DF5 'DC'ED DD*B1J1JF 'DE0CH1JF AJ G0' 'DG'E4 H'DG'E4 'D3'(B . 'F81 : 'DEHB9 'D'DC*1HFJ www. wipo2.wipo.int () 'F81 -HD 0DC : 'DE7D( 'D+'FJ EF 'DE(-+ 'D'HD EF G0G 'D/1'3) . () HEF 'D/HD 'D*J 9B/* AJG' G0G 'D',*E'9'* CD EF 'DHD'J'* 'DE*-/)  (D,JC'  'DEC3JC  ,FH( 'A1JBJ'  ('1:H'J  'DJ'('F  'DGF/  GFC'1J'  E51  H'3*1'DJ' . 'F81 : The Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit., no.28. () DB/ 9B/* G0G 'D',*E'9'* AJ CD EF : CF/'  3F:'AH1)  'D(1'2JD  'D3F:'D  (D,JC'  'DHD'J'* 'DE*-/) . 'F81 : The Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit., no.29. () 'F81 'DE7D( 'D+'D+ EF 'DE(-+ 'D'HD EF G0G 'D/1'3) . ()The Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit., no. 142-147. ()Ibid., no. 148-149. () /. 41JA E-E/ :F'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5211 . () 'DE5/1 FA3G . () 'DE5/1 FA3G . () The Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit., n 178 and Annex IV. () HGH E1C2 'E1JCJ EB1G AJ FJHJH1C  'F81 : /. 41JA E-E/ :F'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5233 . ()The Final Report of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, Op. Cit., n 156. ()Ibid. ()Ibid. () /. 41JA E-E/ :F'E  'DE5/1 'D3'(B  5215 .     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