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('3E E-E/ 5'D- 'D,1,J3 , 41C) 'D4.5 'DH'-/ #H 'DE41H9 'DA1/J  E,D) 'D9DHE 'DB'FHFJ) H'D3J'3J)  'DE,D/ 6  9// 1H2  E7(9) 'D9'FJ (:/'/ , D3F)1987 3- /.EF01 9(/ 'D-3JF 'DA6D , 'DE41H9 'DA1/J (41C) 'D4.5 'DH'-/) AJ B'FHF 'D41C'* 'D91'BJ) 1BE 36 D3F) 1983, E,D) 'D-BHB , 'D9// 'D#HD D3F) 1988. 4-EHAB -3F 16' , B'FHF 'D41C'* #G/'AG #33G HEA'GJEG , EF4H1'* E1C2 'D(-H+ 'DB'FHFJ)(10) (:/'/ 1985 .'E3' :'D(-H+ 'DE3*.1,) EF 'D'F*1FJ* 1- /.9(/ 'DDG .14HE  41C) 'D4.5 'DH'-/ AJ B'FHF 'D41C'* 'D#1/FJ D3F)1997 H'DBH'FJF 'DE9/D) DG  (-+ EF4H1 9DI 'D4(C) 'D9'DEJ) H9DI 'DEHB9  HYPERLINK "http://www.arablaw.winfo.com" www.arablaw.winfo.com 2- /.D7JA ,(1 CHE'FJ  'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) /1'3) B'FHFJ) EB'1FG , C*'( EF4H1 9DI 'D4(C) 'D9'DEJ) H9DI 'DEHB9  HYPERLINK "http://www.ao-academy.org/wesima_articles/library-2006731-507.html" www.ao-academy.org/wesima_articles/library-2006731-507.html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dusz E9 HD'J) Shhelleberg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http://www.arablaw.winfo.com" www.arablaw.winfo.com (1) DDE2J/ EF 'D*A5JD -HD 'D'3E 'D*,'1J 'F81 /.92 'D/JF E12' F'51  'D'3E 'D*,'1J /1'3) B'FHFJG EB'1FG  /'1 'D-'E/ DDF41 H'D*H2J9 'D#1/F , 9E'F , 'D7(9) 'D#HDI , 3F) 2006 . (2) 'D3J/ E57AI F'7B , E1,9 3'(B , 5 132 (3) /. C'ED 'D(D/'HJ , 'D41C'* 'D*,'1J) AJ 'DB'FHF 'D91'BJ , /'1 'DC*( DD7('9) H'DF41 'DEH5D ,1990 , 593. (4) /. 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